Summary of Production Trends, Cotton Research Status and Cotton IPM Experience in Mozambique

Summary of Production Trends, Cotton Research Status and Cotton IPM Experience in Mozambique Antonio Chamuene*1, Norberto Mahalambe *2, Osvaldo Catine...
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Summary of Production Trends, Cotton Research Status and Cotton IPM Experience in Mozambique Antonio Chamuene*1, Norberto Mahalambe *2, Osvaldo Catine*2 *1

Agricultural Research Institute of Mozambique, www.iiam.gov.mz, P.O.Box 3658Maputo, Mozambique *2 Mozambique Institute for Cotton, , www.iam.gov.mz, , P.O.Box 806 Maputo, Mozambique

1. Introduction

Mozambique is not a big cotton producer country, but cotton assumes a great importance among small farmers in rural areas. Cotton also is an important crop for more than 300.000 small scale families, and about 96% of cotton seed come from small scale farm and 3,7% from farmer association and 0.3% form private sector and it counts number 6 on the export rank of all export products. In addition, 10 professional companies have cotton as their core business and create over 20.000 employments throughout it value chain, namely seasonal and permanent workers.

Cotton in Mozambique remains an important crop in many regions, where it’s produced on a joint venture basis and more than 200,000 poor rural households rely on cotton as their primary and often only cash crop. The companies’ engagements are twofold. On the one hand they supply all inputs necessary to the breeding such as seeds, insecticides, etc and provide technical assistance to all small farmers wishing to produce cotton. On the other hand each company guaranties to purchase the entire production obtained by their farmers, who in turn have the obligation to sell it exclusively to the company. The insecticide provided to farmers is deducted from their sale incomes. The Government of Mozambique is given highest priority to cotton promotion in all over the country. We as cotton drivers are implementing a number of projects for research and production, like crop diversification, best practices trough integrated pest and production management (IPPM), innovation by using cattle for power and so on.

2. Summary of Cotton Production Statistics/Trends

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Cotton ranks second in merchandise exports Small-scale farmers comprise 99 percent of all rural households in Mozambique and provide 95 percent of agricultural gross domestic product, where the country’s rural economy is heavily reliant on the cotton subsector. It is the main income earner for some 300,000 rural households and generates about 20.000 of jobs. The subsector generates nearly 40 million USD in agriculture exports per year. The yield of this cash crop is particularly low in the whole country. When compared with West African cotton producing countries, the yield rates of Mozambican cotton farmers are about 40 percent lower. The average yield in Mozambique is 500kg/ha of seed cotton, bellow the average of other African countries producing about 1,100 Kg/ha of seed cotton. The low yield level is mostly due to late sowing and insufficient protection against insects and weeds, which adds to the problem of small-sized fields and inadequate cultural practices. Since the labour in the family is limited, the cotton is relegated to a second plan and priority is given to maize fields. In spite of this understandable priority, many families still don’t have enough stock food for the whole year. They have different ways to prevent from hunger, the main one being to exchange with other farmers their labour force against food.

Other production constraint of cotton production in the Country is the new emergence alternative cash crop for cotton growers. Then, the fall of the cotton price in international markets leads to a reduction of the small producers’ incomes, which progressively disengage of the traditional cash crop, sometimes in favour of alternative crops such as tobacco and sesame.

Production levels have bounced back though and are now about 120,000 Mtons/year. The yet untapped potential, however, is 300,000-400,000 Mtons/year (Fig. 1).

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160

2007/08 69.505 Tons

2005/06

= 122. 287 T ons

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1985/85 + Baixa = 5.200

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Independência Nacional

Fig.1: Production of seed cotton from 1931 to 2007 year (IAM, 2009)

While the cotton industry is far from having reached its full potential, it survived the war which drastically reduced the number gins from 27 before civil war to 11 operational at the moment. Also the cotton production levels have bounced back. For example, the Dunavant gin operates now about 120,000 Mtons/year, but the yet untapped potential, however, is 300,000-400,000 Mtons/year.

Besides the low volume of cotton gathered, the company faces another serious problem, namely the low quality of the cotton that is produced by the small farmers. They just don’t apply the recommendations for quality-related practices such as the two-phased picking, the separation in two classes and adequate storage. In their view the extra effort required to follow these recommendations isn’t compensated.

The Mozambican government grants exclusive concession areas to cotton processing companies and sets a minimum price which they must pay to producers. Companies should invest on more effective trainings of its technical assistant staff. In order to overcome the cotton production crisis in Mozambique, the government along with the Mozambique Institute of Cotton companies investing on research to improve cotton profitability and consequently the living standards of farmer families. 3

3. Cotton Research Status

Research is the Government-owned established in Northern part of the Country, where is located the Centre for Cotton Research and Seed Multiplication. The Cotton research is still conventional and currently its program has developed research projects for components of plant breeding, plant protection and agronomy.

