SMOKE, EXHAUST AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS

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A

SMOKE, EXHAUST AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS

AT I O N

SMART

J

FA N A U T O

M

ET

LIC ATIO

S M O K E , E X H AU S T Aironn İklimlendirme Sistemleri San. ve Taahhüt A.Ş.

AND PRESSURIZATION

Head Office: Tatlısu Mah. Şenol Güneş Bulvarı Mira Tower Kat: 2 D: 12 Şerifali - Ataşehir / İstanbul Tel: (0216) 594 56 96 Fax: (0216) 594 57 17 E-mail: [email protected]

SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS

Ankara regional directorate: Yıldızevler Mah. 708. Sok No: 8/2, 06550 Çankaya / Ankara Tel ve Fax : (0312) 441 80 88 E-mail: [email protected] www.aironn.com.tr

EN

As you are well aware, everything starts with encouragement. The demand that you will raise for your own products today will promise the domestic goods to be of higher quality and more reasonable day by day. A nation that relies on its own is the one that has gained the right to live. Turkey may only advance with the development of Turkish economy with Turkish hands. Buy Turkish goods, use Turkish goods. Let Turkish Lira remain in Turkey.

M. K. Atatürk

S M O K E , E X H AU S T AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS

CONTENTS

page

AIRONN: Dynamic Air Management

5

Jet Fan Ventilation Systems for Car Parks

55

System Components

79

Project Management Process

89 101

Jet Fans

117

J- Smart

121

Axial Fans

125

Fan Selection Curves

141

Tests and Certifications

163

References

171

ET

FA N O T O

YG

ULAMA

AS

AKILLI

M

J

Pressurization system



YO N S

I



U

1 Aironn: Dynamic Air Management

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A

ironn commenced operations with the purpose of being the manufacturers in ventilation industry and forming its manufacturer identity as a specialized establishment focused on fans. Aironn, which manufactures fire, smoke, pressurization fans and jet fans as its primary product group, started out with setting up a Research and Development department. The company considered Research & Development as a universal culture and strengthened its competitiveness through innovation.

It was certificated that the Aironn products, which were tested by the organization named Applus having an internationally accredited fire resistance test laboratory, could resist to 300 °C for 2 hours. Aironn Tubeaxial Fan and Jet Fan groups also have EN 12101-3 CE certificate. Research & Development Department is separated into two working groups specific to the subject; Combustion Group and Fan Design Group. CFD studies and distinctive fan blade designs of Fan Design Group are carried out within the body of Aironn. Aironn Test Laboratory established at the beginning of 2011 by means of fan test tunnels designed within Aironn as per the standards operates in order to experientially carry out the performance verification tests of axial Fans, Cell Fans and Jet Fans within their product range. While planning the location and design of test tunnels, the installations were conducted with the foresight of a potential influence from flows outside the channels.. In the disciplines of air craft and mechanical engineering at the levels of bachelor and master’s degrees, it is regularly checked if the values of fan performance measurement realized by the expert engineers experienced in experimental aerodynamics are in accordance with the verified numerical performance values.

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The department of ‘Fire-Fan Interaction and Analysis Laboratory’ based on optical methods will also be set up in the developing test laboratory in near future. Aironn analyzes through CFD the real interaction of axial fans, which will function in the smoke exhaust shaft and fresh air shaft of jet fan system, at the time of indoor fires and proposes solutions. Aironn also realizes the automation services of its installed systems. J-Smart, which is especially developed for jet fan automation, is an innovative practice. J-Smart also brings along a significant advantage in terms of initial investment costs. Since it requires less cabling and material, it provides 50 % savings on such costs. The jet fan can be run at the required cycle between 0 & 100. The motors consume 7 to 8 times more power in start-up compared to their routine operation conditions. In J-Smart system, starting current is less than 80 %. The facts that it can operate at a cycle between 0 & 100 and the starting current is low provide energy saving between 30 % and 50 %. As the motor is a soft start, mechanical parts do not have difficulty which extends the life of the system. Motor runs more silently. Since J-Smart system provides more data, it enables the control of the system in a more versatile and proper manner. Aironn invests in employing a professional team of engineers in order to keep the customer satisfaction as high as possible. By taking the advantage of having advanced production facilities, it meets customer demands fast and comes up with flexible solutions. Aironn, which can meet the expectations of the investors, mechanical project office, implementation firm, control firm fast and be a solution partner if required, proves its customer oriented nature with post-sales services.

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We are proud of being a domestic manufacturer investing in research and development.

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R

esearch and Development, which is the main principle of production according to the mentality of Aironn, closely follows up productivity, certification, technological and scientific developments. In our CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) studies, we use 2 CFD codes; Ansys CFX and CFD Design. We can now explain the real behaviour of Aironn brand axial smoke exhaust and jet fans, which we manufacture thanks to CFD codes, for the evacuation of smoke in case of indoor fires as well as their real interaction with the ambient fluid system. The study on ascertaining the location and capacity of axial and jet fans can now be explained via CFD numerically as well, and our firm is able to provide objective answers to the customers. Aironn, with its CFD codes, can at the same time make distinctive fan blade designs within its structure.

Aironn has many car park projects that solved via CFD the real interraction of jet fan system and axial fans, which work with the smoke exhaust shaft and fresh air shaft, to the fluid by applying smoke evacuation systems in car-parks at the time of fire. Research and Development is the priority of our company that gains more and more experience day by day in order to respond in the most correct and fastest way to the immediate solution seeking of the market and calculation restrictions. Research and Development department within Aironn is divided into two special study groups as Combustion Group and Fan Design Group. Carrying out analysis as to under which circumstances the indoor geometry and fresh air suction trigger and weaken fire in case extinguishing system does not work in car-parks and enclosed spaces and working on numerical methods are among the future goals of Combustion Group. Fan design, on the other hand, is especially a sensitive subject that we pay special attention to. One of the mottos that we also adopted as our guidance is “There is no time and cost difference between installing the pipe slanted or straight”. This might sound simple to some, but is actually closely related to our fan design subject. In order to improve the fluid system of our axial type smoke exhaust fans and jet fans, and design fans which can function in line with the requirements of our customers, it is required to improve the blades of the fans day by day.

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Research and Development, which is the main principle of production for Aironn, means efficiency and following up the technological and scientific developments by also applying them. Aironn does the following study exampled below for all the equipment of fans produced by Research and Development and Design team;

ANALYSIS OF STRAINS ON THE SHEET METAL PARTS AS PER SHEET METAL BODY DESIGN AND LOAD PATTERN IN AXIAL FANS THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT METHOD SUMMARY In this study; in various sheet metal body designs, various sheet metal thickness values and various load patterns, effects on load carrier sheet metal parts are examined by using finite element method. 3 different body types are studied and by using different metal sheet thickness values in these body types, the conditions of metal sheet parts that form the construction according to the parallel and vertical fan axis installations are examined under static load. Interior diameter of the examined fan is taken as 1250mm. Fan motor is a smoke exhaust motor with 45 kW power and has a temperature endurance of 300°C/2H. Fan propeller has nine blades. Solidworks is used for CAD modelling and ANSYS v14 Mechanical is used for finite element modelling. In the study; various bending angles, bending times and sheet metal thickness values are observed and various strain and stress values of motor and fan hub carrying parts are recorded. Through these analyses, whether different constructions and different sheet metal thickness values are convenient for the load pattern is revealed.

INTRODUCTION Fans are turbomachines which pressurize air and similar gases to make it flow through a specific flow path. Generally, electric motors are used for driving fans. Fans consist of

Figure 1 – View of motor and propeller of axial fans

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propeller, motor and body. Propeller and motor are assembled to the body by sheet metal parts. In other words; body is the carrier of motor and propeller by support sheet metal parts.

These sheet metal parts can be in various thicknesses, bending types and designs. They are assembled to each other by welding and / or nuts & bolts to form the fan body. The fan which is modelled has a cylindrical shaped outer body, 2 horizontal ground assembly legs, 2 motor support legs and a motor carrying base.

Figure 2 – Computer modeled view of axial fan

MODELLING 3 different types of fan body were modelled. For cylindrical outer body, horizontal assembly legs and motor support leg, the sheet thickness was taken as 4 mm. Two different sheet thicknesses - 4 mm and 5 mm – were modelled for motor carrying base. Various bending angles and extra bendings were tried for motor support leg. Modelled fan bodies are;

Figure 3 – Body structure of bending angles of motor support legs for Type 1 fan body

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Figure 4 – Additional bendings on motor support leg for Type 2 fan body

Figure 5 – Type 3 fan body and bending angles of motor support leg

Projection of the motor leg was reflected over the motor carrying base drawing, and the surface where the force would be applied in the analysis was formed.

Figure 6 – Projection of the motor leg on motor carrying base.

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By use of SolidWorks program, fan bodies whose design and modelling had been made, were later saved in .SLDPRT format by ‘save as’ option. This newly saved file was invited to the program once more, and solid bodies were deleted and surface bodies were formed.

Figure 7 – Surface bodies were formed by deleting solid bodies on the drawing.

Figure 8 – Surface bodies which belong to fan sheet metal parts

Surface bodies obtained were then saved as in .STEP format again.

ANALYSIS ANSYS Static Structural module was used during calculations by finite element method. Static Structural window was opened within Workbench window which is

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user interface and three dimensional figure models in STEP format were introduced to the work page by selecting “import”.

Figure 9- ANSYS Workbench user interface and display image of Static Structural modules

As galvanized sheet was used at the stage of fan production, “structural steel” was selected for the material features of parts for analysis purposes on “engineering data” tab.

Figure 10 – “Engineering data” tab where the material features are introduced and material features

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By opening work analysis file program window where the material features were introduced, sheet thickness features for surface charts were set down.

Figure 11 – Sheet thicknesses were given separately for each part

As the sheets would be connected to each other by nuts & bolts method, the holes on the sheets to be connected were grouped within. For this grouping, “Named Selection” was used.

Figure 12 – Classification of holes to be bolt on

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For the surfaces that are in contact, “Frictionless contact” type was selected. For detached surfaces, “Pinball radius” was selected for the application of contact type.

Figure 13- Determination of the contact type and the selection of Pinball radius

For nuts & bolts method, “Bonded” contact type was applied to the edges of the classified holes. As the surfaces with holes were disjointed, it was enabled by use of “Pinball radius” that the contacting edges identified each other.

Figure 14- Bolted joint contact type

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After necessary contacts were identified for fan sheet body model, boundary conditions were set to the problem. For the axial rotation of the fan horizontally, “fixed support” boundary condition was identified to the bottom surface of horizontal assembly leg and the part was fixed in numerical space. The weight of motor and fan was taken as P = 290 kg and the centre of gravity was calculated in Solidworks program.

Figure 15 – Calculation of the centre of gravity coordinates of the motor and fan

The centre of gravity coordinates are as follows; X= 0,14 mm Y= 2,29 mm Z = -113,08 mm The centre of gravity coordinates took the diameter centre of cylindrical sheet as reference. In the definition of force for motor and fan, “Remote force” option was selected by taking the centre of gravity coordinates of motor and fan as force application centre of the force that is 2900N. Motor support leg projection surface was selected as force application surface.

