SPANISH Strategy & Tips to Boost Your Score

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SPANISH Language



Strategy & Tips to Boost Your Score

Format of the Exam Section


Section I Multiple Choice Part A: Listening Short dialogues & narratives Long dialogues & narratives Part B: Reading Reading comprehension Section II Free Response Part A: Writing Interpersonal writing Presentational writing Part B: Speaking Interpersonal speaking (simulated conversation) Presentational speaking (integrated skills)

Introduction No. of Questions 70 34


1 prompt; 10 minutes 1 prompt; 55 minutes 5–6 response prompts; 20 seconds to respond to each 1 prompt; 2 minutes to respond

% of Score


50% 20%

Approx. 80 min. 35 min.


45 min.

50% 10%

Approx. 85 min. Approx. 65 min.

• This guide contains effective strategies for each section of the exam, helpful vocabulary, checklists, and diagrams to prepare you for success • As you prepare, think about how the structure of the exam builds – you will go from listening to authentic Spanish speakers for approximately 35 minutes, to reading the language for approximately 45 minutes, to finally both speaking and writing in formal and informal modes • Actively thinking and functioning exclusively in Spanish for 80 minutes or so will help you to prepare for the second part of the exam

Special Note for Free-Response Sections

The grading rubrics are designed to weigh three elements: task completion, topic development, and language use (although interpersonal writing combines task completion and topic development); pay special attention to strategies in this guide to help you understand what is expected

Task Completion

20% 10%

• Have you responded to the prompt fully and included all that is requested? • Have you addressed each bullet in the interpersonal tasks? • Have you referred to and integrated all sources in the presentational sections?

Approx. 20 min.

Topic Development

• Have you responded fully and with relevance? • Is your communication organized, and does it flow smoothly (effective transitions)? • In the presentational tasks: Is the information accurate? Have you understood the sources? Have you synthesized the information rather than simply summarizing?


Language Use

• Have you shown excellent control of elementary structures (knowing that elementary errors weigh more heavily)? • Have you used a variety of tenses, moods, and structures (as appropriate to the task)? • Is your vocabulary rich, precise, and varied, showing ease of expression? • Have you displayed a command of language conventions: correct paragraphing, sentence structure, spelling, and punctuation? • Is the register (formal vs. informal) highly appropriate? • In speaking: Have you used excellent pronunciation and a high level of fluency without gaps?

Acciones y Actitudes Imprescindibles This summary of attitudes and actions will help you to be successful on the exam; it is printed in Spanish because you should be thinking in Spanish; read it often and evaluate yourself: Am I following these guidelines about my attitude and actions toward preparing for the AP Spanish Language Exam?

Acciones imprescindibles

Actitudes imprescindibles

• Comunicarse diariamente en español…Buscar oportunidades para usar la lengua dentro y fuera de la escuela • Acostumbrarse a leer una variedad de textos para adquirir un vocabulario más rico y diverso • Leer y escuchar una variedad de textos auténticos/originales en español para interpretar la lengua natural y común • Comparar y contrastar elementos de fuentes escritas y auditivas • Sintetizar e integrar las fuentes escritas y auditivas en vez de resumirlas para desarrollar presentaciones orales y escritas • Establecer la costumbre de referir frecuentemente a esta publicación y otros recursos para estar bien preparado/a para el examen en mayo • Prestar más atención al desarrollo de composiciones con tesis, dos o tres párrafos de desarrollo y una conclusión con ideas/ opiniones personales • Aprovecharse de los recursos útiles ofrecidos por la red • Escuchar y leer regularmente las noticias en español • Aprender a interpretar y aplicar las rúbricas del College Board • Evitar usar los anglicanismos y errores comunes entre los angloparlantes

• La dedicación necesaria para perfeccionar su gramática, aprender de los errores pasados y evitarlos • El deseo de mejorar siempre… aunque lo hagan muy bien…siempre existe la posibilidad de aprender • Una actitud positiva hacia la participación oral…Sí, yo puedo hacerlo • La fe en sus habilidades para comunicarse en español: escuchar, hablar, leer y escribir • La dedicación de pronunciar como un hispanohablante requiere mucha práctica y perseverancia • Una mente abierta y dispuesta para comprender las culturas hispanohablantes del mundo: sus costumbres, sus historias, sus habitantes, sus inquietudes, sus problemas, sus gobiernos, etc. • La decisión de seguir estas sugerencias y recomendaciones • La actitud de “tocar el cielo” y de “soñar a lo grande”

Access AP Spanish Language scoring guidelines, print them, and refer to them often as you prepare for each free-response section; note the descriptions of the task completion, topic development, and language use descriptors in each of the rubrics; they are available in PDF format at; the PDF file contains sample exam questions, juried scores, and scoring guidelines for previous exams

Section I – Multiple Choice Part A1: Listening – Short Dialogues & Narratives Short dialogues and narratives are spoken on a recording, followed by multiple-choice questions; the questions are spoken on the recording but not printed in the test booklet; the answer choices are printed in the booklet


