Structures of agricultural education

Structures of agricultural education n •^4 In this series: Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Japan Estructura...
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Structures of agricultural education

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In this series: Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Japan Estructura y terminología de la educación agrícola en Colombia Structure of agricultural education in the Philippines Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in India Elements of the structure ofagricultural education in the United States of America Estructura y terminología de la educación agrícola en Costa Rica Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland Tadeusz Wieczorek

Unesco

The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of Unesco and do not commit the Organization.

Published in 1984 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7 place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris Printed by Imprimerie Darantiere, Quetigny ISBN 92-3-102156-7 €> Unesco 1984 Printed in France

Preface

The need to devote m o r e attention to the training and utilization of those h u m a n resources without which social and economic development would be impossible is particularly urgent in respect of rural populations. T h e extension and qualitative improvement of education are essential to the speeding u p of technical progress in agriculture and to the creation of favourable conditions for the social progress and wellbeing of rural societies The W o r l d Conference on Agricultural Education and Training which w a s held in 1970 in Copenhagen under the joint auspices of F A O , ILO and Unesco stressed the need to assemble additional information o n problems related to education and rural development and on the need to investigate these problems in greater detail. In accordance with the recommendations of the Conference and the resolutions adopted at its o w n General Conference, Unesco has begun to publish a series of countryby-country studies o n the 'Structures of Agricultural Education'. These studies are designed to examine the structures of agricultural education, to establish a better demarcation between the different educational levels, to clarify the terminology employed, and to single out those current trends apparent in the organization of agricultural education and the training of teachers. The studies in this series are mainly addressed to educational planners, administrators and inspectors of agricultural education. The present work outlines the system of agricultural education operating in Poland. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between agricultural education, the agricultural structure (a specific aspect of which is the coexistence of small-scale peasant holdings and a lesser number of large state-run farms and co-operatives) and employment. Agricultural education is s h o w n against the background of the overall education system. T h e author likewise describes various forms of out-of-school education and agricultural extension w o r k as well as the pedagogical training of teachers at all levels. In addition, the reader will find information concerning the curricula of primary and secondary agricultural education. The author, Tadeusz Wieczorek, is professor and director of the Agricultural Education Institute of the W a r s a w Agricultural University. Professor Wieczorek is solely responsible for the choice of material included in the study and for opinions expressed. Unesco wishes to express its appreciation for the considerable work which he undertook in preparing this study.

Contents

Introduction 9 T h e development of agricultural education in Poland 9 T h e standard of agricultural education in relation to staff requirements of the agricultural sector 14 Organization of the agricultural school system 16 Agricultural school education 22 Agricultural education at thefirstlevel 22 Agricultural education at the second level 28 Agricultural education at the third level 58 Out-of-school agricultural education and dissemination of knowledge of advances in agriculture 72 Out-of-school agricultural education 72 Dissemination of knowledge of advances in agriculture 76 Conclusion 86 Terminology in agricultural education and training 88

Introduction

The development of agricultural education in Poland Poland has a noteworthy tradition in thefieldof agricultural education, both in school and out of school. It was one of thefirstcountries in Europe which, with a view to improving the level of farming, began to propagate agricultural knowledge by means of organized school education. A s early as the second half of the eighteenth century, the National Education Council (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej) m a d e an attempt at systematic propagation of agricultural knowledge within the framework of school education, the curriculum including elements of farming and gardening. This w a s a courageous break with the traditional method whereby knowledge w a s acquired through actual farming experience, as well as a manifestation of an innovatory effort to combine knowledge and vocational practice. The emergence of a separate agricultural school system in Europe began at the turn of the eighteenth century, initially in the form of universities of agriculture. Thefirstof these w a s the university of agriculture in Keszthely, Hungary, founded as far back as 1797; the second w a s the Swiss agricultural institute in Hoffwyl in 1804, and the third Thaer's agricultural university in Möglin, Prussia, founded in 1806. In spite of the difficult political situation caused by the partition of the country, Poland soon followed suit. In 1816 the Agronomical Institute w a s founded in Marymont, on the outskirts of W a r s a w . The Special School of Forestry, affiliated to W a r s a w University, and the Farming Department of Vilnius University began to function t w o years later. Thereafter the agricultural academic school system experienced changing fortunes. Several centres of agricultural education were founded and operated more or less successfully, depending on the policy adopted by the foreign occupants. These centres were: the Institute of Farming and Forestry in Marymont, near W a r s a w ; the Institute of Technology, Agriculture and Forestry, later the Institute of Farming and Forestry, in Pulawy; the Agricultural School in Dublany, near L w o w (a university since 1901), the Agricultural School in Zabikowo; the Agricultural Department of Jagiellonian University; andfinallythe Agricultural Department attached to the Society of Scientific Courses in W a r s a w , which evolved into the Principal School of Farming. Considering that all these colleges were founded and developed in the most unpropitious conditions of political oppression by the invading states, the effort m a d e by Polish society to establish and maintain them must be regarded as exceptional. A s a result of the different political and economic conditions prevailing in different sectors of the partitioned country, the lower-level agricultural school system in each had its o w n individual features. O n regaining independence in 1918, the Polish Government had to undertake the methodical organization of the overall agricultural-education system, beginning with the lower-level schools. These had to be more unified and adapted to the needs and conditions of the reborn Polish state, having due regard to the traditions of the individual provinces. These territories, which belonged to the Congress Kingdom of Poland at that

9

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

time, had eleven schools for m e n andfivefor w o m e n . The Malopolska district had eight schools, and the other parts of Poland only three each. In 1920 the number of lower-level agricultural schools increased tofifty-two.Only 1 per cent of Polish farmers had had any professional training. The progressive Act of 9 July 1920, concerning peasants' agricultural schools, stated that in twenty years the country's school network should be expanded so that each T A B L E 1. Lower agricultural schools in the years 1920/21 to 1937/38 Enrolment

Number of

School year

schools

1920/21 1921/22 1922/23 1923/24 1924/25 1925/26 1926/27 1927/28 1928/29 1929/30 1930/31 1931/32 1932/33 1933/34 1934/35 1935/36 1936/37 1937/38

T A B L E 2.

25 60 71 87 90 100 109 112 124 127 128 131 125 121 125 127 128 169

Boys

Girls

730 1 479 1 729 1 793 2 216 2 996 3 059 3 490 3 787 4 160 3 756 2 807 2 766 2 487 2 840 3 205 3 305



452 390 377 452 794 964 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

108 291 484 537 482 085 322 358 611 698 765



Total

1 182 1 869 2 106 2 245 3 010 3 960 4 167 4 781 5 271 5 697 5 238 3 892 4 082 3 845 4 451 4 903 5 070 6 700

Average per school

22.7 31.1 29.6 25.8 33.4 39.6 38.2 42.7 42.5 44.8 41.0 29.7 32.7 31.8 35.6 38.6 39.6 39.6

Distribution of lower agricultural schools in 1939 N u m b e r of schools

N u m b e r of rural Palatinate districts

Biafystok Kielce Cracow Lublin Lwow •Lodz Nowogródek Polesie Pomorze Poznan Stanisfawow Sla,sk Tarnopol Warsaw Wilno Wofyri TOTAL

10

Agricultural

12 17 17 18 26 12 8 9 16 27 12 8 17 23 8 11

4 11 10 14 11 6 11 6 13 27 7 7 4 19 9 14

241

173

Gardening

Forestry



— — — — — — — —

Total

1

1

— 2 1 2 1 1

— — — — — —

4 11 12 14 12 6 11 7 13 29 7 9 5 21 10 15

12

1

186

2

— 1

— — 1



Introduction

administrative district would have at least one agricultural school for m e n and one for w o m e n . Had the act been fully implemented, by 1940 there would have been about 528 agricultural schools, or at least 482, since 241 of Poland's administrative districts were principally agricultural. In 1937/38 there were 169 lower-level agricultural schools with an enrolment of 6,700 students (see Table 1). In 1939, just before the Second World W a r , the number of lower-level agricultural schools rose to 173 (see Table 2). Apart from these, there were twelve lower-level gardening schools and one school of forestry. The total of lower-level agricultural schools represented not more than 35 per cent of the number stipulated in the Act of 9 July 1920. In 1939, Poland also had 186 secondary agricultural, gardening and forestry schools. The number of secondary agricultural schools w a s too small to meet the increasing demand of the agricultural sector for qualified people with a secondary school degree. Additionally, there were three so-called 'secondary universities' of agriculture (at the same level as the secondary agricultural schools), namely the Farming High School in Cieszyn, the Principal School of Husbandry for W o m e n in Snopków, near L w o w , and the State School of Gardening in Poznan. Between 1918 and 1939, there w a s only one independent agricultural school of university level in Poland. This w a s the Principal School of Farming, comprising the Agricultural, Gardening and the Forestry Departments. There were also farming graduates from universities and from the L w o w School of Technology. Jagiellonian and Vilnius Universities had agricultural departments, while Poznan University and the L w o w School of Technology had departments of farming and forestry. Veterinary surgeons graduated from the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in L w o w and the Veterinary Department of W a r s a w University; together, the Academy and the W a r s a w department had an enrolment of 3,257 students of veterinary medicine in 1937/38. About 12,000 people were attending all types and levels of agricultural schools at the outbreak of w a r in 1939. The small number of agricultural schools between the two world wars w a s inadequate to meet requirements. With a view to further expanding the provision of agricultural knowledge, a valuable system of agricultural training was devised. In 1939 the number of boys and girls participating in agricultural training groups w a s about 100,000, afigurealmost the same as the average number of farms taken over each year by the younger generation of farmers. Agricultural training came to dominate the whole agricultural education system, both as regards range and its effectiveness. N o other form of out-of-school agricultural education exerted as immediate an influence on the running of individual farms. A m o n g other things, it m a d e possible the distribution of high-quality seeds to farms, an important factor in extending the cultivation of varieties of mangels, maize, potatoes, etc., suited to local conditions. Thanks to the agricultural training system, full-blood or at least halfblood animal breeds were introduced and led to an improvement in the overall quality of farming stock. At the same time, young farmers acquired basic skills relating to the feeding and care of animals. The development of agricultural education in Poland after the Second World W a r m a y be divided into three main stages. Thefirstof these, from 1944 to 1948, was a period of reconstruction and development of the agricultural school system, mainly along the lines traced before the war. T h e second period, in the years 1949-56, saw the introduction of major changes in the system and organization of agricultural schools with a view to meeting the needs of state-owned agriculture. Finally, the third period, 1956 onwards, has been characterized by the effort to develop the agricultural education system, both in school and out of school, serving both private and state-owned farms and favouring neither. Certain changes in the organization of agricultural schools were