Figure 16- Definition of boundary conditions on fan body and loads

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After the definition of necessary boundary conditions for analysis, the process of meshing was initiated by calculations using finite element method. After meshing, the mesh quality is as follows;

Figure 17 – View of sheet metal parts after meshing and Orthogonal Quality

Figure 18 – Aspect ratio after meshing

Figure 19 – Skewness distribution after meshing

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Figure 20 –Element Quality after meshing

Figure 21- General view of Fan body after meshing

Figure 22 – Motor carrying base after meshing

After the completion of meshing, the problem, to which the boundary conditions and loads were defined, was solved by use of Solve tab. Meshing and definition of boundary conditions were reformed in line with the body type and load pattern.

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COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS 1) Strains in Fan Body in Horizontal Loading Four different analyses are made for horizontal loading. Fan body types and sheet metal thicknesses in these analyses are:

1. Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-1 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

2. Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-1 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 5mm

3. Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-2 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

4. Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-3 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

Total Deformation of fan bodies

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Figure 24- Analysis 2 – Total deformation of fan body in case of horizontal load

Figure 25- Analysis 3 – Total deformation of fan body in case of horizontal load

Figure 26- Analysis 4 – Total deformation of fan body in case of horizontal load

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In case of horizontal load, deformations of fan bodies over motor carrying base were observed to be more. In 4 different analyses carried out, the total deformation values in case of horizontal load are as follows; 1st Analysis: 1,61 mm 2nd Analysis: 0,87 mm 3rd Analysis: 1,56 mm 4th Analysis: 1,55 mm

Equivalent Stress on Sheet Metal Parts

Figure 27- Analysis 1 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 28- Analysis 2 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

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Figure 29- Analysis 3 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 30- Analysis 4 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

As seen in figures 27, 28, 29 and 30, the stress is concentrated on motor carrying base and motor support legs. In 4 different analysis carried out, the maximum equivalent stress values on sheet metal parts are as follows; 1st Analysis: 188,08 Mpa 2nd Analysis: 150,12 Mpa 3rd Analysis: 128,98 Mpa 4th Analysis: 171,36 Mpa

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Distribution of Equivalent Stress Safety Factor on Fan Bodies

Figure 31 - Analysis 1 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 32 - Analysis 2 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 33 - Analysis 3 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

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Figure 34 - Analysis 4 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of horizontal load, minimum equivalent stress safety factors came out as follows; 1st Analysis: 1,32 2nd Analysis: 1,66 3rd Analysis: 1,93 4th Analysis: 1,45

Distribution of Tensile Stress Safety Factor on fan bodies

Figure 35 - Analysis 1 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

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Figure 36 - Analysis 2 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 37 - Analysis 3 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 38 - Analysis 4 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of horizontal load, minimum tensile stress safety factors came out as follows; 1st Analysis: 1,21 2nd Analysis: 1,47 3rd Analysis: 1,82 4th Analysis: 1,44

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Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base in case of horizontal loading

Figure 39 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 40 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

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Figure 41 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 42 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

In figures 39, 40, 41 and 42, it is seen that the stress that occurs on motor carrying base is concentrated around motor bolt connection holes. Regional stress and deformations on parts are shown by color dispersion.

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Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 43 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 44 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

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Figure 45 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 46 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

In different analyses carried out for horizontal loading, the safety factor was over 1. The minimum deformation value was observed in the second analysis and maximum safety factor was in the third analysis.

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1) Stress on fan body in case of vertical loading 7 different analyses were carried out for vertical loading. The types of fan body and sheet metal thickness of parts used in the analyses are as follows;

1st Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-1 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

2nd Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-1 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm (the number of motor connection holes is reduced) Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

3rd Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-1 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 5mm

4th Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-2 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

5th Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-2 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm (bends are welded) Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

6th Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-2 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm (bends are welded) Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 5mm

7th Analysis • • • • •

Fan Body Type: Type-3 Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

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Figure 47 - Analysis 1 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 48 - Analysis 2 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 49 - Analysis 3 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

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Figure 50 - Analysis 4 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 51 - Analysis 5 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 52 - Analysis 6 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

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Figure 53 - Analysis 7 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

In case of vertical loading for fan bodies, it was observed that the motor support leg was forced to be twisted due to moment effect caused by the load. As per 7 different analyses, the total deformation values in case of vertical loading are as follows; 1st Analysis: 1,33 mm 2nd Analysis: 1,33 mm 3rd Analysis: 1,18 mm 4th Analysis: 1,33 mm 5th Analysis: 1,19 mm 6th Analysis: 1,01 mm 7th Analysis: 1,51 mm

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Equivalent Stress on Sheet Metal Parts

Figure 54 - Analysis 1 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 55 - Analysis 2 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 56 - Analysis 3 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

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Figure 57 - Analysis 4 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 58- Analysis 5 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 59 - Analysis 6 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

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Figure 60 - Analysis 7 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

As seen in figures 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60, the stress is concentrated on motor carrying base and motor support legs. In 7 different analysis carried out, the maximum equivalent stress values on sheet metal parts are as follows; 1st Analysis: 718,19 Mpa 2nd Analysis: 294,97 Mpa 3rd Analysis: 294,98 Mpa 4th Analysis: 245,48 Mpa 5th Analysis: 252,43 Mpa 6th Analysis: 254,42 Mpa 7th Analysis: 721,95 Mpa In case of vertical loading, the equivalent stress was observed to have reached the highest value in the 1st and 7th analyses.

Distribution of Equivalent Stress Safety Factor on Fan Bodies

Figure 61 - Analysis 1 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

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Figure 62 - Analysis 2 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 63 - Analysis 3 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 64 - Analysis 4 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

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Figure 65 - Analysis 5 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 66 - Analysis 6 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

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Figure 67 - Analysis 7 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of vertical loading, equivalent stress minimum safety factors came out as follows; 1st Analysis: 0,34 2nd Analysis: 0,84 3rd Analysis: 0,84 4th Analysis: 1,01 5th Analysis: 0,99 6th Analysis: 0,98 7th Analysis: 0,34

Distribution of Tensile Stress Safety Factor on fan bodies

Figure-68- Analysis-1 Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

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Figure 69 - Analysis 2 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 70 - Analysis 3 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 71 - Analysis 4 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

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Figure 72 - Analysis 5 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 73 - Analysis 6 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

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Figure 74 - Analysis 7 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of vertical loading, tensile stress minimum safety factors came out as follows; 1st Analysis: 0,35 2nd Analysis: 0,79 3rd Analysis: 0,79 4th Analysis: 0,91 5th Analysis: 0,88 6th Analysis: 0,87 7th Analysis: 0,35 It was observed that the tensile stress was concentrated around the bending edges of motor support leg.

Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base in case of vertical loading

Figure 75 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

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Figure 76 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 77 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

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Figure 78 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 79 - Analysis 5 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

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Figure 80 - Analysis 6 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 81- Analysis 7 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

In figures 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 and 81, it is seen that the stress that occurs on motor carrying base is concentrated around motor bolt connection holes. Regional stress and deformations on parts are shown by color dispersion.

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Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 82 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 83 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

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Figure 84 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 85 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

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Figure 86 - Analysis 5 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 87 - Analysis 6 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

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Figure 88 - Analysis 7 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

In different analyses carried out for vertical loading, the safety factor was over 1 in the 4th analysis. The minimum deformation value was observed in the 6th analysis.

RESULT As a result of static analysis for axial fans carried out by finite elements method as per 3 different fan body types, various sheet metal thicknesses and different loading conditions modelled on the computer; it was concluded that Type-2 fan body was more suitable for horizontal and vertical loading conditions. For horizontal loading, motor carrying base which is in 4 mm thickness was found sufficient whereas motor carrying base in 5 mm thickness was deformed less in case of vertical loading.

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OUR FAN TESTING LABS It is a great source of pride both within ourselves and for our company to know that our axial fan performance and motor power curves calculated by using numerical methods are also confirmed experimentally. While planning the location and design of test tunnels, the installations were conducted with the foresight of a potential influence from flows outside the channels. In the disciplines of air craft and mechanical engineering at the levels of bachelor and master’s degrees, the values of fan performance measurement realized by the expert engineers experienced in experimental aerodynamics were understood to be in accordance with the verified numerical performance values.

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2 System Components

1

Jet Fan Car Park Ventilation System Definitions

V

entilation systems designed for enclosed car parks are planned based on two basic needs. First need is to discharge gases –listed below- which are hazardous to human health and released by the cars in the garage during daily use. Second one is to help the evacuation of people and intervention of fire brigades to the fire and reduce financial damage caused by high temperature in case of fire.

EXHAUST GASES Nitrous dioxide

NO2

Carbon monoxide

CO

Benzene

C6H6

Benzo(a)pyrene

BaP

Sulphuredioxide

SO2

Lead

Pb

Carbon

C

Ozone

O3

CO EFFECT CO Concentration (Parts Per Million)

Effect

1500

Headache after 15 minutes, faint after 30 minutes, death after 60 minutes

2000

Headache after 10 minutes, faint after 20 minutes, death after 60 minutes

3000

Safe up to 5 minutes maximum, faint after 10 minutes.

6000

Çok kısa sürede baş ağrısı ve baş dönmesi, 10-15 dakikada hayatını kaybetme.

Acceptable Maximum CO Concentration World Health Organization 1987 CO Limit

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For 8 hours

25 ppm

For 1 hour

75 ppm

CAR PARK CO CONTROL Germany

Required CO ventilation level is 12-16m3/h-m2. This makes 4 or 5 air changes per hour. (Garagenveordnungen Der Länder)

England

6 air changes per hour is required in whole HVAC system under normal circumstances. 50% of the exhaust points must be near the ceiling, other 50% must be near the ground. (Approved document B, Fire Safety, B3 section 11.6)

ABD

ASHRAE 13.3 m3/h- m2 (3.7 l/s-m2) NFPA 18 m3/h- m2 (5 l/s-m2)

CAR PARK CO VENTILATION Air Change m3/h-m3

Fan Capacity per square meter m3/h-m2

4.0 - 5.0

12.0 - 16.0

6.0

18.0

ASHRAE

4.4

13.3

NFPA

6.0

18.0

England US NFPA

CAR PARK SMOKE CONTROL Removal of Smoke

• Helping fire brigades with evacuation of smoke more rapidly through ventilation after the fire is extinguished.

Discharge • It is made to help of reducing smoke density Smoke and temperature level

during fire. • Smoke evacuation system does not aim to protect any part of the car park against smoke or help people’s evacuation from the car park.

Smoke Control

• Helping fire brigades for locating the source of fire • Controlling fire more rapidly • Performing required search and rescue operations

EXHAUST

EXHAUST

EXHAUST

SUPPLY

EXHAUST

SUPPLY

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STANDARDS FOR SMOKE CONTROL BS 7346-7

Components for smoke and heat control, Part 7: Code of practice on functional recommendations and calculation methods for smoke and heat control systems for covered car parks systems.

TS EN 12101

Smoke and heat control systems Part 5: Guidelines on functional recommendations and calculation methods forbsmoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems Part 5: Calculation methods for smoke and heat discharge systems.