• Since you have only the answer choices in front of you, not the questions, always read over the options before you listen to know what information you will need • The questions can be tricky – words used in the recording may lead you to the wrong choice; do not select an answer choice just because you heard a particular word; use reasoning and logic • Do your best to follow along; do not fall behind when answering the questions after the dialogues • Don’t worry about taking notes; just listen and try to remember the context of the dialogues • Use process of elimination to rule out wrong answers

Part A2: Listening – Long Dialogues & Narratives

Long dialogues and narratives are spoken on a recording; the questions and answers are both printed in the booklet; the questions are not spoken

REMEMBER: You will be required to raise the bar, challenge yourself, and use a higher level of Spanish on the exam; practice speaking in a variety of contexts, sometimes digitally recording your voice and self-evaluating for progress; in addition, as you prepare for the exam, you are expected to communicate in Spanish routinely; take risks with the language – try to use new structures, verb forms, and vocabulary to build skills Interpretive Challenges throughout the Exam • Variety of contexts and vocabularies • Variety of regional accents and registers (in listening sections) • Background noise and natural atmosphere (in some listening sections)


• These dialogues are longer; try not to lose focus • You will have two minutes to read the questions and answer choices prior to hearing the recording; use the full two minutes to read the questions and note clues such as setting and other general information • Take notes while listening to the dialogues/narratives • You may complete the multiple-choice questions as you go or take notes and answer later; as you practice for the exam, figure out which method works best for you • Do not linger on previous phrases or words you heard and did not understand; focus on the main ideas


Register References Chart

Section I – Multiple Choice (continued)

Appropriate Subject

Tú With close friends and family members

Usted More formal situations, business situations, interoffice correspondence


Hola amigo/a Querido/a Queridísimo/a Mi querido/a

Muy Señor mío Muy Señora mía Estimado Señor Estimada Señora Estimado Señor Pérez Estimada Señora González

Closings/Message Endings NOTE: There are different degrees of being familiar or formal; consider each situation and its context

Un afectuoso saludo Un cordial saludo Mis recuerdos a tu familia Afectuosamente Un beso Besos Un fuerte abrazo Abrazos Con todo mi cariño Con todo mi afecto Tu amigo/a

Le saluda atentamente Atentamente Un cordial saludo Cordialmente Mis recuerdos a su familia

Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns

tu, tus tuyo, tuya, tuyos, tuyas

su, sus suyo, suya, suyos, suyas

Direct & Indirect Object Pronouns


lo, la le

Part B: Reading Comprehension

Journalistic and/or literary passages followed by multiple-choice questions; usually 4–6 passages

Strategies for Reading Comprehension

• If a literary passage, the text is an excerpt; focus on the segment provided and do not worry about the rest • You may need to “insert” an additional sentence where it could be placed in the text; this is a statement that you will place at position A, B, C, or D (letters are placed in various spots in the text and you decide if the statement makes sense at position A, B, C, or D; the challenge is having time to go back and reread the text for correct placement) • Pace yourself so that you can get through all the selections • Note any visual components provided (e.g., maps, graphics, charts) • Underline or circle what seems most important to help focus on what you may need later; there is not enough time to completely reread every selection; read for topic and structure • Concentrate on main points; identify who, what, where, when, why

TIP: There is no longer a penalty for guessing, so do your best to complete all questions TIP: For vocabulary building and general comprehension practice, regularly listen to and read a variety of authentic news resources; vary the themes to include government and politics, science, medicine, healthy living, economy, business, education, sports, shopping, entertainment, and so on; use a graphic organizer, similar to the one shown here, to help you keep a record that is diverse in themes and vocabulary

Fuentes Auténticas/Originales de Lectura y Comprensión Auditiva

NOTE: Decide the register for the person, tú or usted, with whom you are communicating, and stick to it – be consistent!

Fecha Publicación/ ¿Audio/ El título Lo que aprendí Vocabulario fuente Escrito? del tema nuevo

Part A2: Presentational Writing One prompt focusing on integrated skills (listening, reading, and writing) 55 minutes – 7 minutes to read the documents, 3 minutes to listen to audio sources, 5 minutes to plan your response, 40 minutes to write your formal essay (200 words or more) 3 fuentes, or sources (2 written, 1 oral)

TIP: Use word root and word family strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words; EX: el crecimiento (growth) is related to crecer (to grow, increase) [see Word-Building Table, p. 6, for examples to help you make these associations]

Strategies for Presentational Writing

• Read the prompt and underline key words EX: How are world governments investing money and developing regulations for the proper disposal of chemical waste to preserve the environment for future generations? • Include and properly cite all three sources; EX: La fuente escrita comenta…BBC mundo afirma… [see Higher-Order Thinking Verbs & Guide for Citing Sources, p. 3] • Use the 5 minutes provided to plan your essay as follows: − Introductory paragraph with your thesis statement, based on information obtained from all three sources − Three to four paragraphs, each with a main point to develop and support the thesis (use a graphic organizer, similar to the one below, to help; make sure to cite all three sources) − Concluding paragraph to reinforce the thesis and wrap up, but do not simply reiterate the thesis