3.1 Plant Breeding

Germplasm renovation and development of improved varieties in compliance to national legislation and adapted to specific agro-ecological regions are being optimized. Maintain genetic purity, yield potentials and fiber qualities through annual renovation of the existing varieties and their multiplication for the production of foundation seeds is going on. The testing for adaptability of cotton varieties/lines (introduced and local) under Mozambican farming conditions is going on: •

Testing 21 varieties/lines;



Testing material from CIRAD;



Breeding for production of new varieties;



The most varieties in Mozambique is about 6: CA 324 (47%), REMU- 40 (34%), and other 4 (19%) include STAM-42, ISA-205, Chureza and Albar SZ-9314.

There have no a transgenic cotton in the country (the low for use of transgenic plant was approved in 2007).

3.2 Plant Protection

The output of this component is to develop technical packages for use in cotton cultivation that are more environmentally friendly than existing purely chemical methods of pest and disease control. Development of the scouting based spray program for appropriate pesticide application and use of biological control agent is tested in main cotton growing regions, as sculling up of the promising results from on-station trials. Effect of cotton multiple cropping systems is being evaluated for contribution of natural enemies for cotton pest management strategies. On-station and on-farm trials on use of insecticide-treated fuzzed seeds are being evaluated. The assessment 4

of economic profitability and environmental impact of the use of insecticide-treated fuzzed seeds is being tested, including the feasibility of the use of technological cotton seed. Economic impact of weed control was tested between hoe hand and herbicide application; the results showed that the used pre-emergence herbicide can save 3 times weeding and can save about 35% of labour compare with traditional hoe hand weeding.

3.3 Agronomy

To promote the use of composted biomass and chipped (fragmented) cotton plant residues as a soil additive in heavily eroded soils. Multching for water and soil conservation, plant density and fertilizer trials are being conducted. The plant density trial is conducted for different soil types. In generally, the main activities of agronomy components are addressed to: •

Identify the most adequate agronomic package for each variety and zone to maximize yield potentials under the diverse environmental conditions;



Develop and improve the cotton production practices and strengthen the ties between research and extension to better transfer knowledge and technology to farmers, through the recommended production package;



Develop extension models for expansion and dissemination of useful cotton technology packages;



Develop conservation practices for integrated soil nutrient management (mulching, intercropping with legume crops, chipping and incorporation of crop residues).

In general, the expected outputs of the cotton research include new and updated information on: •

The development of improved cotton germplasm (for improved drought stress/tolerance, Jassid tolerance and enhanced fiber quality/yield);



Cotton production practices based on integrated pest and production management (insect and disease control, weed control, nutrient management and cultural practices);



Cotton fiber (evaluation, quality, and use);



And cotton economics (cotton production efficiency, gin profitability).

3.4 Perspective for Optimization of Cotton Research

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The research programme can only be effective through a rigorous optimization of use of limited human resources in a way which will maximize the impact of applied research. To have any significant impact it is of vital importance that all of the components of a productive applied research and technology transfer system become more integrated. The focus must be addressed to: •

Agro-climatic zoning to guide identification of suitable locations for field trials and introduction of cropping system;



Germplasm renovation and development of improved varieties in compliance to national legislation and adapted to specific agro-ecological regions;



Formulation of appropriate technical packages using proven and emerging technologies (soil fertility, rotations, soil amelioration and IPPM);



Technical transfer and appropriate delivery of packages;



Economic evaluation of profitability and environmental impact;



Information exchange, policy analysis and formulation of action plans between target groups, beneficiaries and stakeholders;



Institutional strengthening and training

This can improve standards of output and delivery to achieve quantifiable beneficial impacts for those who manage the farm of Mozambique.

4. Cotton IPM in Mozambique Cotton small scale farmers face several production constraints. Pests are amongst the one of them and cause up to 70% yield loss. The most important cotton insect pests in Mozambique are the Empoasca fascialis, Aphis gossypii, Helicoverpa spp., Diparopsis castanea, Earias insulina, Dystercus spp. and Pectinophora gossypiella. Pesticides are the main pest control method used, in generally, based on a calendar spraying with 2 weeks interval. The calendar spraying can lead to repeated pesticide application and consequently to health and environmental problems and uneconomic cotton production. On other hand, cotton is being grown as a monoculture without crop rotation. In long term the monoculture cropping system can cause soil degradation and provide concentrated resources for pests.

Pest management strategies have shown good results in on-station trials in Mozambique. The strip intercropping of cotton with a trap crop can provide a biological diversity, which keeps the 6

insect population density in equilibrium and facilitate the natural control of the pest. The cotton strip intercropping associated with the chemical pest control based on economic threshold can be an alternative method, witch stimulate sustainable crop production for smallholder farmers. This means that farmers by intercropping cotton with a food crop, can produce, in the same area, the same amount of cotton plus an extra amount of a food crop and can economize the labour. And the pest incidence tended to be lower in intercropped cotton when compared with pure cotton in this cotton cropping system.