NFPA 92

Recomended Practice for Smoke-Control System

Smoke released from fires in enclosed car parks is very dangerous because it can move very fast through the partitions in the car park without encountering any obstacles. If these partitions are wide and height of the car park is low, smoke free lower layer depth decreases and smoke spreads in whole car park and it gets difficult to find the source of fire because of poor visibility. About ten years ago, enclosed car park ventilation was used to be made by exhaust of dirty air and supply outdoor air only by use of ducted system or ventilation of outdoor air naturally. This sytem was also used for the exhaust of smoke at the time of fire. The fact that ducted HVAC systems are cumbrous in installation, cost, energy consumption, artitechtual conditions and aesthetics has recently paved the way for jet fan systems that are more innovative and ergonomic and resulted them to become more popular and widely used.

Basic Principle in Jet Fan Systems Basic principle of jet fan systems is directing smoke to the building exhaust openings (shafts) by creating momentum in necessary situations.This type of system provides advantages in proper distribution of fresh air in the whole enclosed space and exhaust of this air. This system is composed of main exhaust fans, exhaust shafts; fresh air fans and fresh air shafts in multi storey car parks, jet fans, CO detector systems, smoke or heat detector systems, smoke dampers, fresh air dampers, main control panels and other panels.

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Advantages of jet fan systems over other systems; Because the only duct line in a jet fan system is the building shaft; pressure losses in jet fan systems will be less than the other systems. Consequently, power consumption and operating costs of fan motors used in jet fan systems will be less than the other systems. In ducted systems, 50% of the exhaust grills are designed at ceiling level and 50% of them are designed at ground level. Because jet fan systems create high velocity air flows at ceiling level; heavy gases at the ground level are directed to exhaust shaft by mixing with the exhaust flow. Taking into consideration that the smoke is stratified at the ceiling level at the beginning of fire, ducted system will only use 50 % of its capacity. When the smoke reaches the ground, it will not be able to provide the visibility range specified in standards.

REVERSE STRATIFICATION

VENTILATION

FIRE SOURCE

Another advantage of jet fan systems is keeping smoke under control in case of fire by partitioning the car park according to the fire scenarios. So, ducted systems can discharge smoke but cannot control smoke.

Jet fan systems can discharge smoke faster than traditional ducted systems which typically have 10 air change rate per hour. Jet fans are only used for directing airflow and reverse stratification if air flow velocity exceeds critical air flow velocity. Because car parks are very wide spaces, airflow control is much more complicated. Jet fans should prevent smoke from diffusing transversely through proper design.

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Jet fan systems should be considered as a whole. Every step concerning the system should be considered properly and carefully. Proper design, CFD and car park analyses are important steps in system’s design. Production, automation and service are other important steps. Production should be supported by research and development.

Fire Energy Is Transferred To Smoke

Air Flow

Air Flow

Critical Velocity

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2

System Design 2.1. Present Arrangements and Standards in Car Park Ventilation It is required in our country that smoke exhaust system is used in enclosed car parks over 2.000 m2. This is stated in article 60 under “Regulation on Fire Protection of Buildings” (2009). 1. In order to consider the car parks, which are used for motor vehicles, as open type, the total opening area must be more than 5% of the floor area. Otherwise, these car parks are considered enclosed. In open car parks, if the openings are on both facades, they must be opposing and each opening area must be more than half of the total necessary opening area. If the openings face an open space like an areaway, the width of the open space in question must at least be as high as story height of the car park and for each additional story opening to areaway, it must be increased at least as much as its half. In enclosed car parks covering a total area of over 600 m2, automatic sprinkler system, fire extinguisher cabinet and hose couplings must be present. 2. For enclosed car parks over 2.000 m2, mechanical smoke exhaust system must be set up. This system must be independent from other systems serving other parts of the building and provide at least 10 air changes per hour. As there is no criterion in the fire code of our country regarding the use of jet fans, “Internationally accepted standards should be taken as a basis in matters not stated in the regulations“ should be applied. Most known and applied source, “Code of

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62

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN

CFD ANALYSIS

PROJECT DESIGNING

PRODUCTION

TEST

AUTOMATION

COMISSIONING

AFTER SALES SERVICES

practice on functional recommendations and calculation methods for smoke and heat control systems for covered car parks” BS7346-7:2006, should be taken as a basis. As per this standard, on the condition that jet fans are used in car parks, smoke zones will be properly designed for safety and automatic fire detection system will be set up. In the fire code of Turkey and other standards, it is stated that 10 air changes minimum is required. However, the word ‘minimum’ is generally omitted and ‘10 air changes’ is taken as a standard without the consideration of design criteria. BS 7346-7:2006 mentions 4MW of fire load in car parks having a sprinkler system. However, vehicles such as public transport vehicles, minivans and jeeps, carry much more fire loads than what is specified as a basis. As the usage of plastics has risen in the structure of such today’s vehicles, the fire load of these vehicles is at least twice more than the ones determined for normal vehicles and there are also examples of some vehicles having five times more fire loads. Also taking into account the materials used in automobile upholster, the real fire potential will be much higher. While determining the smoke exhaust rate, ‘10 air change’ generally remains insufficient.

The required minimum smoke exhaust theory should be based as per the following data; Released heat load Radiation losses Ring of fire Open section beneath the smoke layer Supply air temperature

: 4MW : 25 % : 12 m : 1.75 m : 15 °C

As per the specified values, the required minimum smoke exhaust rate is around 60.000 m3/h.

2.2. Criteria to be considered during design At the stage of designing jet fan ventilation systems, the following points should be taken into consideration in general; • Exhaust points • Fresh air intake points • Fire load in design • Means of Egress • Fire-fighting (Fire brigades’ access point to the building) • Car park geometry • Required Fresh air flow rate • Required Exhaust air flow rate • Smoke control • Activation of jet fans • Other factors

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2.2.1 Exhaust system One or more exhaust outlets are placed at the points that are believed to be most appropriate and practical. They are most ideal to be across the fresh air intake and at the furthest point within the car-park borders. Minimum two parallel fans should be placed to each exhaust shaft.Exhaust shafts should either be of ferro-concrete or steel construction. These practices will enable an effective air flow within the car park. Big car parks should be divided into zones taking into account the standardized boundaries and geometry. Each zone should have an exhaust shaft. These exhaust shafts should be away from the zone borders if there is not any physical division in between the zones. As per BS, zone border should be 2.000 m2 in sprinkler free systems and 4.000 m2 in systems with sprinkler.

2.2.2 Fresh Air Supply The car parks should be designed in a way to supply fresh air. In single storey car parks, ramps usually supply this need. Fresh air supply enables the ramps that are exposed to high concentrations of poisonous gas released due to traffic to be efficiently ventilated. In multi-storey car parks, alternative ways are being developed for fresh air supply. For fresh air supply in these car parks, holes for fresh air shafts are born on walls and fans are placed inside the shafts.

2.2.3. Fire load calculation Fire load calculation is an important factor for creating a realistic design and calculating a reliable ventilation flow rate. It is generally accepted that 4 MW of energy is released from a car fire at peak heat release rate. However, as stated earlier, some vehicle types have much more fire loads than this.

2.2.4. Means of Egress The emergency exit points and access route of fire brigades should be determined at the stage of designing. To avoid exposure to smoke in emergency exit and fire brigade access points, these points should be well identified. During jet fan distribution and localization of shafts, this factor should not be overlooked. As shown in Figure 1, smoke is controlled at the time of fire in order to keep the poisonous gases away from the emergency exits and through that way, fresh air is preserved in bigger part of the car park.

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This is one of the main differences that distinguish the ducted systems from jet fan system. Ducted systems discharge the flue gases from the grills located both low and high. Jet Fan Systems, on the other hand, different in principle provides a better smoke control with the help of jet fans.

FRESH AIR Figure 1 – General view of the jet fan smoke exhaust systems

Ducted System 50 % suction from upper section

50 % suction from lower section

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2.2.5. Fire-fighting

Rendering the access of fire brigades to the building as well as their fire-fighting efforts possible is the key factor of a car-park ventilation system. Regardless of where the fire breaks out, the design of the building should allow the fire- fighting teams to find at least one access point not affected by the smoke. So, by keeping the visibility range at sufficient levels, it is enabled that the fire brigades approach the scene safer and intervene in a more cautious way. Ducted systems that can be identified as “traditional” cause the visibility range to be at limited levels by letting smoke spread to all parts of the car park, so it hinders human escape and fire brigades’ reach to the fire point as well as their intervention. With the help of an exhaust flow rate calculated by taking the engineer’s approach, jet fan system can control the smoke regardless of car park size. This will make both the reach of emergency exit points and the access and intervention of fire brigades possible.

2.2.6. Fresh Air Flow Rate Fans inside shaft supply required amount of air and keep the CO concentration inside the car park at a specific rate depending on the level of poisonous gases released due to vehicle traffic inside. The highest CO concentration allowed by World Health Organization (WHO 1987) in order to create a healthy environment inside the car parks is; 75 ppm for 1 hour 25 ppm for 8 hours In German Standards (2004), this rate is declared as 50 to 60 in average for a 15 minute long period. In English Standards (2006), it is 30 ppm for 8 hours and cannot exceed 90 ppm on ramps and holes for 15 minutes. The practice in our country is close to German Standards. Under normal ventilation conditions, air flow rates can be set as 3 air changes per hour at the times when vehicle traffic is not intense inside the car park. The number of jet fans that are controlled as per the level of poisonous gases inside and the quantity of flow rates can be diversified. The air change as per BS 7346 Standard for daily ventilation: Single storey car park volume - 6 air changes per hour For daily ventilation, ‘4 to 5 air changes’ is applied per hour in our country. The cycle of the jet fans identified by the fresh air quantity supplied depending on the smoke release and the exhaust quantity during fire is switched by means of sensors. Fresh air supplied during smoke exhaust/discharge circulates all through the fire zone by means of jet fans which are located according to the previously determined fire scenario. By this way, the smoke is carried to the shaft dampers. However, it is important to state that the shaft dampers only at the fire zone should be open at the time of fire. The closed shaft dampers on other floors will prevent the spread of smoke to these floors.

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Region-1

Region-1

Region-2

Region-2

Region-3

Region-3

Fire Control System In Region 2

Region-1

Region-1

Region-2

Region-2

Region-3

Region-3

Region-1

Region-2

Region-3

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2.2.7. Smoke Control Smoke exhaust system is set up in order to evacuate the people in the car park at the time of fire before they are harmed by the smoke, increase the visibility range of the fire brigades who arrive at the scene of incident and prevent the temperature rise within the car park. As a basic guide, in order to keep the smoke under control, it should be discharged with the exhaust capacity as much as the least released smoke flow rate. Fan capacities should be determined based on this criterion for car parks and zones less than 2000 m2 rather than 10 air change. The smoke is directed to the exhaust point through an air corridor by the jet flows created by the jet fans. At the time and after the exhaust system and jet fans catch the smoke, a smoke corridor will be formed. Jet fans to be activated at the time of fire depend on the zone where the fire breaks out. The information provided through the fire detection system helps the fans control the smoke flow. The activation of all the jet fans available or many in numbers causes excessive and unbounded air flow also overloading the shafts. So, the car parks are divided into zones having proper smoke control within in order to avoid the unnecessary functioning of jet fans in big car parks. This principle is generally figured in Figure 2.