Recommended Authentic Listening & Reading Sources Radio de las Naciones Unidas (United Nations Radio) – Univisión – BBC Mundo (Spanish news) – Informativos Telecinco from Spain; castellano Spanish pronunciation and vocabulary – http:// La Sexta Noticias (news about Spain and the world; castellano Spanish pronunciation and vocabulary) – Clarí (news from Argentina; the audio here will give you practice hearing the Argentine voseo and the pronunciation as well) – El universal (news broadcasted from Mexico) – Centro de Noticias ONU (United Nations News) – Radio Cervantes (from Spain) – TV broadcasts from Mexico – CNN (in Spanish) –

Sample Graphic Organizer for Presentational Writing Thesis statement – introductory paragraph (written based on information gathered from all three sources)

3–4 main points to support thesis (each should be a separate paragraph, led in by appropriate transitions)

Section II – Free Response Part A1: Interpersonal Writing

Main point or idea #1 supported by evidence (correctly cited and paraphrased) from: a) Fuente/Source 1 b) Fuente/Source 2 c) Fuente/Source 3

One prompt with a clearly stated task; context may be a friendly email message, letter, postcard, etc.; you will have 10 minutes to read the question and write your response (60 words or more) EX: Escribe un correo electrónico. Imagina que escribes al(a la) estudiante de intercambio que va a llegar en una semana para vivir en tu casa y asistir a las clases contigo. Quieres que esta persona se sienta cómodo(a) antes de llegar. Salúdalo(la) y • explícale el propósito del correo y cómo te sientes por su llegada • descríbele los preparativos que tu familia ha hecho para recibirlo(la) • dale información con respecto a su llegada al aeropuerto y dónde lo(la) buscarás • despídete

Strategies for Interpersonal Writing • • • • •

Main point or idea #2 supported by evidence (correctly cited and paraphrased) from: a) Fuente/Source 1 b) Fuente/Source 2 c) Fuente/Source 3

Main point or idea #3 supported by evidence (correctly cited and paraphrased) from: a) Fuente/Source 1 b) Fuente/Source 2 c) Fuente/Source 3

Use a transition to introduce your concluding paragraph (EX: A fin de cuentas, para concluir, etc.) Conclusion – closing paragraph

Carefully read the prompt and address each part of the question (each bullet) Include date, although not necessary if writing an email Always include an appropriate greeting and closing according to register Use correct punctuation throughout Tenses – use the bullet points in the question for direction

(this is a good place to add personal conclusions, predictions, evaluations, etc.)


TIP: Recognize, identify, interpret, infer, evaluate, and synthesize:

Part B1: Interpersonal Speaking You will have 30 seconds to examine a brief description/outline of the simulated conversation but no text of what the other person will say; a short message or prompt will be played; you will have another minute to reread the outline of the conversation and plan your responses; then the recording will begin, during which you will interact/ role-play with the recorded conversation; you will have 5–6 opportunities to speak and 20 seconds for each response

✔ Recognize important points – know how to identify what will help support your thesis ✔ Interpret key ideas from the sources that will help develop your presentation ✔ Some information is not explicitly stated, so you may have to infer the underlying meaning or draw conclusions on your own ✔ Evaluate the sources for the most important information to prove your thesis statement ✔ Do not simply summarize each source independently; synthesis is the key; show evidence of your understanding and interpretation of all three sources; do not simply copy, summarize, or restate what you read or heard without giving your own evaluation or synthesis of ideas ✔ Add your own evaluation and conclusions through predictions, solutions, and suggestions; this is how you go from simple understanding to thorough evaluation; it is appropriate to draw your own conclusions

Strategies for Interpersonal Speaking

• While studying the outline of the conversation, jot down ideas for your responses in the time provided • Respond as fully as possible, making sure to answer the question, comment, react, etc. • Speak for the full 20 seconds given for each prompt, but “finish” what you need to say • Address each part of the question while trying to keep a smooth flow to the conversation and using a tone of voice to further emphasize what you are saying − Does your voice show that you understand what you are communicating? − Does your voice reflect agreement, disagreement, surprise, happiness, etc.? • Use “muletillas” to support speaking and to avoid gaps while you are gathering your thoughts to respond [see Muletillas, below] • Self-correct if you hear yourself make an error • Toward the end of the conversation, the speaker on the recording could throw you a curve; still say something that at least fits the topic, even if you are unsure of what was said; this is a good place for a muletilla to support you as you think of how to answer • Cross off or check prompts completed: try to avoid getting “lost” or confused • Listen for tenses used by your speaking partner in questions and statements – take these cues and respond accordingly

Editing Checklist

Leave time to edit, using the following checklist for avoiding common pitfalls and errors: ✔ Verbs: Have you conjugated correctly? Does each verb ending go with the subject used? Check endings on all verbs for each tense used ✔ Subjunctive vs. Indicative: Check for the correct mood for all verbs ✔ Preterite vs. Imperfect: Check all verbs for correct past tenses [see Preterite vs. Imperfect, p. 5] ✔ Ser vs. estar [see p. 5] ✔ Have you used the personal “a” where necessary? [see p. 6] ✔ Por vs. para [see p. 4] ✔ Agreement of all adjectives, both in gender and number, with the nouns they modify ✔ Correct spelling and use of accent marks (Remember: Days of the week and months of the year are not capitalized in Spanish) ✔ Check that you have used correct punctuation throughout ✔ Remember to use inverted question (¿) and exclamation marks (¡) at the beginning of questions and exclamations and to use regular ones at the end (? !) EX: ¡Me siento muy bien! ✔ Place direct quotes in quotation marks