11

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

introduced by the Act of 15 July 1961 concerning the education and instruction system, which extended primary-school education to eight years, necessarily involving (since the school year 1967/68) changes in the organization and curricula of agricultural schools. Agricultural education after the w a r had to be organized almost from the ground up. T h e process of radical social change that then began w a s aimed at the reorganization of farming and opened n e w vistas for agricultural education. T h e application of the agricultural reform proclaimed by the July Manifesto of the Polish Committee of National Liberation provided a material basis for development of the agricultural-school system. Suitable farming centres situated in castles and large country houses were reserved for the agricultural schools. T h e objective of the people's government w a s the widest possible dissemination of agricultural education a m o n g rural youth, whose access to schools had been difficult in the pre-war period. In these favourable conditions the development of agricultural schools w a s rapid. B y March 1946, as m a n y as 1,100 agricultural schools of various types, over 60 cooperative training schools, about 30 people's universities, and 2 co-operative secondary schools had been organized. Considering the number of teachers and thefinancialmeans available at that time, however, the number of schools w a s too high. Moreover, until 1950, the sums invested in agricultural education were still not unduly substantial and were scattered a m o n g hundreds of schools. The development of agricultural education followed the pattern set before the w a r for the whole system of liberal education. Particular types of schools and forms of out-of-school agricultural education emerged spontaneously. They did not result from any definite concept and were not in fact altogether suited to the real needs of the period. Certain kinds of agricultural schools, particularly at the lower level, did not ensure access to any higher institution and might be regarded as blind alleys. Immediately after the w a r agricultural schools were characterized by frequent changes in their profiles and structures. T h e 'transitional' nature of certain types of school w a s particularly conspicuous from 1944 to 1948. This w a s occasioned by rapid changes in the structure of agriculture, which necessarily called for adjustments in the system and organization of agricultural schools. In spite offinancialand staff difficulties, agricultural schools in thefirstfiveyears after the war educated over 22,000 students, including 12,000 having lower-level agricultural knowledge. In line with the general principles of policy in 1950-56, the Ministry of Agriculture concentrated its efforts in thefieldof agricultural education exclusively o n instructing staff for state-owned farms. The main forms of education at that time were: four-year technical agricultural schools of various profiles, the programme of which w a s a continuance of the seven-year primary-school syllabus; one-year schools for qualified workers in the agricultural sector; a correspondence system; and different courses at a lower level. The chief achievement in thefieldof agricultural education in this period consisted of developing and stabilizing the secondary agricultural school. This w a s m a d e possible by increasing the funds invested in agricultural education, by reforming the curricula and by ensuring a better supply of qualified teachers. Agricultural courses also became fairly popular, whereas public forms of agricultural education for individual farmers disappeared altogether. After 1956, both subject-matter and types of education changed in conformity with the existing agricultural system and farmers' economic and social needs. Transformations of the agricultural-school system in 1957/58 and the Act of 1961 concerning the development of instruction and the educational system were aimed at improving the standard of professional knowledge given by schools of all types and gradually ensuring that all rural youth starting work in the agricultural sector should have professional

12

Introduction

training. A system of popular agricultural education w a s developed, comprising agricultural training schools, out-of-school agricultural training, agricultural education for adults, etc. A lower growth rate of agricultural co-operatives and the organization of stateo w n e d centres of mechanical farming equipment caused a temporary decline in the d e m a n d for engineers and skilled technicians. This led to changes aimed at improving the standard of study in agricultural universities and secondary technical schools. In the school year 1957/58, the duration of studies in secondary technical agricultural schools w a s extended to five years. At the s a m e time, greater attention w a s paid to adapting the school profile to local needs. Agricultural universities cancelled the twostage system of study, which had been introduced in response to a critical shortage of agricultural engineers. Since 1956, all departments of agricultural universities have had a uniform five-year study system leading to a master's degree. The only exception is veterinary studies, which lastfiveand a half years. O n e undeniable merit of the agricultural education system after 1956 w a s the successful attempt to ensure continuity of study. These and four-year secondary technical agricultural schools have been established to give those leaving lower-level agricultural schools, agricultural training schools and out-of-school agricultural training groups a chance to continue their education. The n u m b e r of agricultural universities and secondary schools has been increased, and their educational standards have been considerably raised, with a consequent output of highly qualified engineers and technicians. The increase in numbers particularly concerned in-school and out-of-school forms of popular agricultural education for production workers in the agricultural sector. The rapid growth of the agricultural academic system is a fact of particular significance. The number of separate agricultural academies rose to seven in 1955, and the number of departments increased from nine in the year 1937/38 to twenty-six in 1954/55, and forty-five in 1971 / 7 2. N e w independent agricultural universities opened in Lublin, Olsztyn, Szczecin and Wroclaw have been valuable additions to the network of agricultural academic schools in Poland. The schools are fairly evenly distributed and therefore adequate to meet the needs of each region. The Agricultural University in Poznan and the Academy of Technology and Agriculture in Bydgoszcz are n o w centres of research and agricultural knowledge for the Wielkopolska region; the centre for the Malopolska region and the western Carpathian Mountains is the Agricultural University in Cracow; for the Lublin region the centre is the Agricultural University in Lublin; for the Mazovian and the Podlasian region the Principal School of Farming (Agricultural University of W a r s a w ) and the School of Agriculture and Pedagogics in Siedlce; for the Bialystok and Masuria regions the University of Agriculture and Technology in Olsztyn; for Silesia the Agricultural University in W r o c l a w ; and for Pomerania the Agricultural University in Szczecin. There has been a considerable and continuous improvement of curricula and manuals, particularly for secondary technical agricultural schools and for agricultural universities. Difficulties in connection with the teaching staff have been overcome; the present staff is highly qualified, both professionally and pedagogically. A relatively large quantity of equipment has been provided for schools, including laboratories, workshops for practical instruction, teaching equipment, etc. Notwithstanding the remarkable growth of the agricultural-school system, it is still unable to meet requirements. T h e increase in the number of agricultural schools as compared to that of technical and economic vocational schools remains too low. This disproportion is all the more striking in view of the ratio between agricultural schools and other professional schools in terms of employment indices in particular sectors of the national economy. The number of agricultural schools is still too small in relation to the number of people employed in agriculture.

13

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

The standard of agricultural education in relation to staff requirements of the agricultural sector In 1981 the population of Poland exceeded 36 million. T h e continuous process of industrialization has transformed and is transforming rural society and the agricultural economy. People tend to migrate from villages and farms. N e w agricultural production systems have been introduced, modern technology is more widely used, and industrial means of production are employed on a larger scale. These changes are particularly conspicuous in respect of individual farms. The percentage of farm workers in the society has undergone a considerable decline. This has been accompanied by the population drift from villages to towns, from agricultural districts to industrial centres, and from farming to other professions. The proportion of people employed in agriculture dropped from 53.2 per cent in 1950 to 34.6 per cent in 1974, and that of the rural population from 47.1 to 27.2 per cent during the same period. The system of agriculture is twofold. It is subject to a gradual transition from traditional farming to socialist forms. Individual farms still constitute the dominant form of production so that smallholders determine the character of Polish agriculture. In 1975 individual farms covered 79 per cent of the arable area and supplied 75.4 per cent of all market produce. The majority of private farmers still use draughthorses, their methods of production are traditional, their output and economic results are average or mediocre, and their efficiency is low. The small size of individual farms (see Table 3) constitutes a great obstacle to mechanization. Farms of less than four hectares account for as m u c h as 65 per cent of the total, while those in excess often hectares represent only 11 per cent. The production of m a n y farms suffers from the lack of manpower, as their owners get old with no one to replace them. In about 500,000 farms of over two hectares the owners have permanent jobs outside the agricultural sector. State farms in 1975 occupied over 17 per cent of the arable ground and supplied over 19 per cent of market produce. These farms comprise a number of units ranging up to close on 20,000 hectares, and their importance for the food market is growing steadily. They are active in the production and supply of high-quality grain and other seeds for cultivation, as well as of pedigree domestic animals for breeding. In relation to thenacreage, state farms produce and supply the market with a relatively high percentage of grain, rape, milk and other food products. Collective farms are voluntary associations of individual farmers and rural people without farms. Together with state farms, they constitute the two basic forms of socialist management in agriculture. In 1975, co-operative farms managed almost 2 percentofthe T A B L E 3. Acreage of individual farms in the years 1950-79, in percentages Acreage of farms Year

Under 2 ha

2-5 ha

5-7 ha

7-10 ha

Over 10 ha

1950 1970 1977 1979

20.4 27.1 30.0 29.8

33.6 31.3 30.5 29.9

16.2 13.9 13.1 12.9

16.9 13.8 12.8 13.0

12.9 13.9 13.6 14.4

Variation 1950-79

+9.4

-3.7

-3.3

-3.9

+1.5

Source: Chief Census Bureau Yearbooks for 1976, 1978,

14

1981.