Figure 2- Zone functioning principle in general

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Air velocity in the corridor should be designed in a way to overcome the buoyancy force the smoke was exposed to due to fire load. For this case, a nominal load of 4MW is taken into account. As all the air exhausted from the car park will flow in the smoke corridor, it will also have a significant cooling effect on the flue gas. This way, the fire damage caused by the flue gas will be reduced to a certain extent. The width of the smoke corridor depends on a number that changes based on factors such as the height of the above of the car park beam, number of the beam and depth of the beam, size of the car park and car park geometry. Taking the factors affecting the width of smoke corridor as a basis; velocity related with the height of the above of the car park beam is required for the control of the flow created by a certain fire load. Taking this into consideration, the air flow volume to be exhausted from the car park will need to be calculated depending on the fire conditions. This is figured in Figure 3.

Figure 3- Smoke corridor

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Figure 4- Protection of floors where there is no fire

2.2.7. Activation of Jet Fans At the time of system design, the below listed criteria should be taken into consideration in order to ensure reliability. • Fan impulse • Distance between fans • Number of fans • Exhaust flow rates of fans in shafts • Smoke displacement quantity • Location limits Jet fan impulse enables the movement of 8 times more of the air than the quantity passing through the fan. As a result, the unnecessary usage of fans will render the system useless as mentioned earlier. The usage of limited number of fans, on the other hand, will remain insufficient for the system’s control of the air flow. With regard to location limits, they affect the aerodynamic performance of the system in forecasting the intervals in between and numbers of jet fans to be placed.

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Other Factors to be taken into consideration in project designing 1. Smoke exhaust shafts should be positioned as per the fire escape stair locations. 2. During the positioning and directing of jet fans, it should be paid attention that the entrained smoke will not affect the fire escape stairs and escape corridors and not enter the safety halls and stairs due to dynamic pressure. 3. In jet fan systems, exhaust discharge fans should immediately become active to enable the required smoke discharge. After the evacuation of the people from the car park, jet fans should be activated to direct the smoke to exit points. • The duration of this process depends on one or a few factors; • The geometry and size of the car park • Location and number of jet and discharge fans • The number of people present in the car park • Location and number of exits • This time period is generally considered as 3 minutes. 4. The air velocity should not exceed 5 m/s in exit routes and ramps. Exceeding of air velocity limit may hinder the people’s escape. 5. Main exhaust fan capacity should be divided into two and connected to different power sources. If any problem occurs, at least 50% of the system will be working this way. 6. Intake openings used for natural ventilation should be sufficient, there should be no smoke recirculation and air should be well distributed. The maximum inflow velocity should be 2m/s. 7. If the jet fans are placed on car park ceilings vertically over the vehicles, the efficiency is 55 % whereas when placed horizontally on the driving corridor ceiling, the efficiency is 90 %. 8. In order to prevent the attraction of airflow to the ceiling (coanda effect), reflectors are used in order to keep the air away from the ceiling. DOĞRU

YERLEŞİM

RIGHT PLACEMENT

WRONG PLACEMENT

=

CORRECT PLACEMENT

RIGHT PLACEMENT

WRONG PLACEMENT

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9. In open car-parks, dead spots can be eliminated by supporting the natural ventilation by jet fans. 10. Due to low ceiling height in underground car-parks (around 2.5 meters), it should be taken into account that the smoke may spread to the whole floor in a very short time in case of fire. 11. During the sizing of the fan group, pressure drop that occurs in the entire system starting from the fresh air intake until the exhaust point should be taken into account. 12. Beams or any other obstacle on the ceiling should be taken into account while placing the jet fans. These obstacles cause turbulence by developing resistance to airflow.

DISTANCE OF SUCTION SIDE

DISTANCE BETWEEN JET FAN AND CEILING DISTANCE TO BEAMS

13. Necessary precautions should be taken for the obstacles close to jet fans. The beams and columns should not prevent the smoke from spreading along and not cause turbulence. For the highest performance of fans, the distance between the nearest beam/wall and fan should at least be 0.5 m at the fan entrance and 2 m at the fan exit. Beam height should not be more than 0.4 m. In case of otherwise, the fans should be hung down or the distance to the beam should be increased. 14. As the installments such as springs, trays etc. pass underneath the beams, mounting of jet fans adjacent to the ceiling does not provide an advantage in terms of benefiting from the car park height. So, the bottom surface of the jet fan should correspond to the bottom surface of the installment which is closest to the floor. 15. Reflux of the smoke should not exceed 10 m. 16. Through jet fans, the air can be carried 20 to 80 meters away. 17. The size and number of jet fans depend on the purpose of use; whether it is for smoke exhaust (CO) or smoke control. 18. At the stage of design, it is necessary to foresee the probable refluxes in case of smoke. The refluxes extend the exhaust time as a result of the adverse direction of the smoke aimed to be discharged. The unwanted flow of smoke is also a factor that affects negatively the escape of people and fire-brigade’s intervention. There is also the risk of smoke entering the unnecessary areas and damaging the building components in vain.

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Why do the refluxes occur? After the smoke is first directed from the jet fan, displacement increases due to a couple of environmental factors mentioned below and momentum effect of the fan over the smoke will be less. As the smoke moves away from this jet effect, an irregular flow will appear and start to spread. So, the arrangement of the jet fan distribution from this angle at optimum level is an important factor. At design stage, foreseeing refluxes requires experience on CFD programs rather than knowledge on fluid dynamics. The intervention of the designer will be more possible after using the related CFD equipment. In order to enlighten this subject, it will be useful to mention a research carried out at Heat and Combustion Engineering Department of Ghent University. As per this research, the following findings were obtained; d= a(vcr-vin) 0 m < d < 15 m. So, reverse stratification distance is related with the critical velocity, feed rate and “a”. a= 111qc” qc”: convective heat transfer per unit area d: reverse stratification distance The following findings were obtained for critical velocity; It increases parallel with the area of the source of fire It increases parallel with the convective heat transfer quantity per unit area It increases parallel with the car park height It slightly decreases as the width of the car park increases These situations will naturally go parallel with the horizontal reflux distances. In order to avoid refluxes, it is necessary to correctly arrange the horizontal and vertical distance between the jet fans. As stated, this changes based on the thermal power of the heat source, car-park height and width. The change of critical velocity with the heat flow is shown below. The width here is 16 m and height 2.4 m.

3

Vcr,in (m/s)

2.6 2.2 1.8 1.4 1 0

500

q

-N conv

1000

1500

(kW/m ) 2

AF = 26 m2 - Dh = 2.4 m - w = 16 m Figure 5: Change of critical velocity with the heat flux

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3

Design Control Stage CFD Analyses

3.1 CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Cold Flow Analyses and Smoke Spread Analyses In the system in which the design stage is over and commissioning stage is next, performance evaluation of the system is made with the help of “Cold Smoke Tests”. In this test; smoke tablets and smoke generators are used to observe smoke discharge. However; if the system fails this test, a problem such as observing the system all over again might be faced. Consequently, simulating the test is a better choice than performing it in real life with designed and constructed system. This will obviously be beneficial for the investor in terms of time and cost. If we are to comment on the car park volumes taking into account that there are cars inside either moving or parked in, they have an irregular flow path. The fluid which gained momentum by jet fans is exposed to various surface tensions (in other words “friction forces”). In this point of view, it may not always be possible to predict fluid movements without performing CFD analysis. When interpreting cold flow analyses results, the system should meet the following criteria in evaluating system performance: • Conformity of jet fans to main flow space • Suitability of shaft locations • Preventing refluxes as much as possible • No clearance • System should meet the occupant comfort in terms of shaft air flow velocities • Pressure gradient should not be higher than zero (in terms of refluxes) In addition to fire smoke discharge analyses; • Smoke mushroom cloud diameter should not exceed 10m • Jet fan should make cooling effect (to prevent harmful effects of smoke on building structure) • Smoke should be diluted in terms of displacement (Poisoning effect of smoke should not affect places in high displacement values – smoke is poisonous over 100ppm) • Range of vision values should be in acceptable levels.

3.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Steps In order to evaluate the results when system is constructed and to verify the system design; car park flow analyses are performed after pre-planning period. CFD process

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is performed for optimizing the system and locating clearances if any. Design steps are as follows; After two dimensional design, three dimensional solid geometry is built. Solution is

made after identifying the analysis values required for parameter value solutions such as meshing, flow space in steady state or time dependent numerical web, solution of flow equations in enclosed space; flow velocity, pressure, temperature, local mean lifetime and smoke distribution and concentration, flow rate in any crosssection, sufficiency of ventilation, performance of any fan in working conditions etc. By ‘display’ and ‘complete analysis’ options, problem solving results are revealed in a clearer way.

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t = 240 s

t = 240 s

t = 240 s

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3.3 Cooling Effect of Jet Fans Below are some figures that we believe might be useful. We conducted a study to prove that jet fans also had a cooling effect. According to this study, the temperature of smoke which drifts throughout the space can be reduced down to 30˚C. Consequently, sprinkler equipments which are far from the fire will not be activated and will be prevented from operated in vain.

Figure 6 – Smoke temperature gradient

Figure 7 – Smoke temperature gradient

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Figure 8 – Space Temperature Distribution

Figure 9 – Space Temperature Distribution

Figure 10 – Space Temperature Distribution

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3 System Components

1

Jet Fan Car Park Ventilation System Definitions

I

n the scope of car park ventilation and smoke exhaust systems; car-parks are designed reqiuring the usage of Jet fan ventilation systems, which leaves out the necessity of a duct within the car parks, combined with Jet Fans, Axial Exhaust Fans and Fresh Air Fans.

The system works with the control of jet fans in sufficient numbers, as combined with the usage of main axial exhaust fans in proper capacity, according to sensed CO concentrations and smoke signals, from a programmable main control panel, in line with the flow chart which had been determined earlier. Control panel should be programmed according to the quantity of airflows/ventilation necessary in car park to provide a healthy and safe environment for daily ventilation and ventilation in case of emergency/fire situations. All the equipment and services provided below including detailed engineering studies, project management as described below should be perceived as the inseperable parts of Car Park ventilation system with Jet Fans.

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Main Components of Jet Fan Systems

System Control Panel

Control panel is responsible for the operation of all the mechanical equipments (axial fans, jet fans, smoke/ air dampers, doors etc.) of the system in compliance with the scenarios identified to PLC (Programmable Logic Card), according to the signals coming from all carbon monoxide sensors and/or fire/smoke detection systems.

Jet Fans (In floor ceilings) Jet fans are ventilation equipments which are responsible for transferring the high velocity of air present in car park, have sound absorbers at suction and discharge sides and are assembled to the ceiling. They are responsible for circulating air through all the sections of car park by moving air in small volumes in high velocities and consequently creating a low pressure area near the ceiling of the car park. Capacities, sizes and numbers of equipments required to be used can vary depending on the geometry of car park, suppliers and types of these equipments. Jet fans come ready for assembly process with assemble legs and all accessories from the supplier.