Muletillas These expressions are called muletillas because they support you, like crutches, as you think of what to say in response to a prompt and avoid gaps in conversation; you can also use them to clarify or probe in a way as you are thinking; they add a natural lead-in to what you are going to say

Higher-Order Thinking Verbs & Guide for Citing Sources Higher-order thinking moves from the bottom (simple acquaintance with the subject) to the top (actual evaluation); the information is stated in Spanish because you should be thinking in Spanish; the escritor refers to the student writing on the exam Acciones cognitivas y los verbos que las apoyan (Use estos verbos para añadir fuerza a sus palabras)

Para citar las fuentes (Una variedad de maneras de citar)


Como comenta/relata/ indica/muestra la primera (segunda, tercera) fuente…

El escritor puede valorar, argumentar, defender, juzgar, calificar, seleccionar, apoyar, resumir, concluir Síntesis El escritor puede organizar, recopilar, crear, planear, formular, sintetizar, predecir, comparar, investigar Análisis El escritor puede analizar, valorizar, categorizar, distinguir, examinar Aplicación El escritor puede escoger, ilustrar, interpretar, esbozar, utilizar, solucionar, comparar, referir Comprensión El escritor puede clasificar, describir, identificar, reconocer, decir, resumir, destacar Conocimiento El escritor puede recordar, reconocer, nombrar, ordenar, repetir

Según la primera (segunda, tercera) fuente… Según la fuente auditiva… Según el artículo de Ecos… Según la primera (segunda) fuente escrita… La primera (segunda, tercera) fuente comenta que… Tanto la primera fuente como la segunda (tercera) fuente concluyen que…

Para expresar verbos más interesantes que “La fuente dice o piensa” En vez de usar dice: afirma informa reporta comunica explica indica escribe analiza difunde menciona comenta

¡No me digas! ¿Sabes? A ver… Así que Bueno… Comprendo… Creo que sí Entonces Es obvio Es que… Este… No es cierto. No es verdad. O sea… Pues… Quiero decir que… Sí Vale Vamos Y bueno ¿Sabes lo que quiero decir? Y tal

No way!/You’re kidding! You know? Let’s see… So, therefore Well… I understand… I think/believe so Then/So Obviously It’s that… Umm… That’s not true. I mean… Well… I would like to say… Yes Okay Let’s go/Let’s begin And well Do you know what I mean? And such

Simulated Conversation Verb Guide & Sample Conversation These are common verbs used in the prompts for simulated interpersonal conversations; you will have to be ready to respond as directed—as stated in the outline—within the context of the conversation, the topic about which one has no definite idea until it begins and develops

En vez de usar cree o piensa, use usted estos sinónimos: opina sostiene expresa insiste interpreta enfatiza destaca

Acepta (accept) Aconseja (advise) Cuenta (tell) Da (give) Describe (describe) Despide (say goodbye) Di (say, tell) Explica (explain) Expresa (express) Finaliza (finalize) Haz (make) Incluye (include) Insiste (insist) Menciona (mention) Ofrece (offer) Pide (ask, request) Pregunta (ask [a question]) Propón (propose) Reacciona (react) Recomienda (recommend) Saluda (greet) Sugiere (suggest) Trata de (try)

El locutor de la fuente auditiva resume… Ambas fuentes escritas indican que… El periodista de El País afirma que… La señora López describe…


Sample simulated conversation: Imagina que estás comiendo el almuerzo en la cafetería de la escuela y tu amigo Carlos llega y se sienta contigo. (You will hear a situation described on the recording that provides more information; once the conversation begins, the text in red is what you hear and the black text areas are your prompts; make sure to answer each part of the question and check off each part as you address it so that you do not get “lost” or confused as to where you are in the conversation) Carlos: Tú: Carlos: Tú: Carlos: Tú: Carlos: Tú: Carlos: Tú: Carlos: Tú: Carlos:

Te saluda y comienza la conversación. Salúdalo. Reacciona a lo que te dijo. Te da más información. Expresa como te sientes. Pídele más información. Continúa la conversación. Explica tu opinión. Ofrécele una sugerencia. Trata de convencerlo. Reacciona a tu sugerencia y te hace una pregunta. Responde a su pregunta detalladamente. Dale más consejos. Continúa la conversación. Menciona lo que pasó la última vez que él no siguió tus consejos. Continúa la conversación y te invita a acompañarlo este fin de semana. Acepta la invitación y finaliza los planes. Se despide y sale para su clase.