Introduction

total acreage under cultivation. Their production results are the highest of the three forms discussed, and they supply 3 per cent of the agricultural products on the market. It m a y be apprehended that the tendency to increase farming yields by introducing modern means of production and modern management might be hampered by the inadequate qualifications of those employed both in the agricultural sector itself and in the provision of services for farmers. The educational standard of farmers, as compared with people employed in other sectors of the national economy, is relatively low. The revolutionary changes in the education system of the Polish People's Republic took less account of the rural population than of other social and professional groups. For example, from 1960 to 1974, the number of those aged over 15 w h o had had no primary education dropped from 45 to 20 per cent, whereas over half of the rural population still lacked primary education. Data concerning differences in the educational level of those professionally active in agriculture and in non-agricultural sectors are still more striking. Over 40 per cent of the 5.9 million people engaged in farming in 1974 had not finished primary school, as against only 6 per cent of those outside farming. While 55 per cent of those working in all sectors of the national economy had had an education higher than primary level, the index for farmers w a s lower than 10 per cent. Only 25 per cent of farmers aged over 25 in 1974 had engaged education higher than primary level as against 75 per cent in sectors outside agriculture. A low level of education is characteristic above all of individual farmers, among w h o m statistics concerning the age and sex of professionally active people are equally unfavourable. Forty-three per cent of the 3.2 million individual farms are run by w o m e n ; almost 600,000 managers of individual farms are aged over 65; and 1.2 million farms are run by farmers aged over 55, 440,000 of w h o m have no one to replace them. In state-owned farming, the average level of education a m o n g employees is incomparably higher than a m o n g individual farmers. In 1974, the percentage of professionally active people with educational qualifications above primary level was 36 per cent in state-owned farming, and 7 per cent in private farming. It is also worth stressing that statistics concerning the educational qualifications of people employed in state-owned farms closely approach those concerning employees in the state-owned economy as a whole. In 1976, almost 40 per cent of the people employed in state-owned farms had educational qualifications above the primary level, with the indexfigurefor the whole state-owned economy being 25 per cent. Between 1974 and 1978 the standard of education among the rural population improved considerably (see Table 4). The percentage of farmers with education at higher T A B L E 4. Education of people in and outside the agricultural sector in the years 1970-78, in percentages Agricultural sector

Outside the sector

Level of education

Primary incomplete Primary Basic Secondary Academic Total post-primary schools

1970

1974

1978

1970

1974

1978

49.5 42.8

40.1 50.1

26.6 54.4 11.5

24.7 42.3 14.7 14.8

17.6 42.5 17.7 18.0

38.3 23.5 22.3

3.5

4.2

4.6 2.8 0.4

6.0 3.4 0.5

7.8

9.9

6.6 1.0 19.1

33.0

39.9

9.9

6.0 51.8

Source: Ministry of Food and Agriculture, 1978.

15

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

than primary level increased from 9.9 to 19.1, and the percentage of people having failed to finish primary school dropped from 40.1 to 26.6. In spite of this conspicuous improvement, the present state of education is still unsatisfactory. The fact is that the gap in educational standards between people working in agriculture and those employed in other sectors of the national economy is still growing. This discrepancy increased from 25 points in 1970 to 32.7 points in 1978. Statistics concerning the education of individual farmers are profoundly discouraging: a third of all those in this group have had no primary education, 56.8 per cent have had primary education, 8.9 per cent basic education, 2.9 per cent secondary education, and only 0.2 per cent academic education. In other words, only 12 per cent have educational qualifications of higher than primary level. It is estimated that every year 84,000 18-year-olds begin work in farming, with another 55,000 starting work in the provision of services for farming. These combined figures represent a m o r e or less adequate inflow rate. Unfortunately, agricultural schools cannot prepare so large a number of qualified farming employees. In the school year 1975/76, intramural schools of agriculture enrolled 58,000 n e w students, including 37,000 in basic agricultural schools. Assuming that about a third of those leaving the latter institutions continue their studies in technical schools and that there is a certain percentage of drop-outs and repeaters, then agricultural schools above the primary level are capable of training about 40,000 people yearly at most. This represents less than a third of the required rate. O n the other hand, about 90 per cent of young people starting w o r k in other sectors of the national economy have had school preparation.

Organization of the agricultural school system The school system in Poland The current school system in the Polish People's Republic (see Fig. 1) comprises the following elements: nursery schools and other pre-school institutions, the primary school system, schools of higher than primary level: grammar schools, secondary vocational schools, secondary technical vocational schools, and basic vocational schools, higher academic and non-academic schools. Pre-school education concerns children aged from 4 to 6. In those localities that have no nursery schools, the following institutions are organized: Nursery classes attached to primary schools and pre-school preparatory centres for 6-year-olds, organized in order to equalize the standard of children's preparation for school education. Nursery centres of the Society of the Friends of Children, village kindergartens, open temporarily during the season of intensivefieldw o r k . In 1975, 44.2 per cent of children aged 3 to 6 attended nursery schools, 54.4 per cent in towns and 54.2 per cent in the country. Compulsory schooling begins in the calendar year in which a child reaches the age of 7. It is carried out by eight-year primary schools, with uniform curricula. Those having completed primary education can enter secondary schools or basic vocational schools. Secondary schools, which offer four- or five-year courses, usually culminating in a matriculation examination (not at present obligatory), include grammar schools and vocational schools, technical and non-technical. Completion of secondary school entitles the graduate to apply for admittance to an academic school. The majority of those with primary educational qualifications go to three-year basic vocational

16

Introduction

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FIG. 2. Organization of the agricultural school system.

19

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Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

Out-of-school agricultural education and popularization of modern methods in agriculture In addition to agricultural schools, a system of out-of-school agricultural education fulfils major social tasks in respect of the preparation and improvement of expert staff for agriculture, as well as meeting various needs a m o n g the rural population in thefieldof culture and education. The following are s o m e of the most important forms of out-ofschool agricultural education: autumn and winter agricultural training, popularization of agricultural knowledge by the mass media, agricultural training for rural youth, vocational instruction and upgrading for producers, engineers and technical staff, training of agricultural staff by correspondence and television programmes. Each of the above organizational and didactic approaches fulfils its o w n social and educational tasks, meets the educational needs of particular professional groups and local societies, and offers specific subject-matter. O n e of the conditions for increased production in farming is the development of agricultural science and of an effective system for introducing research results into farming practice. In order to be of value, such results mustfirstundergo adaptation research. The point of this is to adjust general, technological, economic or organizational recommendations to the natural and social conditions of a given region, and sometimes even of a purely local environment. This research is carried out in experimental institutions, and up to 1975, i.e. before the local administration reform, there w a s at least one experimental plant of this type in each administrative district. T h e Polish system of incorporating scientific advances in farming practice involves the following centres (Fig. 3): Scientific centres (agricultural universities, institutes and other institutions of the Polish A c a d e m y of Science, science and research institutes of the Agricultural Department) as cells that develop agricultural sciences and formulate practical recommendations for production, based on applied research. Agricultural experimental institutions: stations and laboratories as cells that adapt research results of general importance to regional and local conditions and needs. Centres of agricultural information—scientific, technological and economic—as cells that w o r k out detailed recommendations concerning the practical use of modern ideas, already adapted and tested, for the benefit of farming-service employees and producers. Farming services, c o m m u n a l and specialist, as the cell that transmits recommendations to producers and sees to their correct utilization for production in the largest possible number of farms, and with the o p t i m u m effect. Farmers as cells that implement the immediate directions of science and the guidelines of farming policy. The scope and effects of the dissemination of n e w production methods depend largely o n efficient work from each of those cells, o n their mutual interrelations, andfinallyon the extent of co-operation between the transmitting cells and the agricultural production sector.

20

Introduction

Ministry of Food and Agriculture

Agricultural science

Agricultural information

PAS

CAL

Department V

DIC

Special and economic agricultural organization Farming circles Rural/Housewives' circles

Agricultural universities

Trade information centres

Trade associations and unions

Science and research institutes

Provincial science and research centres

Experimental stations

Rural co-operatives

PCAP

LCI

Provincial administration office

IIC

Agriculture, Food and Forestry Department

Farms introducing new methods

Local administration of a c o m m u n e council Agriculture manager, etc.

Provincial cells of social and economic agricultural organizations

Cells of social and economic agricultural organizations in c o m m u n e s

Specialist and model farms

Farming practice

P A S = Polish Academy of Science C A L = Central Agricultural Library DIC = Departmental Information Centre

P C A P = Provincial Centres of Agricultural Progress LCI = Local Centres Information IIC = Institutional Information Centre

FIG. 3. Organization of the system for the dissemination of agricultural advances.

21

Agricultural school education

In Poland, both young people preparing for w o r k in agriculture and adults already working in the agricultural professions c o m e within the scope of agricultural schools. T h e differences of age and the extent of professional knowledge a m o n g the learners require different organizational forms of instruction and different educational methods of didactic and educational w o r k . T h e Polish agricultural-school system accordingly comprises separate schools for the unemployed (Fig. 4) and for youth and adults in employment (Fig. 5). Agriculture requires people having various standards of educational and professional qualifications. Agricultural schools therefore offer instruction in farming a n d farming service w o r k at basic, secondary and university level (Fig. 6). People leaving basic school receive the titles of farmer, gardener, farming mechanic^etc. Graduates of secondary agricultural schools also receive the title of farmer, while those graduating from secondary technical schools, agricultural and specialist, as well as from postsecondary vocational schools, receive the titles of farmer-technician, gardenertechnician, agriculture-mechanization technician, etc. Agricultural university graduates become engineers, master engineers and veterinary surgeons. The agricultural education system comprises three different levels:first,second and third (see Table 5). Thefirstlevel comprises: primary-school classes oriented to farming, schools training future farmers, and basic vocational studies with agricultural specialization. Agricultural education at the second level comprises: incomplete secondary schools (basic agricultural schools and others), secondary schools (technical and non-technical agricultural schools), and post-secondary vocational schools. Agricultural education at the third level is carried out by universities of agriculture.