Axial Fans (for exhaust and/or fresh air requirement) Main duty of the axial fans is the discharge of dirty air and/or fire smoke from the car park and supply of fresh air from outside required for the car park. Capacities and power values of axial fans are calculated according to the exhaust and fresh air flow rates specified by local car park fire and ventilation codes. The fans and accessories selected according to these calculations are typically supplied as demounted. These should be assembled properly in the field.

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Storey Dampers (axial fan dampers, wall dampers) Air/Smoke dampers are located in ventilation shafts and are responsible for the circulation of exhaust and/ or fresh air between storeys.

Sound absorbers (round type, offstage type) Sound absorbers are responsible for reducing the noise generated by main axial fans to the desired sound levels. They are located in inlet and outlet of axial fans.

Supplementary and subsidiary equipments (fire doors and screens, hooters, warning signs etc.) Various supplementary devices can be used for increasing the safety level of the system.

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Detection accessories which ensure smooth operation of ventilation system: Fire/Smoke detection systems Thanks to fire /smoke detection systems, it is possible to immediately detect fire or a smoke source in car parks and put fire safety sytems into use. Sensors are distributed and addressed in car park according to the related codes.

CO detection systems By means of CO detection systems, air pollution inside car park can be measured at any time. In line with these measurements, ventilation system works in various capacity levels as per the need. So, ventilation system works with part load when the car park is not fully used whereas it works with full load when the car park is full. Sensors are distributed and addressed in car park according to the related codes. These components and information flow among them are demonstrated below.

Smoke/Fire detection system

Power supply

CO Detection system

Control Panel

Smoke dampers

Jet fans

Axial fans

Fire doors, Fire screens, Hooters, Visual warning signs etc. Supplementary equipments

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2

Definitions of System Components 1. Axial Type Smoke Exhaust Fans (300˚C, durable for 2 hours) General features which axial type smoke exhaust fans should have are listed below; • Fan body should be larger than gear and motor group. • Fan body should be manufactured from hot-dip galvanized steel and fan hub should be manufactured from cast aluminum. • Fans should conform to the temperature and endurance values (300˚C and 2 hours of duration) specified in EN 12101-3. • Fan motors should have the certificates which show that they conform to fire resistance class. • Isolated with ISO-H and in IP 55 protection class, fan motor should be single or double speed IEC type motor. Fan and motor combination should have temperature endurance certificate (Standart EN 12101-3) • Fan blades should be assembled in correct angle with the hub which can meet the required air flow rate. They also should be balanced statically and dynamically according to DIN ISO 1940-1. • Fan body linkage components and motors should have the implementation flexibility for horizontal and vertical assembly. • In cases that the sound levels of fans are considered critical, they may also be supplied with sound absorber body (with double casing, 50 mm rock wool isolation and shell type body). • All the accessories which are used with these fans should endure specified maximum operating temperature. • There should be inspection hatches in the body of these fans which enable access to motor and make wiring easier. • There should be a terminal box coupled on the fan which has high temperature endurance and manufactured from aluminum. Fan motors should be in IP55 protection class. • Power switch box connectors should be manufactured from ceramic. • Fan assembly supports and spring vibration isolators, which are suitable for horizontal and vertical assembly, should be supplied with the fan. • 2 asbest free, fire proof flexible duct connection components and their accessories which support the connection between fan and ducting should be supplied with each fan. • On the condition that the air reverse-returns when the fan is not working or one of the parallel mounted fans is working, and if the suctioning of air over the nonworking fan (by-pass) is mentioned in the project ; back draft damper moving with the air flow should be mounted to the air outlets of these fans. If these dampers are required to be motor driven, one piece of micro switch should be placed on the damper in order to see if it is completely open and the axial fan should not be activated before the damper is in completely open position. (except for emergency situations) • Unless otherwise specified, selected fan maximum rotational cycle should be 1475 rpm. • Power supply should be 380V/50Hz/3 phase

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2. Axial Type Fresh Air Fans General features of axial type fresh air fan are: • Fan body should be larger than gear and motor group. • Fan body should be manufactured from hot-dip galvanized steel and fan hub should be manufactured from cast aluminum. • Fan blades should be assembled in correct angle with the hub which can meet the required air flow rate. They also should be balanced statically and dynamically according to DIN ISO 1940-1--Fan assembly supports and spring vibration isolators, which are suitable for horizontal and vertical assembly, should be supplied with the fan. • There should be inspection hatches in the body of these fans which enable access to motor and make wiring easier. • Fan body linkage components and motors should have the implementation flexibility for horizontal and vertical assembly. • In cases that the sound levels of fans are considered critical, they may also be supplied with sound absorber body (with double casing, 50 mm rock wol isolation and shell type body). • On the condition that the air reverse-returns when the fan is not working or one of the parallel mounted fans is working, and if the suctioning of air over the nonworking fan (by-pass) is mentioned in the project ; back draft damper moving with the air flow should be mounted to the air outlets of these fans. If these dampers are required to be motor driven, one piece of micro switch should be placed on the damper in order to see if it is completely open and the axial fan should not be activated before the damper is in completely open position. (except for emergency situations) • Unless otherwise specified, selected fan maximum rotational cycle should be 1475 rpm. • Power supply should be 380V/50Hz/3 phase

3. Jet Fan (300˚C, durable for 2 hours) • Jet fans should have a body manufactured from hot-dip galvanized steel and should be in form of axial fans. • Fans should conform to the temperature and endurance values specified in EN 12101-3. • Inlets and outlets of jet fans should have a sound absorber and bodies of jet fans should be manufactured in one piece form. • According to DIN ISO 1940-1 norm, it will be statically and dynamically balanced at Q=6,3 quality. • With ISO-H isolation and at IP55 protection class, single speed IEC type motors, which are suitable to run with double speed or frequency convertor, will be used. Together with the fan and motor combinatoion, it should have temperature endurance certificate (EN 12101-3 standard). • Assembly supports should be assembled to the fan body. • Directing blades made of galvanized steel should be existent at the air outlet of the fan in order to direct the airflow. • Fan motor should be 3 phase IEC motor and of efficiency class IE2, insulation class H, protection class IP54. The front connections of the motor exposed to air current with the terminal box outside the body should be made. The cable channels should be made of steel and convenient to function under ambient temperatures. Terminal box protection class should be IP65 and motors should either

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be double or single cycle. For the ease of assembly, there should be support legs on the fan body. • After the jet fans are hung in place and in case a motor intervention is required, the jet fans should have a sliding motor assembly eliminating the need of taking the jet fan down. • In order to avoid any foreign material to gain access inside the fan, protection grid should be mounted over the fan inlet and this grid should be made of ganvanized steel wires.

4. Storey Dampers Smoke dampers, which are commanded by car park ventilation/jet fan system control panel, has multiple fan blades and suitable for operation in high temperature levels. Drive on/drive off and off position should have an indicator, the length of a single blade should not exceed 2.0 m, the thickness of blades should be 1,50 mm minimum and airfoil. Damper frame should be manufactured from galvanized sheet metal. To two position damper servomotor and damper-servomotor link mechanism, all kinds of accessories serving for the intended purpose are included even if it is not mentioned here. Frame should have a flange which allows damper to be directly mounted to the wall. Damper blades are moved by a servomotor which is connected to its body. Servomotor and its mechanism are placed in an independent partition in the damper body.

5. System Control Panel Jet fan ventilation systems should be designed central control panel (if defined, support control panels) and a PLC programmed according to an operation algorithm during project phase, and operate with car park CO and smoke detection systems integratedly. Storey dampers, fresh air fans, jet fans and exhaust fans should be controllable by these control panels according to the fire scenario which had been determined. Main MASTER PANEL should be located in automation room and by using this panel; conditions of zones and faults of systems in the zones should be tracked. For the control of all the system components and panels from a single centre, the car park may be watched, commanded and controlled through a computer to be located in an area outside the car park and a screen connected to it. Frequency converters of main shaft and jet fans should be located inside theses control panels. The control points for Jet & Axial fans, which are to be controlled by means of frequency converters, are listed below; • Operating information • Fault information • Control in desired cycle rate between 0% - 100% - proportional control • Rotation selection (For bi-directional fans) • Reporting on Operation duration • Maintenance time alert • “Motor over loaded” alert

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• • • • • •

“Motor stopped” alert “Low voltage” alert “High voltage” alert “Grounding fault” alert U/V/W phase for each (grounding short circuit information) Phase U-V, U-W, V-W short circuit information

For motorized smoke dampers; • Full open information • Control For other systems • Carbon monoxide alarm (2 grades and if desired more) • Fire alarm information • There should be a Fire Situation Reset push button on the body. • There should be light indicators showing Stand-by / Fault / CO modes. Features which control panels should have; • TUV or equivalent approval • CO-sampling sensors • All required system control modes and communication BUS interfaces • Coordination and protocol equalizations with Garage Fire and Smoke Detection System, which are not within the scope of this specification but will be supplied and mounted as part of Electric Work • Each zone on the master panel can be activated manually. • Panels should be able to control all the equipments, shaft fans and jet fans in the system one by one as independent from each other, at the required speed and direction and in a way that they can be programmed at different times. PLC software should be written in that respect. • All system components and fault signals should be tracked by a touch-operated LCD screen which is located on master panel. • Related automation software, all internal and operational diagrams, related programming, • Fire situation reset push button • Light indicators of Stand-by / fault / CO modes • Timer for controlling CO ventilation There should be dry contacts for the ones listed below: • For CO detection system • For fire alarm system • For system tracking by BAS (Stand-by / fault / CO / Fire etc.) Related automation software, all internal and operational diagrams and programming should be supplied with control panel. Maintenance switches: In order to be able to de-energize during maintenance, there should be on and off maintenance switch on the jet fans. If there is lock switch on the control panel for jet fan, there might not be an extra maintenance switch. With the fire signal, it should be enabled that fans are constantly run at high temperature by by-passing the frequency convertors and thermic protectors on the panels. It should be possible to observe all the system components through a touch screen of LCD panel on the Master panel and intervene.

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6. CDF (Computational Fluid Dynamics Stimulation) For achieving smoke control in a closed space, project design is made according to air volume to be exhausted, shape and size of car parking garage, jet fan selection determined by shaft locations. Project is supported by computational fluid dynamics analyses. It is examined by the simulations generated by these analyses which focus on discharge of exhaust gases in building in daily use or in case of fire. This way, the behaviour of air flow and smoke exhaust in a real case can be foreseen. In order to verify the project studies on jet fan ventilation system and ascertain the position of jet fans in a sensitive manner, 3D model of the car park in question should be formed and computional fluid dynamics stimulation should be done under the defined conditions. Stimulation should be done through CFX, CFDesign or similar internationally known software. The number and location of jet fans should be optimized depending on the stimulation results. As a result of this study; • Details of air flow to appear within the car park • Air velocity profiles • Smoke distributions should be presented with detailed reports. In a fire scenario, the following analyses should be made: • Smoke concentration at ceiling level, visibility range and air movements • Smoke concentration 1,5 meters above the floor, visibility range and air movements • Heat distribution within the car park at the time of fire • Air velocity profiles For daily ventilation, the following analyses should be made; • Distribution of air velocity and air movements 0,5 meter above the floor • Distribution of air velocity and air movements 1,5 meters above the floor • Distribution of air velocity and air movements 2,0 meters above the floor • Details of air flow details to appear within the car park • Air velocity profiles

7. Commissioning and Delivery All electrical data, current values consumed by the fans at various speeds, sound levels, air volumes should be measured and presented as a report. The software on the control panel should be checked and necessary settings/revisions should be made according to field measurements. Whether the system scenario is realistic or not should be checked and necessary corrections should be made. Cold smoke test should be carried out at different floor and zones and the functionality of the system should be confirmed. All the results should be presented as a report.