Section II – Free Response (continued)

General Strategies for Writing & Speaking on the Exam

Part B2: Presentational Speaking

One prompt focusing on integrated skills (listening, reading, speaking) 5 minutes to read the printed source; then you will hear the audio source; 2 minutes to plan your answer, and 2 minutes to record your answer 2 fuentes, or sources (1 oral, 1 written)


• Read the prompt and underline key words EX: Compare how Barcelona, España, and Bogotá, Colombia, have launched publicity campaigns to attract tourists to their cities. • Use the 2 minutes provided to plan your presentation as follows: − Thesis statement or declaration, based on both sources − Two to three main points to develop and support the thesis; in speaking, this is often comparing and/or contrasting; although time is limited, make sure to cite both sources; EX: La fuente escrita comenta… − Concluding statement to wrap up, but do not simply reiterate the thesis − As you develop your presentation, think synthesis, just like in presentational writing

• Use transitions for fluency of expression wherever appropriate, especially between paragraphs • Show evidence of your understanding and interpretation of the sources; do not simply restate what you read or heard without giving your own evaluation • Pay attention to cultural references and include them where appropriate (cities, monuments, people, products, anything cultural) • Be careful with register – is this a business call or interview? Are you speaking with a friend or family member? Should you use tú or usted? [see Register References Chart, p. 2] • Use a variety of tenses and both the subjunctive and indicative moods, as appropriate; exam scorers want to hear/read evidence of a variety of structures and tenses, focusing on more advanced composition/speaking • Make sure that you have avoided elementary errors, such as agreement issues, verb conjugation problems, word order problems, and the like • In speaking, self-correct; the error is ignored once corrected • Use a rich, higher level of vocabulary; remember that there are other ways to express dice and piensa [refer to Higher-Order Thinking Verbs & Guide for Citing Sources, p. 3] • Avoid English or other language interference: EX: Población is correct, not populación

Transitions To Begin an Idea or Introduce a Point a partir de al considerar al principio como punto de partida en primer lugar para empezar primero

beginning with upon…considering at the beginning as a point of departure in the first place to begin first

To Continue Along the Same Thread or to Elaborate Further a la (misma) vez actualmente además ahora mismo al mismo tiempo asimismo con respecto a de aquí (ahora, hoy) en adelante en la actualidad entonces específicamente hace poco hasta el momento, hasta la fecha hoy día igualmente mientras mientras tanto

at the same time presently besides, furthermore right now at the same time likewise with respect to from now on presently then specifically a short while ago until now nowadays equally while meanwhile, in the meantime

para continuar también tampoco y

To Add a Different or Opposing Idea/Point of View a pesar de (que) in spite of the fact that aunque although como as, in as much as de lo contrario otherwise de ninguna manera by no means en cambio on the other hand pero but sin embargo however, nevertheless sino but sino que but rather To Add Examples, Clarify, or Stress a Point a mi parecer in my opinion además furthermore, in addition de hecho in fact en otras palabras in other words en realidad actually es decir that is to say, in other words hay que tener en cuenta que one must realize that lo importante es que what is important is that lo que importa es que what matters is that o sea that is to say, in other words para ilustrar to illustrate por ejemplo for example sin duda without a doubt sobre todo above all

Por vs. Para POR is used in a much wider variety of contexts and to convey a great variety of meanings: • FOR, as in an exchange, exchanging/giving something for something else, also for giving thanks Te agradezco por tu ayuda. Carlos pagó 25 dólares por la camisa. Ella me dio su libro por mi disco compacto. • FOR, as in on behalf of or in place of Marcos no pudo ir al mercado pues yo fui por él. No nos dio tiempo, así que ella lo termina por nosotros. • FOR, as in favor of Mis amigos votaron por ese candidato. • FOR, as in mistaking or confusing something or someone FOR something or someone else Me tomaron por el autor del libro. La tomaste por loca, pero ella reaccionó con mucha paciencia. • FOR, as in a duration or length of time Los marineros remaron por quince horas para llegar al puerto. • FOR or ABOUT, as in coming for (venir por), sending for (mandar por), going for or to get (ir por), and asking about (preguntar por) Enrique pasa por ti a las tres. El médico pregunta por mi padre enfermo.

to continue also neither…nor, either and

• •

Nosotros fuimos al mercado por verduras frescas. BY, in passive-voice constructions as in by whom or by what something occurs or is done El examen fue escrito por los profesores. El CD fue grabado por mi cantante favorito. BY, as in a means of transportation or communication Los futbolistas viajaron por avión pero no podían hablar por sus móviles en esa región. BY, THROUGH, AROUND, as in going by, through a place, or being located around Los amigos pasaron por el parque ayer. ¿Hay un banco por aquí? YET or NOT YET, as in an action not yet done or about to be done, in the construction POR + infinitive La casa está por construir. FEELING LIKE OR INCLINED TO do something, in the construction POR + infinitive Estamos por visitar ese museo. FOR THE SAKE OF, as in for one’s wellbeing or survival Ese padre trabaja duro por su familia. Los profesores enseñan bien por sus alumnos. BECAUSE OF, as in due to


To Conclude, Show a Result, or Summarize a causa de on account of, because of a fin de cuentas in the end al fin finally, at last, in the end al fin y al cabo after all al parecer apparently, seemingly así que so, therefore como because como consecuencia as a consequence como resultado as a result de todos modos at any rate, anyhow debido a owing to, because of en conclusión in conclusion en conformidad accordingly en definitiva in conclusion, definitely en fin finally, in short en resumen in summary en resumidas cuentas in short en todo caso in any case finalmente finally para concluir to conclude para resumir to summarize para terminar to end por because of por consiguiente accordingly por ese motivo for that reason por eso for that reason por fin finally, at last por lo mismo or the same reason por lo tanto hence, therefore porque because puesto que because, since