4.1. Cotton IPM Experience in the Country

The IPM based control methods are available to minimize reliance on pesticides and emphasizes the contribution of other control methods.

From 2007 to 2009 were trained about 118

technicians and 962 farmers in a proportion of 75% men and 25 women in cotton integrated pest and production management using demonstration plots. The participants were selected from 5 provinces (Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Zambézia, Niassa, Sofala and Tete) and training was implemented by Cotton Institute of Cotton, Agrarian Research Institute of Mozambique and Faultily of Agronomy of Eduardo Mondlane University in collaboration with Ginner Companies and other stakeholders. Some of the implemented and on going cotton IPM approach in the country (Fig.1): •

Use of Strip intercropping of cotton with a trap crop: Promotion of cotton production

using mix cropping system with food and trap crop (area: 80% for cotton and 20% for other crop) in Morrumbala and Mutarara Districts in collaboration with Dunavant Cotton Ginner Company (2007 and 2008); •

Use Chemical pest control based on economic threshold: Training of extension officers cotton producers in cotton insect scouting in five provinces in collaboration with local cotton companies;



Use of molasses as trap for adult of Lepidoptera: Demonstration of preparation of trap molasses with the cotton farmers;



Use of “pegboard” for cotton insect monitoring: Training of farmers on use of “pegboard” for monitoring cotton pest in the field;

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Weed Control: Farmers are encouraged for early weeding for both weed suppression and improvement of rainfall infiltration. More than 50 percent of labour time is devoted to weeding and is mainly done by the women and children in the farmer’s family. In some areas the farmers associations are being trained on use of animal traction for wedding in combination with other cultural control methods. A combination of different herbicide tactics (preemergence, postemergence) in addition to mechanical strategies can provide the best results, but the use of herbicides by small scale farmers is not common in the country.

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1. Introduction Summary of Production Trends and Cotton Research Status in Mozambique



As Mozambique recovers from war and undergoes economic reform, given its favorable agroecological endowment, improved agricultural performance is essential to the smallholder income growth and improved rural food security;



Cotton is one of the cash crops of particular importance in the Country and is largely produced in rural areas, involving about 300 thousand small-scale farmers;



About 96% of cotton seed come from small scale farm, 3.7% from farmer associations and 0.3% form private sectors.



10 professional companies have cotton as their core business and create over 20.000 employments throughout it value chain, namely seasonal and permanent workers.

2010 SEACF MEETING Sandy Creations, Lusaka, Zambia 09 March 2010 1

2. Cotton Production Statistics/Trends

1. Introduction (Cont.) • Cotton yield is low in the whole country: • • • •

2

late sowing and insufficient protection against insects/weeds small-sized fields and inadequate cultural practices fall of the cotton price in international markets and new emergence alternative cash crop for cotton growers



Cotton subsector is the main income earner for some 250,000 rural households



Generates about 20.000 of jobs.



Generates nearly 40 million USD in agriculture exports per year.



The average yield in Mozambique is 500kg/ha of seed cotton



Production levels have bounced back though:

• To solve this problem cotton research programme is addressed to: • Cotton germplasm renovation and development of improved varieties • Develop integrated pest and production management • Improve of cotton fiber yield and quality • Improve cotton production economics (cotton production efficiency, gin profitability • Technical transfer and appropriate delivery of package

• •

now is about 70,000 Mtons/year The yet untapped potential, however, is 350,000 Mtons/year 4

2. Cotton Production Statistics/Trends (Cont.)

3. Cotton Research Status

160

.

1973/73 144.061 Tons

2005/06

2008/09 69.505 Tons

= 122. 287 Tons

140

120

( 1000 Tons)

100

The Cotton research is still conventional and currently its program has developed research projects for components of plant breeding, plant protection and agronomy.

80



Plant Breeding

60

• • • • •

1985/85 + Baixa = 5.200

40

20

0 1931 1934 1937 1940 1943 1946 1949 1952 1955 1958 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 ( YEARS )

5

Independence of Moza,bique

Germplasm renovation and development of improved varieties Testing 21 varieties/lines; Testing material from CIRAD; Breeding for production of new varieties most adapted and used varieties CA 324, ISA-205 and STAM42. 6

Cotton Research Status (Cont.) •

• • • •



Cotton Research Status (Cont.)

Plant Protection Testing efficacy of different insecticides Development of the scouting based spray method Evaluation of effect strip intercropping for management of cotton pest Economic Impact of use of herbicide for weed control

Agronomy •



• •

promote the use of composted biomass and chipped (fragmented) cotton plant residues as a soil additive in heavily eroded soils Develop conservation practices for integrated soil nutrient management (mulching, intercropping with legume crops, chipping and incorporation of crop residues). Evaluation of plant density for different soil types Inorganic fertilizer use

& Thank You for Kind attention

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• Technology Transfer – Training of extension officers and famers – Best agronomic practices – Dissemination of IPPM knowledge

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