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4 Project Management Period

1. PREPARATIONS FOR ASSEMBLY 2. ASSEMBLY

• • • • • • • • •

Assembly safety Mechanical assembly Controls on jet fans prior to assembly, jet fan assembly Controls on axial fans prior to assembly, axial fan assembly Mechanical assembly of dampers and sound absorbers Electrical equipment assembly Automation panel assembly Wiring assembly End connections of panels and fan motors, connection of jet fans to grid circuit

3. COMMISSIONING Start up

• • •

System control panel Controls on jet fans before start-up Controls on axial fans before start-up

4. TEST

• • • • • • • •

System mechanical tests Sytem electrical tests System functional tests Smoke test Cold smoke test Hot smoke test CFD test Real fire test

5. PERIODICAL CONTROLS AND MAINTENANCE

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1

Preparations before the Assembly

B

efore giving a start to the assembly, it is very important to go through the following tasks. First of all, necessary assignments should be made within the supplier and project officer should be designated. This project officer will be in close communication with the customer at all the stages of system set-up in the field until the end of the project and will be responsible for the smooth commissioning of the system.

Visits should be paid to the field and during these visits; • General observation should be made about the field, • Exhaust shafts and fresh air intake points should be checked, • Jet fan assembly locations should be checked • Ventilation shafts exhaust and fresh air points should be checked, their sizes should be measured and compared with the values in the project, constructional condition of the shaft should be checked. If gaps are planned to be left for natural air ingress, their sizes and locations should be checked. The discharged air should be prevented from going back in. The details not shown in the project should be checked in the car park; • Openings not visible in the plan, possible by-pass points, • Obstacles, extremely low beams and/or curtain walls, • Locations, directions and structures of ramps and/or vehicle entrance/exit points openings • Structure of shafts, especially the shaft inlets opening outwards should be checked. • The locations of air dampers to be put in shafts should be checked. • Attention should be paid to the release points of exhaust air to the atmosphere Scenarios for the daily and emergency operations of the system should be determined. After this, all will be programmed to PLC (Programmable Logic Card) by the authorized control panel manufacturer. For the proper setting of this scenario, a systems flowchart should be prepared by the supplier. This chart should be shared with the customer and project officers. The supplier should also check the types of energy cables that will command the project equipment and make the necessary warnings ensuring the usage of correct cable types in the field. Otherwise, although the field equipment is fire resistant, the whole system may lose its function at the time of fire due to the usage of incorrect cable types and that the cables are not fire resistant.

It should be born in mind at all stages that jet fan ventilation system is a fire safety system.

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2

Assembly Assembly Safety • • • • • • • • • • •

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Fans should not be assembled in explosive and hazardous areas. Protective foil on jet fans should be removed only after jet fan is assembled in its place. Against all involuntary actions, precautions should be taken at the time of assembly to avoid the rotation of blades. General safety rules should be taken into account against all probable accidents. Against involuntary operations, main switch should be turned off. Fans should be lifted and carried by means of proper lifting and transport vehicles. During lifting and transport, one should not stay under the load in case of probable accidents caused by the sliding and falling of the equipment. The assembly should be done by the authorized and competent staff meeting all the requirements of the process. All the system obligations and specifications should be fulfilled by the system builder and implementer. For all kinds of operations, precautions should be taken against the rotation of blades in case of any inattentive behavior. While watching the rotation of fan rotor, safety glasses should be used. Safety parts (motor protection, safety grid etc) should not be demounted and deactivated. It should be checked as to whether they are in place and correctly mounted.

MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY

Controls on jet fans before assembly • After jet fan is unpacked, it should be checked before mounting as to whether any damage is sustained during transportation.

Jet Fan Assembly • Position of jet fan mounting should be in compliance with the project. If there is anything non-conforming /against the project, the project officers should be informed and made aware accordingly. Necessary measures should be taken in the field. • Jet fans can either be directly mounted to the ceiling or hung by a suspension system depending on the structure of the ceiling. • Jet fan should be mounted as in balanced and proper state should not oscillate and cause tautening of the body, jet fan blades should be prevented from rubbing the body. • Jet fan mounting holes should first be marked on the ceiling by use of a template and then drilled. • Anchor bolts should be screwed well and balanced. • Jet fan carrier rails are recommended to be mounted to the ceiling by use of minimum M8 screws. • If there are obstructions in the direction of jet fan air outlets, jet fan should be levelled down and/or horizontally moved. All changes should be noted to the project and reported to the project officers. • The lengths and diameters of carrier should be sufficient and the weight of the jet fan unit should be distributed equally on the carrier. • Jet fan body should be protected against any deformation throughout the assembly process. • Jet fan should be within reach for maintenance works.

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Controls on axial fans before assembly • After the axial fan is unpacked, it should be checked before mounting as to whether any damage is sustained during transportation.

Axial Fan Assembly • Local laws, standards, norms and rules should be taken into consideration. • If the fan is mounted outdoors, rain water should certainly be prevented from gaining access into the fan or the isolation. Flexible connection should be used in round sound absorber connection of fans. This is generally a well-accepted practice. • “Vibration isolator” should be placed beneath the fan carrier legs in order to avoid active and passive vibration. • It should be ensured that the fan mounting location is convenient for maintenance works.

Mechanical Assembly of Dampers and Sound Absorbers • Motorized dampers should be selected, because the automation will be turned on and off automatically in line with the data received from the system as required by the program. • On and off must be as fast as possible (3 – 15 seconds) • There should be no object hindering the movement of blades. Control and change of the electric motor should be taken into consideration at the time of assembly. • Sound absorbers should be mounted to the exhaust fan by flexible connections and their weights should be on the floor by use of carrying legs independent from the fan.

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLY Automation Panel Assembly • Automation panel should be located on a carrying base as stated in the project. • Automation panel should be at a different location. ATTENTION! If the fan is to be operated as connected to the fire alarm system, all the electrical protections of fan motor including PTC (thermistor) should be deactivated at the time of fire.

Wire Harness Assembly • Hot-dip galvanized cable ducts should be used for electric cables and these cables should be properly installed through these ducts. • Data cables should not be installed in the same duct with the energy cables. Energy cables have a negative effect on the transmitted data. • All kinds of cables should be addressed in a systematic way and labeled with a durable material. • Cables should be selected as per the conditions of fire code in practice.

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• The cables should be in one piece with no joints from the supply point until the receiver.

Making the end connections of panels and fan motors 1. Panel modules should be connected by mechanical assembly and mounted to the floor over a carrying base. 2. The inlets to the panel and end connections of coupling wire between all kinds of supply, power, control and dead cables that reached the panel and panel modules should be made in a safe and tight manner. 3. The inlet joints and end connections of fan motor cables to terminal box should be made by use of flexible end connectors, cord end terminal and cable terminal. 4. Terminal box covers should be closed, nuts including sleeve nuts should be screwed tight enough.

Connection of Jet Fan to Grid Circuit • Connection should be made by licensed electricians. • After the completion of connection, connection box cover should be tightly closed, dust ingress or moisture should be avoided. • Electrical data are present on the identification plate of the jet fan. Jet fan should be connected to the grid circuit with a 4 core, noncombustible, nonflammable, heat tolerant cable that is also of good quality without any addition made. Electric cable should not be in contact with the jet fan body or attached.

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3

Commissioning Start-up System control panel • The location of the control panel should be kept closed against the entry of any personnel but the competent ones. To ensure this, the area should be furnished with all kinds of security and warning signs. • Thermal switch current settings in the panel should be made in accordance with the nominal currents of fan motors. • The connection points of all the equipment in the panel, contactor, terminal and digital / analog inputs should be checked once more and the connecting screws should be tightened if necessary. • Functional checks of control panel ventilation system and covers should be made. The location of control panel should be free of moisture and dust. Controls before the start-up of jet fans The following controls should be made; • There is not any foreign material on the jet fan or within the sound absorber and protective members are in place • Electrical connections are in accordance with the wiring diagram and electrical installation codes in practice • There is nobody in front of the jet fan when it first runs for the sake of prevent any free parts that might have remained inside from popping out causing injuries. • After the above controls, jet fan is run for a short while and stopped to check the rotation of the fan blade. The fan blade should be in the same direction as the arrow sign on the fan body. If it rotates in the opposite direction, 2 of the phases should be replaced. While running the jet fan once more to see if it is in operational order, the following controls should be made; • Current (amperage) measurement should be made at both speeds and it should be ensured that the measured rates are not above the nominal currents stated in the label. • It should be ensured that the jet fan blades rotate in a smooth manner and there is no extreme sound caused by vibration. Controls before the start-up of axial fans • The electrical connections should be completed in a proper manner and the motor protection should be mounted. • Protecting members such as safety grid should be in place • Foreign materials and assembly equipments should be put away from the operation zone. • Cable entries should be isolated (against water) • Label power rates should not be exceeded. • Connections should be made in accordance with the label rates. • Fan suction inlet should be clean After the above controls, axial fan is run for a short while and stopped to check the rotation of the fan blade. The fan blade should be in the same direction as the arrow sign on the fan body. If it rotates in the opposite direction, 2 of the phases should be replaced.

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4

Test System Mechanical Tests All the fans that have been mounted are checked mechanically in order to see if they are secure enough. It should be checked that the jet fan blades rotate smoothly. It should be ensured that there is no extreme sound caused by vibration. Flexibility of vibration insulator pads during the operation of fans should be checked.

System Electrical Tests Voltage reaching each fan motor is measured. It should be observed that the fan is suitable for the operating voltage and all three phases are complete and in close rates. Current (amperage) measurement should be made at both speeds and it should be ensured that the measured rates are not above the nominal currents stated in the label.

System Functional Tests Before giving a start to system functional tests, the operations of CO and smoke detection systems to relay data to car-park ventilation system should be checked by the customer. The contractor should not initiate the functional tests before receiving a confirmation from the customer. It is checked that the system is operating synchronously as per the fire and ventilation scenarios. It is checked that the CO detection, fire detection and other signals reach the automation panel. It should be tested that there is no problem in the operation of jet fans, exhaust and fresh air fans, motor operated dampers in the way they are programmed as per the CO/fire signals coming from the areas stated in the project. The operation of fans is tested under daily ventilation conditions.