Estamos felices por las buenas noticias. Por perder tanto tiempo, no voy a llegar a las tres como quería. • PER, as in rate or speed Trabaja cinco horas por día. Distribuyo 10 tarjetas por persona. PARA has much fewer uses than por, but its uses are more clearly defined: • FOR, as in for whom or for what something is intended or destined; this can also refer to purpose, reason Hice la cena para mis hijos. Compraste los regalos para la Navidad. • FOR, when making a comparison Para ser un joven americano, no mira mucha televisión. Tomás es muy bajo para su edad. No es muy atlético para jugador de tenis. • FOR, IN ORDER TO, as in purpose or reason to do an action Estudiamos para tener éxito en la clase. Tienes que leer bien para comprender el texto. • FOR, BY, as in by a due date or future date in time Ella tiene que estar preparada para el lunes. ¿Tienes planes para el fin de semana? • ABOUT, in the construction estar para, as in about to occur/on the verge of La película está para comenzar. Estamos para salir.

Ser vs. Estar SER is generally used for permanent characteristics and unchanging inherent qualities; SER is used for characteristics of identification that are lasting, only changing over a period of time; common situations for using SER are: • Telling where an event or activity takes place La fiesta es en la casa de Linda. La reunión es en la sala de conferencias. • Outward physical characteristics of persons, places, and things (color, size, etc.) Las casas son grandes y modernas. Jorge es guapo, moreno y alto. • Telling time Son las dos y media. Era mediodía. • Origin and nationality Pierre es francés y es de Marsella. Esa falda es de lana. Las naranjas son de Valencia. • Identifying professions Somos médicos. Mi hermana es una ingeniera pero mi hermano es abogado. • Telling what someone or something is like (inherently) Es muy tímido. Eres inteligente y amable.

ESTAR is generally used for temporary conditions and states of being that may change, including location; ESTAR is more about the moment and what is happening now; common situations for using ESTAR are: • Physical or geographical location of persons, places, or things Estamos en la clase de español. ¿Dónde están mis joyas? Colombia está en el continente de la América del Sur. • Mental actions, emotions, and feelings Los atletas están cansados. Estoy triste hoy. ¿Estás enojado? • Telling what someone or something is like at the moment or for now, but in a temporary way as a result of an action ¡Estás muy loco hoy! (but you are not normally so) • Progressive constructions Las secretarias estaban archivando las carpetas. Estoy escribiendo el ensayo. • Asking/telling how someone or something is feeling or its condition ¿Cómo están tus hijos? Están muy bien gracias.

Past Tenses: Preterite vs. Imperfect PRETERITE: This is the past tense used for actions definitely completed in the past tense; there is no doubt that the action both began and ended in the past; this is the “snapshot” past tense – once the picture is taken, it is over; situations include: • Single, completed one-time actions of which we know both the beginning and the end • A series of single, completed actions, each one finished before the next action happened • A mental action that would normally be imperfect but occurred at one distinct point in time and “happened”: En ese momento me di cuenta de la importancia de mi decisión. (This is preterite because at that moment, I realized the importance of my decision; once I realized it, I knew it and the action of realizing is completed) • A verb that states that something began or ended in the past: Elena inició la conversación. • An action that took place a certain number of times and is over: Ella fue a la Argentina cinco veces el año pasado.

IMPERFECT: This is the “imperfectly completed” past tense that is used for everything else and includes: • Setting the scene and providing description in the past that was ongoing with no clear “snapshot” ending but rather an ongoing “painting in progress”; logical, since most descriptions are ongoing and lasting; descriptions include:

− − − −

Outward physical description Time Location How someone was feeling, mental states, thoughts, and attitudes • Was-ing and were-ing actions that leave us hanging; we know that the subject began the action in the past but never heard the end of the action • Repeated, habitual past actions or used to actions that were ongoing over a period of time and we do not know that they ended • This tense can “set the scene” for a preterite action; therefore, both tenses can occur together in the same sentence: Mi abuelo miraba la película cuando mi madre entró en la sala.

Common Errors to Avoid 1. Pluralization • recomendación ➜ recomendaciones: the plural of words ending on a syllable with a written accent lose the accent when adding -es to form the plural

2. Gender • el problema, el tema, el programa: most -ma words are masculine • la recomendación, la televisión, las vacaciones, etc.: all -ción and -sión words are always feminine • la libertad, la juventud, la bondad, la pared: words ending in -tad, -tud, -dad, -ed are feminine

3. Vocabulary & False Cognate Issues

• Correct terms to express high school and college − el colegio = junior high school or high school; you cannot use this for higher education! − el instituto = used for high school in many countries − la universidad = college; you must use this for higher education, even when the name of the institution has the English word college in it • a tiempo = on time, not en tiempo • asistir a vs. atender: asistir a = to attend; atender a = to attend to, as in to take care of: Mis amigos asisten a muchas clases universitarias. La enfermera atiende al paciente. • conocer vs. saber: conocer = to know, as in acquaintance – one can be acquainted with a person, place, or thing; saber = to know, as in facts or information about a person, place, or thing – it can also mean to know how


