Stress Management in Law Enforcement. Second Edition

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Stress Management in Law Enforcement Second Edition

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Stress Management in Law Enforcement Second Edition

Edited by

Leonard Territo Saint Leo University

and

James D. Sewell Florida Department of Law Enforcement (Retired)

Carolina Academic Press Durham, North Carolina

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Copyright © 1999, 2007 Leonard Territo and James D. Sewell All Rights Reserved

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Stress management in law enforcement / [edited] by Leonard Territo, James D. Sewell. -2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 10: 1-59460-330-8 ISBN 13: 978-1-59460-330-3 (alk. paper) 1. Police--Job stress. 2. Police--Mental health services. 3. Stress management. I. Territo, Leonard. II. Sewell, James D., 1950- III. Title. HV7936.J63S77 2007 363.201'9--dc22 2007023623

Carolina Academic Press 700 Kent Street Durham, North Carolina 27701 Telephone (919) 489-7486 Fax (919) 493-5668 www.cap-press.com

Printed in the United States of America

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Dedication To Elena and our children Lorraine, Kseniya, Ilia, and grandchildren Matthew and Branden. LT To Julie, my sister and best friend, who has always been there to get me through the stressful times. JDS

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Contents About the Editors Preface Acknowledgments Part One 1

2

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What Is Stress All About?

Lennart Levi (1967) “Stress As a Cause of Disease” in L. Levi, Stress: Sources. Management and Prevention. New York: Liveright Publishing Co.

7

Laurence Miller (2007) “Stress, Traumatic Stress, and Posttraumatic Stress Syndromes.” (This article was written specifically for this book.)

15

Part Two What Does Stress Mean for Cops? 3

4

5

6

3

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Donald C. Sheehan and Vincent B. Van Hasselt (2003) “Identifying Law Enforcement Stress Reactions Early,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 72 (9) 12–17.

45

Dennis Lindsey and Sean Kelly (2004) “Issues in Small Town Policing: Understanding Stress,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 73 (7) 1–7.

55

Peter Finn (2000) “On-the-Job Stress in Policing: Reducing It, Preventing It,” National Institute of Justice Journal, January 18–24.

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Wallace Graves (1996) “Police Cynicism: Causes and Cures,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 65 (6) 16–20.

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Part Three Are There Ways We Can Tell It Is There? 7

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Rebecca M. Pasillas, Victoria M. Follette and Suzanne E. Perumean-Chaney (2006) “Occupational Stress and Psychological Functioning in Law Enforcement Officers,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 21 (1) 41–53.

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John M. Violanti and Fred Aron (1994) “Ranking Police Stressors,” Psychological Reports 75, 824–826.

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Homer C. Hawkins (2001) “Police Officer Burnout: A Partial Replication of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory,” Police Quarterly 4 (3) 343–360.

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10 Meredith B. Moran (2007) “Stress and the Female Officer.” (This article was written specifically for this book.)

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11 Jacquelyn Hodges Bradway (2007) “Gender Stress: Differences in Critical Life Events among Law Enforcement Officers.” (This article was written specifically for this book.)

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Part Four What Are Some of the Bad Effects of Stress on Cops?

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12 Jim Adams and James Walsh (2006) “Cops under Pressure: Driven to Drink,” Star Tribune, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, 6/18/06.

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13 John M. Violanti (1999) “Alcohol Abuse in Policing: Prevention Strategies,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 68 (1) 16–18.

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14 Patricia L. Obst, Jeremy D. Davey and Mary C. Sheehan (2001) “Does Joining the Police Service Drive You to Drink? A Longitudinal Study of the Drinking Habits of Police Recruits,” Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy 8 (4) 347–357.

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15 Chad L. Cross and Larry Ashley (2004) “Police Trauma and Addiction: Coping with the Dangers of the Job,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 73 (10) 24–32.

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16 Melanie Hamilton (2003) “Special Report on Police Suicide: Cop Killer,” Police 27 (5) 18–21.

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17 Audrey L. Honig and Elizabeth K. White (2000) “By Their Own Hand: Suicide among Law Enforcement Personnel,” The Police Chief LXVII (10) 156, 159 and 160.

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Part Five

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How Does Stress Impact the Cop’s Family Life?

18 Lonald D. Lott (1995) “Deadly Secrets: Violence in the Police Family,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 65 (11) 12–16.

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19 Grace Kannady (1993) “Developing Stress-Resistant Police Families,” The Police Chief 60 (8) 92–95.

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20 Sam Torres, David L. Maggard Jr., and Christine Torres (2003) “Preparing Families for the Hazards of Police Work,” The Police Chief LXX (10) 108–114.

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21 Sandy Prabhu and Nancy Turner (2000) “Rising to the Challenge: Preventing Police Officer Domestic Violence,” The Police Chief LXVII (11) 43, 45, 47, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55.