Agricultural education at thefirstlevel Stimulating interest in agriculture among primary-school pupils A characteristic feature of the primary-school syllabus is that s o m e school subjects include m a n y elements fostering the pupils' interests in agriculture. In the lower forms, these subjects comprisefirstof all the Polish language and classes in practical technology, in the third and fourth forms nature study is a very important subject, while higher forms include biology, chemistry, physics and geography in the syllabus. B y accentuating problems concerning agriculture within the context of these subjects, the teacher m a k e s his pupils appreciate various aspects of agricultural activity and thereby fosters their interest in agriculture generally. The subject-matter presented in primary schools is designed to acquaint pupils, even in the lowest forms, with various forms of agricultural activity, the conditions of w o r k , the skills and knowledge required, and the mental and physical qualities required of those working in each of the agricultural professions. This helps to a w a k e n interest in various

22

Agricultural school education

kinds of agricultural w o r k in relation to the pupils' skills, abilities and ambitions. Thus the curricula create ample opportunities for young people to acquire greater awareness in their choice of profession and for imparting knowledge of the social and professional conditions prevailing in farming. Primary-school classes oriented to farming T h e organization of classes oriented to farming in comprehensive c o m m u n a l schools in rural areas began in the school year 1973/74. They are intended for those pupils w h o are in forms from the sixth to the eighth, and over 14 or 15, and w h o seem unequipped to finish school in the normal w a y . Besides being taught general subjects, pupils are also

>^

200190-

f

180-

1

-

1

170-

J

160-

J

150140^

-

130-

-

120-

~

110-

-

100-

-

9080-

V

---„

70-

----

S

60-

/



-

50-

40-—

-_



30-

/

.—

20-

1 0 - " """

On

1970

1

71

I 72

i

73

1

74

i

1

l

75

76

77

i

l

78

i

79

80/81

Years Total Basic agricultui"al schools 4- and 5-year secondary technical agricultural schools 3-year secondary technical agricultural schools Secondary agricultural schools (non-technical) Post-secondary agricultural schools FIG. 4. Development of agricultural schools for the unemployed.

23

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

prepared to undertake various types of work. The majority of classes are oriented to farming and rural building. These classes are intended for pupils w h o are three to four years behind in their studies. T h e decision to transfer a pupil to such classes is taken by the pedagogic board, having regard to: T h e views of the child's form-master. The opinion of a professional educational advisory institution that the pupil is unable to master the complete curriculum of the eight-form primary school. T h e parents' consent to the transfer. A medical certificate, stating that the pupil's health permits him to w o r k in a given profession. 90-

80-

70-

60-

50-

40-

30-

20-

10-

0_

i 1970

1 71

1 72

1 73

1 74

1 75

1 76

1 77

1 78

i 79

i 80

r 81 Years

Total 5-year correspondence secondary technical agricultural schools 3-year evening secondary technical agricultural schools 3-year correspondence + T V secondary technical agricultural schools Secondary vocational correspondence and evening studies Post-secondary agricultural evening and correspondence schools Basic agricultural evening and correspondence schools FlG. 5. Development of agricultural schools for the employed.

24

Agricultural school education

140 — 130 — 120 — 110 — 100 — 90

-

80 — 70 — _

60

-

V)

? 50§40o S

30-

2 20 —

I

10-

co

0 -|

1938 '-

1945

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

""r

1975

1979/80

Secondary level

:

Years

; Basic level

FIG. 6. Development of the basic and secondary-level agricultural school system. T A B L E 5. Development of agricultural school system (in thousands of students) First level

1938 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1979

Second level

6.7 9.2

1.8 3.3

14.5 14.8 50.0 134.5 75.0 73.2 92.6

20.2 27.7 24.0 44.9 52.1 65.5 115.8

3.3 3.8 8.6 15.9 13.9 24.3 33.5 42.0 61.1

11.8 16.3 43.3 58.4 87.9 203.7 160.6 180.7 269.5

T h e duration of classes oriented to farming is three years (forms six to eight) or t w o years (forms seven a n d eight). A comparison of curricula in vocational a n d general forms (see Table 6) reveals that: Vocational forms have fewer classes per w e e k (the average difference is four). T h e list of vocational subjects does not include the Russian language, classes in practical technology, art, music a n d civil-defence training. T h e n u m b e r of lessons in the Polish language, history and civic education is lower a n d largely replaced b y professional training for farming w o r k . Training for farming w o r k is carried out according to o n e of t w o timetables: (a) timetable with practical training in individual (private) farms, a n d (b) timetable with practical training' in state farms. Those leaving classes oriented to farming receive a primary-school certificate, with a note specifying their preparation for w o r k in farming or in rural building. T h e certificate gives access to further studies at a higher level.

25

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

T A B L E 6. Curriculum of vocational agricultural forms After sixth year of ' primary school

After fifth year of primary school

Polish language History Civics Biology Geography Mathematics Physics Chemistry Physical exercise Practical training TOTAL

Eighth

Seventh

Eighth

2 10

3 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 10

3 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 10

3 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 10

3 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 10

26

27

27

27

27

Sixth

4 2

— 2 1 3 2



Seventh

Schools training future farmers These have been in existence since 1969, and are intended for young people over 15 w h o have had to interrupt their primary-school education. The period of study in schools training future farmers is t w o years. Enrolment is subject to completion of at least six primary-school forms. The curriculum (Table 7) includes, inter alia, such general subjects as the Polish language, history, civic education, biology, geography, mathematics, physics, chemistry and civil-defence training. Vocational preparation includes vegetable and animal production, farm organization and practical training. Students having completed the course receive the certificate of the eight-year primary school. They are

T A B L E 7. Curriculum of schools for future farmers in 1977 (thirty-four weeks of instruction in each form) Total hours per

Hours per week

No

Subject First form

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Polish language History Civics Biology Geography Mathematics Physics Chemistry Civil-defence training Physical exercise Vegetable production Animal production Farm organization Practical training TOTAL

26

3 1 1 2 2 2 2

Second form

18

2 2 2 1 1 2 3/0 0/3 18

6 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 1 2 4 3.5 1.5 36

36

36

72

— — 1 2 2



3 1 1

of instruction

— —

Agricultural school education

T A B L E 8. Schools for future farmers in the years 1970/71 to 1980/81 Number of

year

Students

Schools

Forms

66 70 68 93 73 37 27 20 13

94 97 93 117 105 71 39 27 19

1970/71 1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1979/80 1980/81

Total

114 1 528 1 576 2 056 1 772

996 706 498 341

School-leavers

Women

Tola!

Women

351 370 391 549 478 287 205 130 78

612 749 742 754 675 451 307 245

187 180 197 196 217 111 98 68

Source: Census Bureau Yearbooks.

qualified for agricultural work and entitled to enter basic agricultural schools or secondary technical agricultural schools for the employed. Schools training future farmers have not been popular with the rural society. At the peak of their development, i.e. in the school year 1973/74, they numbered 93, with I 17 forms comprising 2,056 pupils. In the school year 1980/81 there were only 13 schools, with 341 pupils in 19 forms (Table 8). T h e advantage of these schools is the fact that they enable rural youth to acquire a primary-school education, while simultaneously training for agricultural work. Primary vocational studies in agriculture A s already mentioned, 26.6 per cent of the rural population in 1978 had had no primary education. In order to enable them tofinishprimary school and at the same time acquire elementary professional qualifications, a n e w form of education for adults w a s introduced in 1973, namely primary vocational studies with an agricultural orientation. These studies m a y take place in rural primary schools, agricultural or vocational schools, or larger state farms. Candidates must be over 18 years of age, with at least two years of farming experience and an educational level at least equal to that of thefifth form in primary school. A n introductory (compensating) semester exists for candidates w h o do not meet this requirement. Primary vocational studies having an agricultural orientation comprise one school year, divided into t w o eighteen-week semesters: autumn-winter and spring-summer. The curriculum includes general subjects and theoretical instruction in the vocational subject. General subjects include: Polish language (144 school hours), selected topics relating to Poland's social and economic development (72), basic knowledge of nature (108) and mathematics (108). The curriculum provides 288 hours for vocational subjects, which include various elements of agricultural science, with particular emphasis on vegetable and animal production and certain topics concerning production organization, agricultural laws and safety and health regulations. The number of hours devoted to each group of topics is as follows: vegetable production (100 hours), animal production (100), principles of production organization and farm work, with selected aspects of agricultural laws (60) and selected aspects of safety and hygiene (28). People completing these primary vocational studies receive the primary-school certificate, which entitles them to take the examination leading to the title of qualified farmer. 27

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

Agricultural education at the second level Incomplete secondary schools Basic agricultural schools for the unemployed The basic agricultural schools for the unemployed comprise general agricultural schools, gardening schools, schools offishingand animal breeding, schools of forestry, schools of ornamental gardening and landscaping, schools of rural h o m e economics, schools of rural building, and schools of agricultural mechanization and land reclamation. U p to the school year 1981/82, basic agricultural school education lasted t w o years, except for schools training agricultural mechanics and water-equipment mechanics, where the period of study w a s three years. ' The curricula for basic agricultural schools include general and professional subjects, as well as practical classes and periods of apprenticeship, jointly constituting practical professional training. In order to provide those leaving basic agricultural schools with the m o r e or less uniform standard of general education required for further study in three-year secondary technical agricultural schools, the same general subjects are taught in all the schools of this type: Polish language, history, civic education, mathematics, physics, physical culture and civil-defence training. These subjects occupy approximately the s a m e n u m b e r of hours in two- and three-year schools. In basic schools that offer training in cultivation, gardening, animal breeding and fishing, t w o other general subjects are taught—biology and chemistry—because these are essential as a foundation for the teaching of professional subjects in such schools, and indispensable if education is continued in three-year technical secondary schools with an agricultural profile. Basic vocational schools also teach optional subjects: socialist family education, Russian language, physical culture and sport. Moreover, in schools specializing in cultivation, gardening and animal breeding, an optional subject for girls is country housekeeping, and for boys there arefield-cultivationand polytechnical classes. These subjects are very popular, because of their applicability to everyday life and professional work. T h e only professional subject c o m m o n to the curricula of all vocational schools is safety, hygiene and w o r k regulations. It comprises issues c o m m o n to various professions, such as fundamental regulations concerning safety and hygiene, elements of sociology, and specific issues concerning the creation of safe and hygienic work conditions in a given profession. Basic general agricultural schools. The chief objective of these is to prepare candidates for operating individual farms. After a period of apprenticeship, people leaving these schools can also obtain the qualifications required for employment on state or co-operative farms in vegetable or animal production. Studies in gardening, completed in a basic agricultural school, provide the advanced training that is indispensable for working in a specialized branch of fruit-farming or vegetable production (see Table 9). Vocational instruction involves training in vegetable production, animal production, mechanization of agriculture, farm economics and organization, and the subject of specialization. T h e subject of specialization and appropriate adaptation of the syllabus in practical training help in the conduct of different versions of vocational instruction: General farming, comprising knowledge and skills related to the growing of c o m m o n plant varieties and the breeding of the main animal species.