• trabajar vs. funcionar: use trabajar for the subject performing work as in toil, earning money, tasks, etc.; use funcionar for to work, as in to function Mi padre trabaja en la oficina. La máquina no funciona hoy. • pedir vs. preguntar: pedir is for requesting; preguntar is for questioning • salir (de) vs. dejar: salir is used when the subject leaves a place; dejar takes a direct object and means to leave something behind; also make sure that you use de after salir to say from where a person is leaving: Mis amigos salen de Alaska. • aplicar vs. solicitar: aplicar is to apply, as in applying a theory; solicitar is for applying for admission, for a job, a scholarship, etc. • la aplicación vs. la solicitud: same reasoning as previous item • la erudición vs. la beca: erudición is scholarship, as in wisdom, knowledge, learning; beca is scholarship, as in money for college, etc. • decir, hablar, discutir: use decir for to say or tell; use hablar for to speak or talk; and use discutir for to discuss or to argue • involucrado, tomar parte en ➜ involucrarse: use these expressions instead of trying to state as in English: I am in Spanish Club. Yo estoy involucrada en el Club de español. Yo tomo parte en el Club de español. NOT: Estoy en • amar, querer vs. encantar: only use amar and querer for loving people, pets; use Me encanta, Me encantan, Te encanta, Te encantan, etc., to state that you love something Me encanta el esquí.➜ I love skiing. • este vs. ese: “This and these have the t’s”; so, este, esta, estos, estas = this, these; ese, esa, esos, esas = that, those • el tiempo vs. la vez: tiempo is for time in general, e.g., ¿Cuánto tiempo tenemos? (How much time do we have?); use vez for time, as in instances: tres veces, muchas veces, varias veces, la primera vez, la última vez • volver vs. devolver: use volver when the subject him/ herself returns; use devolver with a direct object Los profesores vuelven a la escuela. Los profesores les devuelven los papeles a los estudiantes. • bien vs. buena: just like in English – bueno/a/os/as = adjective; bien = adverb • MORE FALSE COGNATES: − la carpeta vs. la alfombra: carpeta = folder; alfombra = carpet/floor covering − la cuestión vs. la pregunta: cuestión refers to a matter/issue/question to be resolved; pregunta = question to be answered − largo vs. grande: largo = long; grande = big − sensible vs. razonable: sensible = sensitive; razonable = reasonable − el éxito vs. la salida: éxito = success; salida = the exit − los padres vs. los parientes: padres = parents; parientes = relatives − recordar vs. grabar: recordar(ue) = to remember or remind; grabar = to record something − efectivo vs. eficaz: efectivo = real, actual, cash (money); eficaz = effective − la fábrica vs. la tela: fábrica = factory; tela = fabric or cloth − entusiasmado vs. excitado: entusiasmado = excited, as in enthusiastic; excitado = excited sexually − educado vs. enseñado, formado: educado = brought up, cultivated, polite, or reared; enseñado, instruido, formado = educated − la facultad vs. el profesorado: facultad = mental faculty, power, ability, but it can mean a university department; profesorado = faculty of a school − la falta vs. la culpa: falta = lack, need, absence, shortage; culpa = fault or blame − la letra vs. la carta: letra = letter of the alphabet; carta = letter (correspondence) − la lectura vs. la conferencia: lectura = reading or reading material; conferencia = lecture or conference − presentar vs. introducir: presentar = to introduce a person; introducir = to introduce a topic − suceder vs. tener éxito: suceder = happen, follow, come next; tener éxito = to succeed − el suceso vs. el éxito: suceso = event, happening; éxito = success − la desgracia vs. la vergüenza/la deshonra: desgracia = misfortune or mistake; vergüenza/deshonra = shame or disgrace − la ganga vs. la pandilla: ganga = bargain; pandilla = street gang (Mexico and U.S.) or group of friends (Spain) − el delito vs. el deleite/el placer: delito = minor crime or offense; deleite or placer = delight

Common Errors to Avoid (continued) 4. Structure & Grammar

• más que vs. más de: más que = more than, but use más de as more than before numbers Mi hermano tiene más libros que yo. Mi hermano tiene más de cincuenta libros. • que vs. quien: when you wish to say “who” as a relative pronoun, use que unless preceded by a comma, then you may use quien El hombre que habla francés vive en Francia. El hombre, quien habla francés, vive en Francia. Marta es una mujer que ayuda a la gente. Marta, quien ayuda a mucha gente, es una mujer inteligente. • ningún vs. ninguna: shorten ninguno to ningún before masculine singular nouns, but do not shorten ninguna Ella no tiene ningún dinero. Ella no tiene ninguna comida. • una otra, un otro: never say un otro or una otra • tener interés por: In Spanish: tener interés por = to be interested in • todo el dinero, toda la comida: not todo de; never say all of in Spanish • antes de + inf. = before doing Elena se pone el abrigo antes de salir de su casa. • después de + inf. = after doing Elena sale después de ponerse el abrigo.