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Part Six

How Does the Worst of the Worst Affect Cops?

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22 James D. Sewell (1994) “The Stress of Homicide Investigations,” Death Studies 18 (6) 565–582.

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23 Barbara Plant (2001) “Psychological Trauma in the Police Service,” International Journal of Police Science and Management 3 (4) 327–349.

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24 Ellen K. Marshall (2006) “Cumulative Career Traumatic Stress (CCTS): A Pilot Study of Traumatic Stress in Law Enforcement,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 21 (1) 62–71.

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Part Seven What Are the Tools That a Cop Can Use to Better Handle Stress?

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25 Arthur W. Kureczka (1996) “Critical Incident Stress in Law Enforcement,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 65 (3) 10–16.

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26 James D. Sewell (2003) “Handling the Stress of the Electronic World,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 72 (8) 11–16.

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27 Joseph A. Harpold and Samuel L. Feemster (2002) “Negative Influences of Police Stress,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 71 (9) 1–7.

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28 Mark H. Anshel (2000) “A Conceptual Model and Implications for Coping with Stressful Events in Police Work,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 27 (3) 375– 400.

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Part Eight

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What Support Is Available for Cops?

29 Laurence Miller (2000) “Law Enforcement Traumatic Stress: Clinical Syndromes and Intervention Strategies,” Trauma Response 6 (1) 15–20.

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30 George S. Everly, Jr. (2000) “Crisis Management Briefings (CMB): Large Group Crisis Intervention in Response to Terrorism, Disasters, and Violence,” International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 2 (1) 53–57.

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31 Atle Dyregrov (1998) “Psychological Debriefing: An Effective Method?,” Traumatology 4 (2) 1–10.

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32 Donald C. Sheehan, George S. Everly, Jr., and Alan Langlieb (2004) “Current Best Practices: Coping with Major Critical Incidents,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 73 (9) 1–13.

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Part Nine How Can the Bosses Better Help Their Cops?

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33 Peter Finn (1997) “Reducing Stress: An Organization-Centered Approach,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 66 (8) 20–26.

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34 James D. Sewell (2006) “Let’s Drive ’Em Crazy: How Managers Contribute to Employee Stress.” (A version of this article was published in the July 2006 issue of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.)

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35 Donald C. Sheehan (1999) “Stress Management in the Federal Bureau of Investigation: Principles for Program Development,” International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 1, 39– 42.

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36 Laurence Miller (2003) “Police Personalities: Understanding and Managing the Problem Officer,” The Police Chief LXX (5) 53– 60.

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37 Stephen R. Band and Donald C. Sheehan (1999) “Managing Undercover Stress: The Supervisor’s Role,” The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 68 (2) 1–32.

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38 James D. Sewell (2002) “Managing the Stress of Organizational Change,” The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 71 (3) 14–20.

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Index

507

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About the Editors Dr. Leonard Territo is presently a Distinguished Visiting Professor at Saint Leo University, Saint Leo, Florida, and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Criminology at the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. He was previously the Chief deputy (undersheriff) of the Leon County Sheriff ’s Office in Tallahassee, Florida. He also served for almost nine years with the Tampa, Florida, Police Department as a patrol officer, motorcycle officer, and homicide detective. He is a former chairperson of the Department of Police Administration and Director of the Florida Institute for Law Enforcement at St. Petersburg Junior College, St. Petersburg, Florida. In addition to writing nearly fifty articles, book chapters, and technical reports, he has authored or coauthored nine books, including Police Administration, which is in its seventh edition; Criminal Investigation, which is in its tenth edition; Crime and Justice in America, which is in its sixth edition; Police Civil Liability; College Crime Prevention and Personal Safety Awareness; Stress and Police Personnel; The Police Personnel Selection Process; and Hospital and College Security Liability. His books have been used in more than a thousand colleges and universities in all 50 states, and his writings have been used and referenced by both academic and police departments in 14 countries, including Australia, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Czechoslovakia, England, France, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and Spain. His teaching awards include being selected from among 200 criminal justice educators from the state of Florida as the Outstanding Criminal Justice Educator of the Year and Outstanding Teacher of the Year by the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the University of South Florida. He has been given awards by both the Florida Police Chiefs Association and the Tampa Police Academy for his years of teaching and meritorious service, was given an award for outstanding scholarly publications by Saint Leo University, Saint Leo, Florida, and has been selected for inclusion in Who’s Who in American Law Enforcement. He has also been qualified as a Police Procedures Expert in both state and federal courts in the following states: Alaska; Arizona; District xiii