I. The present survey deals with the organizational structure of agricultural education up to the school year 1981/82. Accordingly, reference is m a d e toa two-year period of study in basic agricultural schools, in spite of the fact that since the school year 1982/83 the period has been three years.

28

Agricultural school education

T A B L E 9. Curriculum of basic general agricultural schools in 1981/82, for the ten weeks of the autumn term (A) and the twelve weeks each of the winter ( W ) and spring (S) terms i•tours No.

A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Polish language History Civics Mathematics Physics Physical exercises Civil-defence training Family education Chemistry Biology Safety, hygiene and work regulations Economics and organization of farms Subtotal

13 14 15 16

Specialization: general farming Mechanization of agriculture Vegetable production Animal production Practical training Plus specialization

13 14 15 16 17

TOTAL

Specialization: gardening, animal production Mechanization of agriculture Vegetable production Animal production Subject of specialization Practical training Plus specialization

13 14 15 16 17

per week

Specialization: rural housekeeping Mechanization of agriculture Vegetable production Animal production Subject of specialization Practical training Plus specialization Optional Russian language Classes in housekeeping for girls Classes in technology for boys

w

Wkly

Second foirm

First form

Subject

S

4 2

4 2

4 2







3 3 2 1 1 2 2

3 3 2 1 1 3 2

3 3 2 1 1 2 2

— —

— —

— —

20

21

2 3 2 6 33

2 5 5

A

w

s

3 1 2 3

3 1 2 3

3 1 2 3







2

2

2







1

1

1

— — —

— —

— — —

total 1rotal hours in for 2 period of forms

instruction

7 3 2 6 3 4 1 2 2.3 2 1 2.7 36

238 102 68 204 102 136 34 68 80 68 36 92

20

2 14

3 4 19

2 3 2 12 33

2 5 3 3 32

2 4 3 7 2 5.3 12 13 33 65.3

136 252 184 432

33

2 3 2 6 33

2 3 2

2 5 5

2 3 2



— —



2 2 2 2 12 34

2 2 2 4 3 32

2 4 2 5.7 2 5 2 2.7 12 13 34 66.4

136 194 172 92 432







2 2 3 12 33

3 2 5 3 32

2 2 5 2 4 3 6.3 12 13 33 66.3

68 172 136 218 432

33

2 2 2 2 6 34

2 3 3

2 3 3

2 3 —

2 3

2 3





6 33 2 2 2 2 6 34 2 3 3



33

2 4 2 4



6 33

2 14

4 6 3

136 204 102

Farming, with particular instruction in the breeding of a specific animal species, e.g. cattle, pigs or sheep. Farming, with emphasis on chicken farming. Farming, with emphasis on gardening. Farming, with emphasis on rural housekeeping. In the vocational preparation of basic agricultural school pupils, particular importance is

29

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

attached to practical training, which comprises individual and group practical classes, periods of apprenticeship during the school year and holidays, as well as the operation of agrimotor units. Practical instruction is conducted in training farms: state, co-operative and individual (introducing n e w methods or specializations). Lessons and practical exercises mainly take place in subject classrooms, equipped with appropriate teaching material, or in suitably furnished laboratories. Basic agricultural schools possessing suitable teaching equipment usually set up laboratories for: humanities, mathematics, physics and chemistry, animal production, mechanization of agriculture, farm economics and organization. A certain n u m b e r of hours are set aside in basic agricultural schools (Table 9), which the form master uses as he deems appropriate to meet the needs arising from the specific nature of particular subjects. This time is utilized to deal with topics not included in the curriculum and that result from progress in science, technology and w o r k organization. In 1981 there were 861 basic general agricultural schools, operated by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture or the Ministry of Education (see Table 10). Basic gardening schools. Graduates from these schools are equipped to run individual gardens but m a y also be employed as qualified workers in state gardening enterprises, in gardening co-operatives or in gardening service institutions. T A B L E 10. Basic agricultural schools for the unemployed in the years 1970/71 to 1981/82 School year

1970/71 1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79 1979/80 1980/81 1981/82

2 193 2 199 1 816 1 447 1 468 1 289 1 053 1 003 998 881 839 861

4 142 4 449 3 840 3 163 3 107 2 878 2 597 2 665 2 785 2 779 2 759 3 010

85 929 74 186 77 012 76 255 75 282 73 131 69 093 71 554 89 149 90 331 89 026 85 931

Percentage of w o m e n

School-leavers

57.6

30 716 35 914 37 757 35 489 32 463 32 693 30 630 32 817 36 864 36 971 36 802

— — — 62.2 59.6 57.5 54.4 44.1 42.4 40.8 39.3

Source: Ministry of Food and Agriculture, 1982.

T A B L E 11. Basic agricultural schools for the employed in the years 1974-81

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

6 14 20 23 24 16 27 29

Source: Ministry of F o o d and Agriculture, 1981.

30

6 24 29 33 34 27 56 47

Students

Percentage of w o m e n

School-leavers

174 491 629 729 766 563 1 211 987

41.9 43.9 44.0 44.4 56.2 47.6 38.8 33.2

— — 214 193 218 273 243 336

Agricultural school education

The vocational subjects include: fruit-farming and nursery gardens, vegetable growing, flower cultivation, mechanization of gardening, economics and the organization of gardening farms, safety, hygiene and w o r k regulations, and practical training. A m o n g other things, students acquire a knowledge of: Environmental factors and conditions and their influence o n the growth and development of plants. T h e biological and physiological characteristics of plants that determine their cultivation and utilization. Principles of cultivating various plants, both in the open and in greenhouses. Functioning and handling of tools, machinery, agrimotors and other gardening equipment, as well as the application of electric energy in gardening. Economics and organization of gardening farms, and evaluation of production processes. Tasks and types of operations of rural institutions and organizations, and co-operation between them in introducing n e w technologies and improved economic practice into gardening work. Practical training in basic gardening schools is conducted along the s a m e lines as in agricultural schools. Practical classes comprise fruit-farming, nursery gardens, vegetable growing and flower cultivation, as well as service, adjustment and maintenance of gardening machinery and agrimotors. Practical instruction in a basic gardening school is usually provided in a school or other state gardening farm. The farm is also the main supply of natural teaching equipment in vocational training. In 1981 there were 126 basic gardening schools, of which 100 c a m e under the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, and 26 under the Ministry of Education. The schools are popular with young people, chiefly because the profession is attractive and work conditions usually pleasant. The schools also open the w a y to further education, in threeyear secondary technical schools of gardening, plant preservation and agricultural accountancy. Basic schools offishingand animal breeding. Basic schools of animal breeding train qualified staff, mainly for animal production in state farms which need staff specializing in the breeding of cattle, pigs and other livestock. The schools concentrate on cattle and pig breeding. The chief professional subjects are: animal production, mechanization of animal production, and economics and organization of farms. During classes in animal production, pupils are instructed in the intensive breeding of cattle and pigs. Mechanization of animal production concerns the machinery and technological equipment used in cowsheds and pigsties as well as agricultural engines and agrimotors. Practical training comprises: holiday vocational practice, in large cattle or pig farms; and learning to drive and work with agrimotors. During practical classes and apprenticeship periods, students carry out tasks connected with animal care, concentrating on a given species and group, as well as the operation and maintenance of machinery and technological equipment. Basic schools offishingtrain for the professions of sea and inland fisherman. Preparation for the latter involves the following subjects: biological foundations of fishing, fishing o n lakes and rivers, fish-culture in ponds, fishing equipment and techniques, mechanization offishing,economics and organization offish-breeding farms, safety, hygiene and w o r k regulations. Practical training includes classes in the main sectors of inlandfishingand apprenticeship during vacations in farms devoted to fishbreeding in ponds or lakes. Students are also taught to drive agrimotors and motorboats. The curriculum for basic schools training sea fishermen includes such subjects as: commercial geography, fishing equipment and techniques, navigation and sea-faring regulations, basic knowledge of ichthyology, the outline of fishing-boat construction, subsidiary mechanisms and appliances in fishing boats, fishing oceanography and

31

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

meteorology, economy offishingenterprises and w o r k organization o n board ship, safety, hygiene and regulations. Practical training includes a ten-week apprenticeship period at sea. In 1981 there were a total of forty-three basic schools of animal breeding and t w o schools offishing.All but two were run by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Basic schools of agricultural mechanization and land reclamation. These schools train maintenance m e n , and agricultural mechanics, and are responsible for carrying out mechanical jobs in agricultural production and the technical servicing of agricultural equipment. Their vocational education comprises technological (general) and specialist instruction and takes the form of classes in technological and agricultural skills, agricultural engines and vehicles, agricultural machines, economics and organization of farms, safety, hygiene and w o r k regulations, and practical training. Practical training in these schools is concentrated mainly o n mastering skills in operating agricultural machines and vehicles and using mechanical equipment employed in vegetable production. The training includes: W o r k s h o p classes, operation of agricultural machines and vehicles and performance of various tasks in agricultural production. Periods of apprenticeship, during term and in holidays, including s u m m e r , harvest and a u t u m n jobs in vegetable production. Training in driving mechanical vehicles and in working with agricultural machines, students being individually instructed. Practical training is conducted in workshops attached to the school or to various state organizations, in auxilliary school farms, farming co-operatives, state agricultural enterprises, production co-operatives, enterprises for technical farming service and specialized individual farms. Graduates from basic agriculture mechanization schools are employed in vegetable and animal production, in management of machines and technological equipment, and in operating agricultural equipment. T h e chief enterprises that employ agricultural mechanics are: farming co-operatives, state farms, agricultural production co-operatives, technological farming service plants, etc. The positions in state farms filled most frequently by graduates from these schools are tractor driver, assistant tractor driver, machine operator, combine driver, agricultural mechanic, etc. The task of basic agricultural schools instructing agricultural machinery mechanics is to provide qualified staff for workshops servicing agricultural machines and tractors. In vocational subjects and practical training the main stress is on manual and mechanical tooling of metals and repair of agricultural machinery and tractors. Subjects include mechanical drawing, knowledge of machines, electronics, agricultural machinery and tractors, plant cultivation, road traffic regulations, safety, hygiene and w o r k regulations, and management of enterprises and practical training. Basic schools of land reclamation give instruction in: operating drainage and building machinery, and its application to drainage construction work; and in technical services, with workshop and on-the-job repairs to water and building machinery. The curriculum comprises electrotechnics, mechanical drawing, machine technology, drainage machinery, repairs to drainage machinery, technology of mechanized works, safety, hygiene and w o r k regulations, economics and organization of enterprises, and practical training. Graduates of basic schools of land reclamation are employed as operators of water and building machinery,fittersand mechanics. In 1981 there were some 220 basic schools of agricultural mechanization and drainage work, 128 of which were managed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food E c o n o m y and 92 by the Ministry of Education.