Examples are provided, but create a similar table to apply vocabulary-building skills or to determine the meanings of words from their roots

el peso


SUSTANTIVO(s) ADJETIVO(s) noun(s) adjective(s) el peso (weight) la pesa (weight, for pesado (heavy) lifting) la felicidad (happiness)

feliz (happy)

NOTE: These lists briefly cover common themes in everyday news and world issues according to the AP World Language and Culture themes; these lists are certainly not exhaustive but provide examples of higher-level vocabulary with which you should familiarize yourself in preparation for the exam Family & Traditions (Familia y Tradiciones)

babysitter fianc groom fianc e bride first name last name older, oldest only son, daughter, child relative twin

el la ni ero a el novio, la novia el nombre de pila el apellido mayor, el la mayor el hijo, la hija nico a el la pariente el la gemelo a, el mellizo a el viudo, la viuda menor, el la menor

widower, widow younger, youngest

Government & Politics (Gobierno y Politíca)

Tabla Para Construir Palabras (Word-Building Table)


Thematic Vocabulary Lists

VERBO(s) verb(s)

ADVERBIO(s) adverb(s)

pesar (to weigh)

pesadamente (heavily)

hacer feliz (make happy) felizmente felicitar (to (happily) congratulate)

Personal “a” Guide Remember to use the personal “a” in the following situations: 1. Before any direct object noun that refers to a person: • Ella ve a su novio. [She sees her boyfriend; her boyfriend is what or who she sees – the direct object of sees] • Mi hermana conoce a los vecinos. [My sister knows the neighbors; neighbors are what or who my sister knows – the direct object of knows] 2. Before the pronouns alguien (somebody), nadie (nobody), and quién (whom), and before alguno (some) and ninguno (none) when referring to people: • No escuchas a nadie. [You don’t hear anyone.] • Espero conocer a alguien. [I hope to meet someone.] • ¿A quién viste? [Whom did you see?] 3. Before animals that are pets and members of the family: • Cuidamos a nuestro perro. [We take care of our dog.] • ¿Ves a tu gato Zorro? [Do you see your cat Zorro?] 4. In situations of personification; a country or object can be personified or treated as if it were a person, meaning that there is some sort of a personal relationship, such as an emotional attachment, with the noun personified: • Yo respeto mucho a los Estados Unidos. [I respect the United States a lot.] • Mi hija abrazó a la muñeca, su compañera. [My daughter hugged the doll, her friend.] 5. The personal “a” is not used: • After tener − Tengo un amigo. [I have a friend.] − No tengo secretaria. [I don’t have a secretary.] • Before unspecified nouns − Ella ve un estudiante. [She sees a student.] • Before collective nouns − ¿Conoces el equipo de fútbol? [Do you know the soccer team?]

ballot bill endorsement ideology left-wing to lobby poll (opinion) right-wing to run for president tax

el voto el proyecto de ley la aprobación, el respaldo la ideología izquierdista ejercer presión sobre la encuesta derechista ser candidato a presidente el impuesto

Banking, Economy & Finances (Banca, Economía, Finanzas)

account foreign exchange gross national product insurance investment mortgage portfolio profit shareholder stoc exchange

la cuenta la divisa el producto interior bruto ( ) el seguro el ingreso la hipoteca la cartera el lucro el la accionista la bolsa

Environmental Issues (Temas Ambientales)

alternate energy climate change deforestation environmentally friendly global warming greenhouse effect noise pollution ozone (to) recycle smog

la energía alternativa el cambio climático la deforestación que no da a el medio ambiente el calentamiento global el efecto invernadero la contaminación ac stica el ozono reciclar la niebla tóxica, la nube tóxica

Conflict & War (Conflicto y Guerra)

armed forces casualty cease fire combat con ict destroy humanitarian human rights military intelligence soldier, fighter to stri e, to hit troops

Verbs Associated with Health & Medicine (Verbos Asociados con Salud y Medicina)

to be nauseated to brea (a body part) to cough to get better to get sic to prescribe to put a cast on to refill (a prescription) to sneeze to sprain, twist (a body part)

ISBN-13: 978-142321609-4 ISBN-10: 142321609-1

to connect to to disconnect from file laptop computer lin online password search engine to type user name

cloudy drought earthqua e ood fog humidity t s windy lightning rain storm thunder wave windy

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Customer Hotline # 1.800.230.9522


estornudar torcer(se) (ue)

conectarse a desconectarse de el archivo la computadora portátil el enlace en línea, conectado a la contrase a el motor de b squeda teclear el nombre de usuario

Weather & Natural Disasters (Tiempo y Desastres Naturales)

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. ©2010 BarCharts, Inc. 1210 Made In the USA

tener náuseas romperse toser mejorarse enfermarse recetar enyesar repetir (i) (una receta)

Technology (Tecnología)

Price: U.S.$5.95 Author: Parthena Draggett NOTE TO STUDENT: This guide is intended for informational purposes only. Due to its condensed format, this guide cannot cover every aspect of the subject; rather, it is intended for use in conjunction with course work and assigned texts. Neither BarCharts, Inc., its writers, editors, nor design staff, are in any way responsible or liable for the use or misuse of the information contained in this guide.

las fuerzas armadas la baja (death) el alto al fuego el combate el con icto destruir humanitario a los derechos humanos la inteligencia militar el la militar, el la soldado sacudir las tropas

nublado la sequía el terremoto, el temblor la inundación de agua la neblina, la niebla la humedad ace viento el relámpago la lluvia la tormenta el trueno la ola ventoso