Cold Smoke Test In cold smoke test, artificial smoke is generated by special smoke tablets or smoke machines in an area selected as per the demand of the customer. Signal of the sensor in that area is obtained artificially. It is observed that the fans connected to this signal operate in accordance with the fire scenario. Before the smoke spreads out, it is observed that the smoke is directed to the exhaust point under the control of jet fans and discharged.

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98

Hot Smoke Test Hot Smoke Test should certainly be carried out in the custody of fire brigades only after the permission granted by the local fire authority. In hot smoke test, hot smoke is generated by use of special fire trays in an area selected in line with the demand of the customer. It is aimed to exhaust the smoke at high temperature caused by the conflagration of flammable chemicals on these trays. Signal of the sensor in that area is obtained artificially. It is observed that the fans connected to this signal operate in accordance with the fire scenario. Before the smoke spreads out, it is observed that the smoke is directed to the exhaust point under the control of jet fans and discharged.

CFD Test The purpose is to start a car fire in a virtual environment and observe the smoke exhaust ability of the car park ventilation system. This way, safety of the system can be improved by making critical decisions even before the assembly process. Before CFD analysis, the following subjects should be mutually agreed upon; • Approved projects should be received from the customer. • Critical fire points should be ascertained on the project. • Fire size in MW, number of cars planned to be burnt, number of fires to break out should be decided. • Fire curve should be agreed. After agreement is reached regarding these items, the contractor will carry out CDF analysis, prepare the necessary modellings and report to be submitted to the approval.

Real Fire Test Real fire test should certainly be carried out in the custody of fire brigades only after the permission granted by the local fire authority. In real fire test, a car is set on fire at an area selected as per the demand of the customer and hot smoke is generated. It is aimed to exhaust the smoke at high temperature caused by the fire artificially started inside these cars. Actual / Artificial signal of the sensor in that area is obtained. It is observed that the fans connected to this signal operate in accordance with the fire scenario. Before the smoke spreads out, it is observed that the smoke is directed to the exhaust point under the control of jet fans and discharged.

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Periodical Control and Maintenance Fire Regulations of Turkey, 2009 SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS Design Principles – Article 85 In this regulation, it is required that all kinds of systems, device and equipment should be tested during the course of assembly and operation enabling the continuity of performance and operations, and are put through periodical controls, tests and maintenance. Pressurization, ventilation and smoke discharge systems to be installed should be tested and maintained under the custody of fire attendent. In order not to face with an undesired condition, periodical controls should be regularly made. The following controls are recommended to be made once a year; ATTENTION! The operations mentioned in items a,b and c should be carried out after electricity is cut off from the master switch. a. It should be ensured that the hub screw of the fan blade is not loose; if so, it should be tightened. b. If fan blade is dirty, it should be cleaned. c. It should be ensured that the protecting components are in place. d. Current (amperage) measurement should be made at both speeds. e. Vibration should be checked. f. Whether there is a loud noise caused by the engine bearing should be checked. Vibration detection: dirty and corroded blades may lead to an increase in vibration. In this case, the blades should be cleaned or balanced once again; if no result is obtained, it might be necessary to renew the blade. Roller Bearings: average life expectancy of bearings mostly depends on the operating conditions and the environment. Sound and heating should be checked periodically. It is recommended that the results of controls as of the first start-up should be recorded.

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5 Pressurization Systems

1

2

1. Axial pressurization fans 2. Smoke detector 3. Differential pressure sensor 4. Inverter control panel

3

4

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Pressurization Systems

Pressurization Systems – Article 89 1. If the stair well height is higher than 30.5 m, emergency satairway should be pressurized (except for residences). Even if emergency stairways which serve for basement and upper storeys are in the same stairwell and if separated by a smoke proof wall at ground level which is resistant to fire for 120 minutes and has separate exits, the height of upper storeys are taken as base for the stairwell. 2. In the buildings that have more than 4 basements, emergency stairways which serve for basements are pressurized. 3. If building height is more than 51.50m, pressurization of emergency stairways is a must. 4. Emergency lift shafts should be pressurized in order not to be affected by fire. 5. When the pressurization system works and all the doors are closed, pressure difference between pressurized stairwell and occupied spaces should at least be 50 Pa. In case the doors are open, this value should at least be 15 Pa. NFPA 92

Building Type

Ceiling Height (m)

Pressure Difference (Pa)

With Sprinkler

Any

12.5

Without Sprinkler

2.75

25.0

Without Sprinkler

4.57

35.0

Without Sprinkler

6.40

45.0

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Fire Pressure

Ks T0 TF h

: : : :

3460 kg K/(m2s2) Ambient temperature (K) Fire scene temperature (K) Ceiling height x 2/3

Minimum pressure difference calculation – Article 89

To = 294 K (21˚C) Tf = 1200 K (927˚C) h = (2/3) x 2.75m ΔP = 16.3 Pa With safety factor of 1.5 ΔP = 16.3 Pa x 1.5 ≈ 25 Pa The force applied to the door handle to open the door by overcoming the force applied on the door both by the pressurized air and automatic door closer should not exceed 110 Newton.

Door Handle

Low Pressure Side

High pressure side Door closer

Mr + A ΔP (W/2) – F (W-d) = 0 ΔP : pressure difference, (Pa) F : total force to open the door, (N), Mr : Door closer and friction moments, (N.m) W : Door width, (m) A : Door area, (m2) d : distance between door handle and door frame, (m) Maximum pressure difference is determined according to maximum force which must be applied to the door handle. The purpose is to make sure that people can open the escape doors at any time. Fr = Mr / (w-d) Fr : Force which must be applied to overcome Mr moment, (N), Mr : Door closer and friction moments, (N.m) W : Door width, (m) d : distance between door handle and door frame, (m)

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The force which is required to overcome forces applied by door closing device and friction is specified by Fr. Fr force should be considered in determining upper pressure difference value. Detailed information about Fr values can be found in Design of Smoke Management System and NFPA 92. W=1m H = 2.15 m d = 0.075 m F = 110 N ΔP = 2 (W-d) (F - Fr) / (W A) For Fr = 40 N then ΔP = 60 Pa For Fr = 25 N then ΔP = 73 Pa

Critical velocity (m/s)

(8) Pressurization system should provide required air velocity which is enough to prevent smoke access into the pressurized space during fire-fighting. This air velocity value should be provided when the doors of two adjacent floors and escape doors are full open. Average velocity value should at least be 1 m/s when all the doors are full open.

No wall clearance Wall clearance is 0.93 m2

Wall clearance is 1.86 m2 Wall clearance is 2.79 m2 or Mechanical ventilation

Fire temperature (°C)

(11) For preventing excessive pressure rises in stairwell, it is required to implement solutions like excessive pressure dampers and frequency controlled fan systems. Excessive pressure prevention methods • Opening outside escape doors • Barometrical damper • Variable air volume through feed back control

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Excessive Pressure Prevention Methods Pressure sensor

Floor

Floor

Floor

• Variable cycle fan

Barometrical dampers

Fan

Staircase door open to outside

• Fan with variable line and blade Fan

Floor

Excessive pressure prevention through open door to outside

• Fan with by-pass damper

Excessive pressure prevention through barometrical dampers

Floor

• Fan with inlet vane Fan

Excessive pressure prevention with variable air volume through feed back control

(12) Air supply from multiple points should be made for pressurizing enclosed staircases higher than 25 m. When air supply is made from two supply points, the distance in between these points must at least be half of the staircase height. If the height of the building is more than 51.50m, then there should be a supply point in every floor or in every three floors.

Air Supply from Single Point Pressurization fan Roof level

Supply air

Exterior door

Air Supply From Multiple Points Roof Level

Shaft

Duct

Pressurization fan Exterior door

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There are two main criteria in pressurizing stairwells; one is maintaining the minimum pressure difference value which will prevent smoke ingress into stairwell and the other is keeping the value below the maksimum pressure difference which hinders the opening of doors. The higher the building is, more problems in meeting the maximum and minimum pressure difference criteria depending on the outside temperature appear. Height Limitation

Pressurization Fan Fire Automation • Pressurization fans are called out by fire alarm panel when fire mode is activated by fire detecting sensors, water flow switches and fire alarm button. • If desired, pressurization fans can be activated by building general evacuation warning. • Control units of pressurization fans should be independent for each stairwell and they could operate on their own with the information transmitted from the pressure difference sensors located along stairwell. • Pressurization fans should not stop with the resetting of fire alarm panel. A different reset button should be identified. • If there is smoke in the air which these fans receive from outside, the fans should stop working automatically without any delay.

Roof Level

Shaft

Duct

Pressurization fan Outside door

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1

Stairways In case of a fire in a building, stairwells should be available for residents to evacuate the building easily. To avoid smoke ingress into the stairwell, a supply fan should be used for supplying fresh air into the stairwell (which is called pressurization). The principle of stairwell pressurization systems is generally based on a blow system from a single point by use of a fan placed on the buildings. Smoke control using pressurization can be achieved by overcoming forces caused by chimney effect, wind effect and fire (temperature) effect. Stairwell pressurization is generally made by placing the fan in the top of the building and supplying air from single point. We say generally here because the fan does not necessarily have to be placed on top of the building. It is also possible to locate the fan at the base of the building and pressurize through bottom blowing. The tests in which the exit door is open and air is supply is from one point showed that the pressure difference between the stairway and the occupied space at the areas close to the air supply was at a high level preventing the opening of doors and remained insufficient in avoiding smoke ingress at remote points. Particularly, this situation is felt more significantly in high buildings. Multiple point supply methods are used for eliminating the disadvantages of one point supply. Air supply from multiple points means the supply of air through outlets at different locations into the stairwell by a fan connected ducting system. By using this method, a much more stable pressure distribution can be achieved. The system is simply composed of fan, frequency inverter, smoke detector, control unit, control panel and pressure differential sensor. When the doors are closed, frequency inverter adjusts the fan speed according to the data transmitted from pressure sensor to keep pressure differential of 50Pa between stairwell and indoor. In case of fire, frequency inverter adjusts fan speed to maintain air flow in 1m/s velocity opposite to the direction of the stairs according to the data transmitted from the control panel when the smoke is detected by the detector. This has two aims; first is to evacuate people safely and second is to make the intervention of fire brigades easier. Single-stage or multiple-stage pressurization systems can be achieved by single-injection or multiple-injection. In single-injection systems, pressurization fan is located at the tip. However, single-injection is not sufficient for high stairwells. Singleinjection systems are not recommended for buildings higher than 8 floors (Design of Smoke Management Systems 1992). Particularly, when there are open doors, the required pressure level can not be obtained. Multiple-injection systems are utilized to eliminate the negative effects of open doors. For a safe pressurization system, there should not be more than three floors between two injection points.

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Sample Pressurization Fan Flow Rate and Pressure Loss Calculation As per the standard called “Class E” in BS 5588 – Part 4, calculations are made based on buildings which have an evacuation time of more than 10 minutes. Intended purpose of building use Total number of storeys of the building (basements are included) Construction materials used. Building height Storey height Storey area Stair well building core

: Housing estate : 20 : Intermediate wall thightness values will be : 60 m : 2,7 m : 760 m2 : Has a cross-sectional area of 11.5 m2 in the

Sample Pressurization Fan Flow Rate and Pressure Loss Calculation If the doors between stairwell and indoor are closed, air inside the stairwell will infiltrate into occupied spaces. Infiltration area for each floor can be found by Table 1.