32

Agricultural school education

Basic schools of forestry. These schools are regarded as a continuation of the eight-year primary school. They accept candidates aged 16 or 17, and instruct future forest wardens in such subjects as forest management, forest utilization, practical training, and safety, hygiene and work regulations. Basic school of ornamental gardening and landscaping. These schools train ornamental horticulturists and are a continuation of the eight-year primary school. Entrants are aged from 15 to 17. Vocational instruction comprises ornamental plants, machinery and equipment, landscaping and cultivation, management of enterprises, practical training, and safety, hygiene and w o r k regulations. Other basic agricultural schools for the unemployed. In addition to the schools mentioned above, there are also four basic schools of rural h o m e economics, t w o basic dairy schools, and t w o basic schools of rural building. Basic agricultural schools for the employed These are in the form of evening or correspondence schools attached to state agricultural complexes, environmental agricultural schools and agricultural school groups. Studies last t w o years and have the same curricula as basic agricultural schools for the unemployed. The difference lies merely in practical training, which in this case consists of w o r k on an individual or state farm. Basic agricultural schools for the employed accept applicants over 18 w h o have finished primary school and are working on farms. There are t w o types of school organization: (a) intramural schools, in which classes are usually held three times a week, with a total fifteen hours per week; and (b) correspondence schools, in which meetings are held to supplement self-instruction at home. Typical examples of intramural basic schools for the employed are the schools of agricultural mechanization attached to institutions. They are run by certain state-farm machinery centres. They differ from schools for unemployed youth in that: Students sign contracts with the institution, are actively employed there, and receive wages. About 50 per cent of the instruction time is devoted to teaching general and vocational subjects, while the remainder is taken up by practical training, conducted in repair workshops under the guidance of instructors. Basic agricultural schools for the employed are not especially popular. In 1974 they trained 174 people, 42 per cent of w h o m were w o m e n , and in 1981 trained 987 people, of w h o m 3 3 per cent were w o m e n . L o w attendance in these schools can be explained by the fact that the same qualifications are easily obtained through courses leading to the title of qualified farmer. Secondary agricultural schools Secondary agricultural schools for the unemployed A m o n g secondary agricultural schools for unemployed youth (Fig. 7 and Tables 12 and 13), the following m a y be noted: Four- and five-year secondary technical agricultural schools, which are a continuation of the eight-year primary school. Three-year secondary technical agricultural schools, entered after leaving a basic agricultural school. Secondary agricultural schools (non-technical), entered after the eight-year primary school. Post-secondary agricultural schools, entered after leaving g r a m m a r school.

33

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

1 - Plant cultivation and animal breeding, 3 7 . 0 2-

Plant growing and seed production, 0.9

3-

Herbaceous plant cultivation, 1.9

4-

Plant protection, 2 . 3

5-

Fruit-farming, nursery gardens, vegetable growing and flower co Itivation, 11.9

6-

Poultry farming, 10.4

7-

Animal breeding, 0.7

8-

Fishing on p o n d s , rivers and lakes, 0.2

9-

Bee-keeping, 0 . 3

1 0 - Animal prophylaxis and therapeutics, 2.5 11 - Food production technology, 0 . 0 4 1 2 - Land reclamation and water appliances, 3.3 1 3 - Agricultural machines and other equipment, 2.8 1 4 - Rural h o m e economics, 0.05 1 5 - Mechanization of agriculture, 14.9 1 6 - Agricultural economics and accountancy, 10.7

F I G . 7. Secondary agricultural school students according to their special lines of study in school year 1 9 7 9 / 8 0 , in percentages.

34

Agricultural school education

T A B L E 12. Students of secondary agricultural schools for the unemployed according to special lines of study in the years 1975/76 and 1979/80 1975/76

1979/80

N o . Line of study

1 Plant cultivation and animal breeding 2 Plant growing and seed production 3 Herbaceous-plant cultivation 4 Plant protection 5 Fruit farming, vegetable and flower cultivation 6 Animal breeding 7 Poultry farming 8 Fishing on ponds, rivers and lakes 9 Apiculture 10 Animal prophylaxis and therapeutics 11 Fodder production technology 12 Drainage and water appliances 13 Agricultural machines and other equipment 14 Mechanization of agriculture 15 Agricultural economics and accountancy 16 Rural home economics TOTAL

Students

Percentage

Students

29 277

44.6

38 364

37.0

956 1 413 1 859 4 071

1.5 2.2 2.8 6.2

913 2 016 2 431 12 331

0.9 1.9 2.3 11.9

6 740 395 182 188 2 283

10.3 0.6 0.3 0.3 3.5

10 766 770 210 352 2 538

10.4 0.7 0.2 0.3 2.5

88 3 711

0.1 5.7





46 3 409 2 953

8 435 5 964

12.9 9.1

15 452 10 846





65 562

100.0

59 103 456

Percentage

0.04 3.3 2.8 14.9 10.7 0.05 100.0

Secondary technical agricultural schools. These are the most stable type of agricultural education in Poland. They are equipped with didactic aids and have a qualified teaching staff. They instruct young people in plant cultivation and animal breeding (general farming), plant growing and seed production, herbaceous-plant cultivation, plant protection, fruit-farming, vegetable growing and flower cultivation, animal breeding, poultry farming, fishing in ponds, rivers and lakes, bee-keeping, fodder production technology, animal prophylaxis and therapeutics, land reclamation and water appliances, agricultural machines and other equipment, mechanization of agriculture, agricultural economics and accountancy, and h o m e economics. Teaching in secondary technical agricultural schools is a continuation of the primary school or basic vocational agricultural school curriculum. In the former case the period of instruction is four or five years and in the latter three years. Only t w o of the educational elements mentioned above are taught in four-year periods: farming accountancy and gardening. Four- andfive-yearsecondary technical agricultural schools, being a continuation of the primary school, accept candidates aged 15 to 18. The curricula for these schools include Polish, Russian, basic knowledge of sociology, physics, chemistry, commercial geography and family education. General subjects comprise the same material and the same n u m b e r of lessons for all occupations and specializations. This ensures a uniform standard of general education so that schoolleavers can continue their studies in university schools. In secondary technical schools with an agricultural profile, an additional general subject is biology. This constitutes an indispensable foundation for certain vocational subjects and provides students with the knowledge necessary for further study in agricultural academies.

35

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland T A B L E 13. Curriculum of five-year secondary technical schools of general agriculture, 1981, for the autumn term (A), winter (W) and spring (S) terms Form First No.

Second

12

12

14

10

w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Polish language Russian language History Introduction to social sciences Economic geography Mathematics Physics Physical exercises Civil-defence training Optional classes Family education Free-study hour Chemistry Biology Vegetable production Animal production Mechanization of agriculture Safety, hygiene and work regulations Economics and organization of agriculture Agricultural counsel Practical classes

TOTAL

Third

Fourth

Fifth

Total hours

Per

Number of weeks of instruction in season

Subject

12 12 10 12 12 10 12 12 Number of hours weekly in a season A

w

4 2 2 —

4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 — ——

— 3 2 2 2

— 3 2 2 2

— ——— ——— 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 —

2 3 3 — 3

2 3 6 — 3

2 3 3 — 3

2 2 5 5 2

2 2 2 2 2

2 2 3 3 2

In the period of instruction

15 8 6 2

514 280 212 56

2 —— — 2 2 2 2 2 11 2 8 2 2 2 2 10 4 22 2 2

68 374 280 336 144 56

3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 —— ——— 2 2 2

2 2 6 3 5

week

W

4 2 2 —

2 2 2 2 2

4 3 2 2 2 2 — —

W

10 12 6

2 2 3 3 2

2 2 2 2

3 6 3 3 6 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 5 5 5 2 2 2

5

168

6 7 19 15 13

212 250 642 484 444

——— ——— ——— ———

2

22

2

56

——— ——— ———

4 4 4

8

248

——— ——— ——— ——— 2 22 2 3 — 3 6 — 6 6 — 6 6 — 6 — — — 14

56 474

32 32 32

33 33 33

32 32 32

4 4 4

32 32 32

30 30 30

159

A more detailed curriculum profile can be established by distinguishing between three different groups of schools: Secondary technical schools of agriculture and others concerned with vegetable production. Secondary technical schools of animal breeding and others concerned with animal production. Secondary technical schools instructing in other professions connected with agriculture. Secondary technical agricultural schools of general farming qualify for the profession of farmer technician, with specialization in plant cultivation and animal breeding. O f all the secondary technical schools concerned with vegetable production these provide students with the most comprehensive agricultural knowledge. T h e curriculum for secondary technical agricultural schools includes topics preparing pupils for organizational and supervisory activities. These include: Planning of production technology with respect to the commonest plants for cultivation, and of automatized care for the main animal species. Organization of vegetable and animal production in agricultural enterprises.