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of Columbia; Florida; Georgia; Illinois; Iowa; Kansas; Kentucky; Louisiana; Michigan; New Jersey; Ohio; Oregon; Pennsylvania; Tennessee; Virginia; Washington; and Wisconsin. Dr. James D. Sewell retired from the Florida Department of Law Enforcement in February 2005. During his tenure with FDLE, he held a variety of positions, including Assistant Commissioner; Deputy Commissioner; Regional Director of FDLE’s Tampa Bay Regional Operations Center; Director of the Division of Criminal Justice Information Systems; and Director of the Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute. He also served as Chief of Police for the City of Gulfport, Florida, for nearly five years. Additionally, he held positions with the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles and The Florida State University Department of Public Safety, where he began his law enforcement career in 1973. Dr. Sewell received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D in Criminology from The Florida State University. He has published two textbooks and over fifty journal articles and book chapters, principally on law enforcement management and law enforcement stress. He holds Diplomate status within the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress and is a Board Certified Expert in Traumatic Stress and in Stress Management by that body. Dr. Sewell is a graduate of the Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute Chief Executive Seminar (Eighth Class) and F.B.I. National Academy (114th Session) and is a Life Member of both the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Florida Police Chiefs Association.

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Preface This book has been designed for four different audiences: first, academicians who have a scholarly interest in police stress and who may also teach the subject; second, police administrators who must deal with the negative effects of stress on their officers on a daily basis; third, police officers who work on the streets and are regularly exposed to violence, cruelty, and aggression; and, finally, students of law enforcement looking for a compilation of information and research relating to the impact of stress on law enforcement officers. Each of the volume’s sections includes a number of recent articles highlighting a particular arena of the issue of police stress, as well as a list of critical terms used and a reference list for further reading and research. Several discussion questions follow each individual article. This book has been divided into the following nine sections. Part One — What Is Stress All About? provides the reader with an orientation and introduction to the topic of stress and some of its principal psychological, physiological, and social consequences. It acquaints the reader with some basic concepts and terminology relating to stress. Part Two— What Does Stress Mean for Cops? examines some of the basic issues of stress as it affects law enforcement officers, looking at symptoms and causes throughout the profession, as well as focusing on some of the unique effects caused by the location and size of the police agency. Part Three— Are There Ways We Can Tell It Is There? presents a number of studies which have attempted to analyze and quantify police stress and its impact on law enforcement officers. Part Four—What Are the Bad Effects of Stress on Cops? discusses two of the most destructive manifestations of stress in police work: alcohol abuse and suicide. The selected articles will assist the reader in understanding why cops are driven to drink and why police suicides occur. Part Five — How Does Stress Impact the Cop’s Family? examines the toll exacted from spouses, children and relatives of police personnel as a result of the stressful aspects of police work. The alarmingly high rate of marital discord, which too often includes violence in the police family and culminates in xv

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divorce, is only one of the most visible consequences of job-related stress. Other effects on the police family include chronic family bickering and strife; the disruption of family-centered activities due to irregular work schedules; and school and adjustment problems among the children of law enforcement officer. Part Six—How Does the Worst of the Worst Affect Cops? focuses on those features of police work that often expose officers to trauma as a result of critical incidents in which people are violently killed or injured. This regular and consistent contact with crisis may — and often does — result in cumulative signs of traumatization developed throughout an officer’s career, as well as manifestations of post-traumatic stress following specific critical incidents. Part Seven — What Are the Tools That a Cop Can Use to Better Handle Stress? looks at the methods by which individual officers may better handle the stress of their law enforcement world. Part Eight — What Support Is Available for Cops? examines some of the techniques and programs determined to be useful in providing effective police psychological services and support to officers under stress. Part Nine —How Can the Bosses Better Assist Their Cops? reflects on the role of the organization and agency managers in identifying, confronting, and reducing stress among an agency’s law enforcement personnel.

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Acknowledgments We wish to express our thanks and indebtedness to the many distinguished scholars for allowing us to use the results of their hard earned labors. Without their dedicated efforts this book would have never come to fruition. We also wish to thank the many publishers who allowed us to use the materials from their books and journals. However, we wish to give special thanks to three individuals who wrote articles specifically for this book. These are: Dr. Laurence Miller, a practicing police psychologist whose agencies include the West Palm Beach Florida Police Department; Meredith B. Moran of the Southeastern Public Safety Institute, St. Petersburg College, St. Petersburg, Florida; and Jackie Hodges Bradway of the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. We would also like to thank Bret Mervis, doctoral candidate in the Department of Criminology at the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, for his extensive research in identifying and obtaining many copies of the articles used in this book. Typing and other numerous clerical services were also provided by our hardworking secretary Sharon Ostermann, whose constructive comments and long hours of work are very much appreciated. We wish to thank our manuscript editor Kasia Krzysztoforska for her patience and thoroughness. We also wish to thank our publisher, Keith R. Sipe, for sharing our conviction that this book will make a significant contribution to the law enforcement profession. LT JDS

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