36

Agricultural school

education

T A B L E 14. Curriculum of four-year secondary technical gardening schools, 1981

Second

W

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Polish language Russian language History Introduction to social sciences Economic geography Mathematics Physics Physical exercises Civil-defence training Optional classes Family education Free-study hour Chemistry Biology General plant cultivation Mechanization of agriculture Fruit-farming and nursery gardens Vegetable growing Flower cultivation Economics and organization of agriculture Safety, hygiene and work regulation Agricultural counsel Practical classes

TOTAL

Third

Fourth

Number of weeks of instruction in season

N o . Subject

14 10 12 12 10 12 12 10 Number of hours weekly in each season

12


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Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

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55

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

organizations involved in rural and farming service work. Most of them are employed at the lower levels of the central administration or in units operating mainly in villages and c o m m u n e s , the so-called local farming service. Complete statistics, for all of Poland, concerning the professional careers of secondary technical agricultural school graduates are not yet available. In those regions that have larger and more profitable individual farms, some graduates are prepared to work o n their parents' farms. H o w e v e r , studies conducted in the southern part of Poland, where the acreage of farms is usually very small, showed that attendance at secondary technical agricultural school mostly involves giving up work o n the family farm, which cannot ensure suitable living standards. Graduates of basic agricultural schools have a wide choice of employment openings in state farming enterprises. Depending o n their vocational training, w o m e n are employed in gardening and animal production, and particularly in poultry farming. M e n tend to begin w o r k in vegetable production, in repair workshops or on cattle, pig or fishing farms. M a n y posts for basic agricultural graduates are provided by farming co-operatives. People from schools of agricultural mechanization are the most sought after, for w o r k in production and transport services and for the operation, maintenance and overhaul of agricultural and domestic equipment. Production services also give employment to agricultural and gardening school-leavers w h o have driving licences for agrimotors. Graduates of the basic school of mechanization and land reclamation are employed in district water and land reclamation enterprises. Graduates of basic agricultural schools m a y also, though not very frequently, begin by working in farming production co-operatives as hired workers or as members of the co-operative. O f the total number of basic agricultural school-leavers w h o start w o r k in agriculture, one person in three remains on the family farm. Individual farms that employ basic agricultural school graduates usually have good production results. The average grain and potato crops on these farms are higher than the average for the country. Material, didactic and social foundations of agricultural education at the second level Apart from the actual subjects taught, elements of education also include those factors that affect the application of the studies undertaken, such as the practical instruction base and students' living conditions. Specifically, the facilities available for practical vocational instruction are fundamental in determining the quality of vocational training. T h e foundations of practical training in agricultural schools comprise: school farms and training farms belonging to state farming enterprises, farming co-operatives, district centres of agricultural progress, departmental institutes of the Polish A c a d e m y of Science, and the more important private farms. Additionally, an important aspect of practical instruction consists of school workshops, workshops belonging to state farm-machinery centres and to state farms, plant-protection stations, veterinary clinics, land-reclamation enterprises, c o m m u n a l co-operatives of the Farmers' Mutual Aid Society, etc. Barely a third of the agricultural schools have their o w n farms, which in 1981 numbered 134 and covered 32,000 hectares, including 27,000 hectares under cultivation. The acreage of these farms had increased by over 17,000 hectares, and their number by about sixty-six units as compared with the year 1970. In the period from 1976 to 1980, however,fifty-oneschool farms, covering 13,000 hectares, were closed d o w n , the main reason being that school farms were not adequately financed. The acreage of school farms in 1981 is s h o w n in Table 32.

56

Agricultural school education

Of a total of 171,584 young people attending school in the school year 1981 / 8 2 , 74,397 (43.4 per cent) had received scholarships. Of those, 18,396 (24.7 per cent) had full scholarships, 14,160 (19.1 per cent) had partial scholarships (three-quarters of the full amount), 21,332 (28.6 per cent) had partial scholarships representing half of the full amount, and 20,599 (27.7 per cent) partial scholarships representing a third of the full amount. T h e scholarship system in various types of agricultural schools is s h o w n in Table 33. Scholarships are granted mainly to students in agricultural boarding schools, of which there were 310 in the school year 1981/82, with a total of 54,809 places for boarders: 232 secondary technical agricultural boarding schools (52,560 places), three secondary agricultural boarding-schools (134 places), t w o post-secondary agricultural boarding-schools (120 places), and thirty-three basic agricultural boarding-schools (1,995 places). As compared with the school year 1980/81, the number of boarding-schools has decreased by eight and the number of places by 4,372 because of the need for repairs and maintenance. T A B L E 32. Acreage of school farms in 1981 Acreage of farms in hectares

N u m b e r of

Percentage of the total

farms

number of farms

Under 100 101-150 151-200 201-250 251-300 301^100 401-500 501-600 Over 600

37 18 16 12 16 18 7 6 4

TOTAL

134

27.6 13.4 12.0 9.0 12.0 13.4 5.2 4.5 2.9 100.0

T A B L E 33. Scholarships granted by agricultural schools in the school year 1981/82 Number of Stildenis Type of school

receiving scholarships

Secondary technical agricultural schools Post-secondary agricultural schools Secondary agricultural schools (non-technical) Basic agricultural schools TOTAL

Percentage of scholarship holders

39 722 1 850

46.5 30.2

3 746

41.8

29 079 74 397

41.8 43.4

57

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

Agricultural education at the third level Distribution, organization and lines ofstudy Poland has nine agricultural academic schools, k n o w n since 1972 as agricultural universities. All such universities are supervised by the Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technology. In 1981, day studies in agricultural universities accounted for 39,546 students, and studies for the employed 16,408. (See Fig. 10.) In 1980, day students constituted 16.8 per cent of the total number of those studying in schools run by the Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technology, and 13.9 per cent of the total number of university students in the country. Of those attending university schools for the employed, 14.1 per cent were studying in schools run by the Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technology and represented 13.2 per cent of all students in the country. 80-

70-

60-

50-

40-

30-

-=•

t=

20-

1 0 -

1 1970

1 71

1 72

1 73

1 74

1 75

1

1

76

77

1 78

1 79

1 80

1 81

Years — _

Total •• Day studies Correspondence studies University external studies

F I G . 10. Students of agricultural universities in the years 1970-1981.

58

Agricultural school education

The 1970s were characterized by a n u m b e r of changes in the organization of the agricultural academic school system, which affected both quantity and quality. In particular, the establishment of t w o n e w agricultural academic schools should be noted, namely the University of Technology and Agriculture in Bydgoszcz, which w a s formed by a fusion of the Bydgoszcz branch of the Agricultural University in Poznan and the Evening School of Engineering, and the High School of Agriculture and Pedagogies in Siedlce, which evolved from the Pedagogical Academic School. The n u m b e r of faculties w a s also increased from thirty-seven in 1970 tofifty-fivein 1980. In the early 1970s, organizational changes resulted in making the institute (replacing the former department) a fundamental scientific and didactic university unit. In the years 1981-82 most of the former departments were restored, or n e w ones founded, and only a few of the institutes formed in the 1970s have survived. Agricultural universities follow the uniform pattern offive-yearstudies, leading to a master's degree, except for faculties of veterinary medicine, where the duration of studies isfiveand a half years. Only t w o branches, agriculture and zootechnics, are represented in all nine agricultural universities, the other twenty-three branches being less evenly distributed. They are as follows: gardening, forestry, veterinary medicine, food technology, nutrition and rural h o m e economics, preservation of waters and inland fishing, seafishingand technology of marine food, land reclamation, geodesy of farming appliances, mechanization of agriculture, landscaping, economics of farm turnover and production, economics of agriculture, w o o d technology, building, mechanics, telecommunications, electrotechnics, chemistry, pedagogics of w o r k for culture and education, biology and mathematics. Each branch of study has its separate curriculum, and some offer a further differentiation into specialities. Curriculum variations within one branch begin in the first, second or third year. Depending o n his individual interests, the student can broaden knowledge of his chosen field through optional subjects. During thefirstyears of study, fundamental subjects are taught, such as botany, zoology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, political economy, etc., which constitute the basis for specialized subjects (e.g. plant physiology, microbiology, biochemistry) and for practical subjects taught subsequently. Apprenticeship periods of thirty to sixty weeks, which are an integral part of studies, give the student an opportunity to broaden his professional knowledge, develop an ability to relate theory to application in actual economic activity, and to become familiar with the environment and conditions of w o r k in his chosen field. T h e curricula and study plans currently applied help to provide graduates with a broad range of knowledge based o n the solid foundations constituted by general subjects. Studies culminate in a master's degree examination. Those w h o are unwilling or unable to prepare a master's thesis can take theirfinale x a m after the fourth year of study and receive the title of engineer. University school enrolment Entrance to thefirstyear of day studies in an agricultural academic school is dependent o n the applicant's possession of the matriculation certificate. Prize-winners in the previous year's secondary-school subject competitions at national level are admitted without any examination, other candidates are chosen o n the basis of a qualifying procedure using a points system. T h e basic criterion is the results of an entrance examination consisting of a written paper and of an oral examination or tests. The written exams are anonymous. Candidates w h o s e m e a n marks (in subjects belonging to their future branch of study) are at least 4.1 out of 5 are admitted irrespective of other qualifying criteria applied.

59

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

Candidates from workers' or farmers' families are givenfiveadditional points in the course of the qualifying procedure, providing that they have never studied in any academic school and that their parents' income does not exceed 90,000 zlotys per year. If documentary evidence is supplied that the candidate worked continuously for a state institution for two years, he is entitled to three m o r e points if he w a s engaged in manual work, and t w o points if his w o r k w a s not manual. In calculating the number of additional points, marks in particular examination subjects are considered and an additional point is given for each subject within the candidate's future branch of study which is marked at least as 'good' o n his matriculation certificate. T h e reason for the additional preferential points allotted to those from workers' or farmers' families is to give them an equal chance w h e n competing with students from family backgrounds m o r e conducive to intellectual development. Apart from the subjects determined by the future profession, which vary from one department to another, all candidates must sit for examinations in one of four m o d e r n languages: Russian, English, French or G e r m a n . In 1981, day studies in agricultural universities were attended by 8,160 first-year students, and studies for the employed enrolled 2,741 n e w students. Organization of studies Teaching is conducted according to plans and general outlines of curricula, which are accepted by the rector o n the proposal of the dean, after consultation with the faculty board. Detailed curricula are prepared by each department, professor's department and institute, which carry out teaching in different branches of study. Students m a y offer opinions and observations concerning the curricula through their official self-governing body. T h e academic year begins no later than 1 October, and ends n o earlier than 30 September of the next calendar year. T h e academic year comprises: A period of classes defined by the plan of studies, divided into two semesters, winter and summer. Three examination sessions outside normal classes, comprising a total period of not less than six weeks. A period of practical w o r k (apprenticeship) of a duration defined in the plan of studies. Winter, spring and s u m m e r holidays, which comprise a period of not less than six weeks, including four weeks of continuous s u m m e r vacation. For particularly gifted students, the schools try to provide special tutorship based o n individual choice of methods, subject-matter and forms of instruction. Studies conforming to individual plans and curricula are aimed at broadening the range of knowledge within thefieldof the student's specialization, or at altering the branch of study (taking two or m o r e specializations at once, within one or twofieldsof study) and enabling the student to participate in scientific and research work. Studies conducted according to individual plans or curricula can lead to a reduction in the duration of study. The decision concerning acceptance is taken by the dean, while detailed conditions of study according to individual plans and curricula are determined by the rector. Outstanding students m a y also apply for admission to another academic school so as to undertake simultaneous studies. Agricultural academic education for the employed Instruction for the employed in agricultural universities includes the following systems: evening studies, correspondence studies, university external studies, intramural and correspondence studies.

60

Agricultural school education

Evening studies are for those w h o are employed in the t o w n in which the school is located, or within commuting distance. Classes are held in the evenings and afternoons, usually four times a w e e k for three or four hours. By w a y of example, evening studies are conducted by the A c a d e m y of Technology and Agriculture in Bydgoszcz, in the following branches: building, electronics, electrotechnics, mechanics and chemistry. Correspondence studies are for those w h o live in localities not within commuting distance from the school. Didactic w o r k in these schools is organized on the basis of twoor three-day meetings scheduled for a specific date. During these meetings, students attend lectures and other classes in which only s o m e of the topics are discussed. They also receive methodological guidance in self-education using manuals and printed collections of lectures. Laboratory classes are also held during meetings. Correspondence agricultural studies lead to either a master's or an engineer's degree. Engineer's studies last four years; those w h o decide (during the seventh semester) to work for a master's degree immediately after the engineer level do not take the engineer's examination. Their studies last for a further year and a half; where there is a significant break between completion of the engineer's course and the beginning of the master's degree course, a further t w o years of study is required. Agricultural universities also conduct correspondence courses leading to a master's degree. University external studies are conducted by the Faculty of E c o n o m y and Agriculture of the University of Agriculture in W a r s a w . They are based on self-education within a pattern determined by the plan and curriculum using manuals and printed collections of lectures. Students are not obliged to attend classes, although they m a y do so if they wish and m a y also use the library and other school facilities. They must pass the required examinations, write a thesis and take the final examination. A n extension student should obtain thefinalcertificate (master's degree) not later than three years after entering the school. Intramural-correspondence studies have been in existence since the academic year 1974/75. They are designed for those w h o have distinguished themselves in their professional work, havefinishedsecondary technical school (agricultural or related) and have professional experience of at least five years duration. Candidates are admitted without any entrance examination and are enrolled by provincial qualifying boards attached to provincial administration centres. Intramural-correspondence studies comprise the following branches: economics and technology of agricultural production, economics of agricultural turnover and production, milk production and economics, and industrial poultry breeding. T h e period of study is four years and leads to the title of master engineer. Students w h o do not wish to obtain a master's degree can terminate their studies after six semesters and sit for an engineer's degree examination. Intramural-correspondence studies are m o r e intensive than correspondence courses involving four years for a master's degree and a total of 1,500 hours of instruction, as against only 1,310 hours for a correspondence school master's degree. Similarly, the intramural-correspondence studies for an engineer's degree include 1,200 hours of instruction as against 1,010 hours for a correspondence school engineer's degree. T h e m o r e intensive nature of intramural-correspondence studies is due to the fact that, apart from twenty-eight days of leave for didactic meetings, students get an additional six week's leave to attend intramural classes in their school. During these classes, the main emphasis is on exercises and seminars. Students can use laboratories, libraries, take part in consultations, etc. For those studying in higher education schools for the employed, consulting centres are organized. These are local stations, situated in places distant from academic centres, which help organize assistance for correspondence school students during theirfirstt w o

61

Elements of the structure and terminology of agricultural education in Poland

years of study. Examinations are taken in the parent academic school as is the final seminar. Consulting centres are organized as institutions attached to larger industrial plants, t o w n councils, and those higher education schools in which a given line of study is not represented. Postgraduate studies T h e purpose of postgraduate instruction in agricultural universities is: T o enable working academic school graduates to acquire n e w qualifications, i.e. skills and knowledge outside the scope of their former studies. T o bring their knowledge u p to date (after five to ten years of employment). T o give them a chance to specialize in a narrowerfieldthan that determined by former studies. Postgraduate studies are open to employees chosen by their firms; applicants must have had an academic education and at least t w o years' professional experience. The studies are financed out of contributions m a d e by the firms that send their employees. They m a y be conducted as day, evening or correspondence studies. Postgraduate students are entitled to paid leave of absence from work, consisting of: twenty-eight working days for correspondence studies,fifty-sixworking days for day studies, andfivehours a w e e k for evening studies. In addition, students engaged in any kind of postgraduate studies are entitled to six days of instruction leave. Postgraduate studies in agricultural academies last from two to four semesters (from 200 to 400 hours). M o s t of them comprise t w o or three semesters (200 to 300 hours). The n u m b e r of students' meetings for postgraduate correspondence studies varies according to the period of study and the duration of the meeting (which m a y last from three to twelve days) and these, in turn, are dependent o n the type of studies involved and o n the accommodation facilities of the school. During meetings, classes are held in the school, in a scientific station or in an out-oft o w n enterprise. T h e most frequent forms of instruction are lectures, seminars, discussions or projects. Out-of-town classes are usually organized in model farms, productive, specialist and experimental. Lectures are given by specialists from the school, from scientific institutes and from industrial plants. Apart from attending various classes in the school, students perform control tasks, m a k e projects and prepare speeches. At the end of their studies they are required to prepare afinaldissertation. The number of postgraduate courses in agricultural academic schools rose from twenty-seven in 1970 to forty-six in 1978. After 1978 there w a s a decline, to twelve in 1979 and to fourteen in 1980. A m o n g the reasons for this decline were.- a drastic deterioration of working conditions in agricultural academic schools because of a substantial increase in the number of day and correspondance school students from 1975 onwards; reducedfinancialencouragement to upgrade professional qualifications and a vagueness of the regulations concerning the functioning of these studies and their financing. Doctoral-degree studies Doctoral-degree studies m a y take the form of either intramural or correspondence courses. Intramural studies were organized in 1968, and correspondence studies in 1971. T h e purpose of such studies is to instruct young researchers in those disciplines where they are most needed so as to meet the needs of the academic school system, scientific and research stations, and the scientific and technological elements of the relevant ministerial departments. In recent years, about twenty doctoral-degree courses have been offered in

62

Agricultural school education

agricultural academic schools, alternating between intramural and correspondence instruction. In the years 1969-78 intramural studies were followed b y 491 people, and correspondence studies by 605. T h e number of candidates is usually equal to needs or slightly higher, a fact which m a k e s selection difficult and ultimately has an adverse effect on the efficiency of studies. Intramural studies last three years. Candidates must possess a master's degree and be aged less than 35. They are required to have t w o years of experience of actual professional w o r k in line with the degree studies they are to follow, although particularly gifted students w h o havefinishedan academic school with distinction m a y be admitted without having had any professional experience. T h e number of those w h o complete their studies within the normal time limit is very low. Doctoral-degree studies for the employed have been largely dominated by e m ployees of production enterprises and state administration units. M a n y of them are managers, managing directors, employees of head offices, officers of trade federations, etc., w h o begin their studies in order to upgrade their professional qualifications rather than out of a genuine interest in science. A very small n u m b e r (about 15 per cent) taking u p the studies for the employed have previously s h o w n a definite interest in research or scientific w o r k (publications, patents). Thus the efficiency of instruction by correspondence for a doctoral degree is very low. Only 12 per cent of students submitted a doctoral dissertation within the prescribed period, and only 5.5 per cent completed their studies. T h e low level of efficiency of instruction in intramural and correspondence>doctor's degree studies has caused agricultural academic schools to terminate or severely reduce enrolment for those studies in recent years. Scientific and didactic staff in agricultural academic schools By the end of 1981, agricultural academies had 5,996 academic teachers, including 1,004 professors and assistant professors, 4,276 tutors and assistants, 405 senior lecturers and lecturers and 101 other teachers (Table 34). This staff provided instruction for 60,953 students. Distribution of scientific and didactic staff can be considered adequate if statistics for all agricultural academic schools are taken into account. H o w e v e r , in considering separate academic schools, a marked disproportion m a y be observed between the total number of academic teachers and the number of independent scientific workers (professors and assistant professors). The small n u m b e r of the latter in some academic schools (Table 35) means that tutors and assistants are very largely responsible for the students' instruction, and this has definite consequences as regards their scientific development. T h e greatest shortage of professors and assistant professors is felt in the technological disciplines of agricultural specializations, in thefieldof mathematics and physics applications, in farming appliances, geodesy and drainage, in technological disciplines and mechanization of agriculture, in food technology and in the socio-political sciences. In 1980 the ratio between day students and academic teachers w a s 7:2. For professors and assistant professors the ratio was 40:6 and for tutors and assistants 12:5. A cademic school graduates and their employment During thefirstten years of the Polish People's Republic, agricultural academic schools educated about 15,000 people, which is more than twice as m a n y as had graduated from agricultural and veterinary faculties in the years 1918-39. The total n u m b e r of certificates issued by agricultural departments of academic schools in 1945-70 w a s about 58,000, of

63

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