Table 1. Air inflitration data for walls and tiles Constructional Component Building outer walls (building fractures, including fractures of windows and doors) Building interior walls and stairwell walls Elevator well walls (building fractures included but fractures of windows and walls excluded)

Wall tightness

İnflitration area ratio A/Awall

Tight Medium Slack Very Slack

0.70 x 10-4 0.21 x 10-3 0.42 x 10-3 0.13 x 10-2

Tight Medium Slack

0.14 x 10-4 0.11 x 10-3 0.35 x 10-3 İnflitration area ratio A/Awall

İnflitration area ratio A/Atile (Including building fractures and fractures around vertical passages)

Note: A Awall Atile

Medium

0.52 x 10-4

: İnflitration area (m2) : Wall area (m2) : Tile area (m2)

Ası_md = 2 x (2,5 m + 4,6 m) x 2,7 m x (0,11 x 10^-3) = 0,00422 m2

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Area of infiltration from stair door can be found with Table 2 Table 2. İnflitration data when doors are closed Door Type

Inflitration area (m2)

Single-leaf door which opens to pressurized space

0.01

Single-leaf door which opens to outdoor from pressurized space

0.02

Double leaf door

0.03

Elevator Door

0.06

Inflitration area value in the ground floor where the main exit door is found as 0.02m2 and this value is 0.01 m2 in other floors. Because stairwell door (SI_mk) and stairwell wall (SI_md) are parallel connected flow ways; the total effective inflitration area between stairwell and occupied space in ground floor (z) is; Ası_mz = Ası_md + Ası_mkz = 0,00453 + 0,02 = 0,02422 m2 And in other floors (-5..-1\1..15); Ası_m-5..15 = Ası_md (-5..15) + Ası_mk (-5..15) = 0,00453 + 0,01 = 0,01422 m2 Total inflitration area (SI_m) from the stairwell is; Ası_mt = Ası_mz + Ası_m (-5..15) = 0,02422 m2 + 19 storeys x 0,01422 m2 = 0,2944 m2 For the desired pressure value of 50 Pa between stairwell and corridor when the doors are closed (KK), air flow rate passing through infiltration area of 0.3006 m2 is calculated as follows; Habson and Steward Relation

AE = Effective flow area Qkk = 0,83 x 0,2944 √ 50 = 1,728 m3/s In case main exit door in the ground floor, the door of fire floor (the floor where the fire broke out) and the door of the floor above the fire floor are open; the velocity of the air flowing through these doors should be 1 m/s minimum In case the infiltration is caused by open doors, inflitration area is the same as the door sectional area. Pressure difference between hallway and outside is considered to be zero in ground floor. When the air flows from open doors, infiltration area can be accepted as the sectional area of the doors. Because air flow velocity through open doors is considered as 1 m/s, air flow rate in fire floor (yk), which should be discharged from open stair door (SI_yk) to outside is; Qsı_yk = 1.932 m2 x 1 m/s = 1.932 m3/s

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The air which is infiltrated from fire floor to lobby, hallway or occupied spaces should be able to flow outside the building freely. To accomplish this, infiltration areas and openings in building envelope should be sufficient in fire floor. Otherwise, a ventilation opening should be made to the fire-escape stairs from the adjacent space. Minimum Av which is opened directly from hallway to outside Av = 1.932/ 2.5 = 0.773 m2 This opening is considered as a series of air flow paths with door in stairs. Effective flow area in this case is:

Asd_yk = 0.718 m2 Required pressure difference for air to flow at a rate of 1.932 m3/s from an effective infiltration area of 0.718 m2 is;

3Psd_yk = (1,932 m3/s ÷ 0,83 x 0,718)^2 = 10.51 Pa Effective infiltration area should be calculated for the floor which is above the fire floor. However, infiltration area value of the outside walls will be used instead of ventilation opening for this floor. Infiltration area from the outside walls (from Table 1); Aıd_yk = 0.5 x 2 x (20 m + 38 m) x 2,7 m x (0,21 x 10^-3) = 0,0328 m2

Asd_ykü = ((1.932 x 0.0328 ÷ √(1.932^2 + 0.0328^2)) = 0.0328 m2 Infiltration area, from the doors opening to the stairs and from the walls to the occupied spaces, of the other 17 floors (kk) where the doors are closed is calculated as: Ası_kk = 17 floors x 0,01422 m2 = 0.242 m2 Infiltration area from the outside walls is calculated as: AID_kk = 17 x 0.0328 m2 = 0.558 m2 And the total effective infiltration area of these floors is: Asd_kk= ((0.242x0.558÷√(0.242^2+0.558^2)) = 0.221 m2

111

So, total infiltration area between stairwell and outside is calculated as: Asd= 1.932 + 0.718 + 0.0328 + 0.221= 2.904 m2 And air flow rate as per velocity criterion is:

Q = 0.83 x 2.901 m2 x √(10.11)Pa = 7.82 m3/s hesaplanır.

Air Flow Rate Calculation Based on Pressure Difference Criterion In case main exit door in the ground floor, the door of fire floor (the floor where the fire broke out) and the door above the fire floor are open, required air flow rate to keep pressure difference at 10Pa between these floors and outside is: Total infiltration area between stairwell and outside in three floors (ak) where there are open doors (ak) is calculated as; Asd_ak = 1.923 +0.718 + 0.0328 = 2.68 m2 Thus, for 10Pa of pressure difference; Qsd_ak = 0.83 x 2.68 m2 x √10 Pa = 7.03 m3/s

Evaluation of Calculated Air Flow Rate Values In case all the doors are closed and the pressure difference is 50Pa Qkk = 1.764 m3/s Velocity criterion when there is minimum 1 m/s of air velocity from open doors Qhk = 7.8 m3/s Pressure criterion when there is minimum 10 Pa of pressure difference between the stairwell and outdoor in the floors where there are open doors is calculated as Qbk = 7.03 m3/s Because the velocity criterion is the highest value, it is the required air flow value for fan selection. Required minimum air flow rate is 1.764 m3/s for keeping pressure difference at 50Pa and elimination of infiltration when all the doors are closed. If it is very high, the pressure difference cannot be stable at 50Pa and this can cause difficulty in opening the doors. To eliminate this, relief damper or frequency inverter control should be used.

112

Pressure Loss Calculations of Ducts For an 50 x 100 cm duct; Table 4.5 Absolute Surface Roughness Coefficient for Duct Materials (ε) Absolute Surface Coefficient ε (mm)

Type of the material Glass and seamless plastic duct PVC pipe Sheet metal duct (clamped duct) Concrete duct (smooth) Concrete duct (rough) Polished pipe Brick duct Flexibel pipe (according to manufacturing materials)

0,0 ... 0,0015 0,01 0,15 0,5 1,0 ... 3,0 0,0015 3,0 ... 5,0 0,2 ... 3,0

For the sheet metal duct from the table; ε = 0.15 mm = 15 x 10^4 m l = 22 m v = 16.25 m/s d = 0.48 m ε/d = 1.5 x 10^-4 /0.48 = 3.125 10^-04 v.d = 16.25 m/s . 0.48 m = 7.8 m2/s Dynamic viscosity can be found from table 1: 15.68 x 10^-6 m2/s

Inertia forces Viscosity forces vs = Velocity of the fluid d = duct diameter µ = dynamic viscosity of fluid v = kinematic viscosity of fluid – v = µ/ρ ρ = density of fluid Table 1. 1 Dynamic Viscosity Temperature -t(K)

Dynamic Viscosity -μ(kg/m s) x 10-5

Kinematic Viscosity -ν(m2/s) x 10-6

100

0.6924

1.923

150

1.0283

4.343

200

1.3289

7.490

250

1.488

9.49

300

1.983

15.68

350

2.075

20.76

400

2.286

25.90

450

2.484

28.86

113

Re = 10,05/15,68 x 10^-6 = 5 10^5 Duct pressure loss co-efficient value is found “λ = 0.024” from Chart 1.1 by using ε/d ratio and Reynolds number;

For air at 20 ˚C

Smoke

Reynolds number Re

Chart 1.1 calculation of λ;

Duct pressure loss coefficient 114

p1 – p2 : Pressure difference between certain points (N/m2 = Pa) l : Duct length (m) R : Pressure loss in 1 meter (Pa/m) λ : Duct pressure loss coefficient d : Duct diameter (m) ρ : Density of air (kg/m3) v : Velocity of air (m/s)

= 0.024 x 22 m / 0,48 m x (1.2 (kg/m3) / 2) x 16.25^2 = 174 Pa Pressure losses on the diffusers and dampers should also be added to calculated pressure loss.

115

2

Elevators Elevators – ARTICLE 62 • Elevator well and engine room should resist fire at least for 60 minutes and be manufactured from non-flammable materials. • In the elevator well, there should be a ventilation and smoke discharge chimney which has an area of 0.025 times more than the well area (area of the chimney can at least be 0.1m2) or wells should be pressurized. Emergency elevators – ARTICLE 63 • At least one elevator should be used as an emergency elevator in the buildings which are higher than 51.50 meters. • Engine room of the emergency elevator should be a separate room and elevator well should be pressurized.

3

Lobby, Hallway and Common Spaces Obligation – ARTICLE 87 • Smoke control system in the common spaces of buildings, which are higher than 51.50 meters, such as lobbies and hallways is obligatory. Smoke Discharge System Automatization • Hallway smoke discharge system should only be activated if there is smoke in hallway. That is to say, it should be activated when smoke detector detects smoke. • It is not appropriate for the fire warning buttons to activate the scenario for smoke discharge. • If flow switches connected to the sprinkler system serve for multiple smoke zones, they should not be used for activation of smoke control scenario.

116

6 Jet Fans

AIR-JF

SERIES

AXIAL JET FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Axial type jet fans Ecliptic fan blade profiles which allows bidirectional blowing without efficiency loss Fan body with integrated sound absorber Rail assembly motor connection Ø 315-355-400-500 mm diameter range 300°C/2h fire resistantce certificate in compliance with EN 12101-3 Galvanized sheet metal body Cast aluminum fan blades Dynamical balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Two-pole and Two/Four pole double cycle motor options Class H insulation IP55 Protection class High temperature resistant terminal box coupled with fan Protection grill and adjustable baffle

AIR-JF Series Jet Fan Components

118

Rail assembly structure which allows easy access to motor-fan group without demounting the device.

Adjustable baffle

Aironn design special fan blade form which allows bi-directional blowing without loss

Dynamically balanced fan hub

Protection grill for fan inlet

Racking legs which allows assembling in various dimension ranges

Dimensions

MODELS

A

B

C

D

E

G

ØN

AIR-JF-315

367

479

1506

558

521

120

13

AIR-JF-355

407

519

1656

598

561

120

13

AIR-JF-400

452

564

1886

643

606

120

13

AIR-JF-500

552

666

2356

745

708

120

13

MODEL

Thrust (N)

Motor power (kW)

Current draw (A)

Speed (rpm)

LpA dB Sound level at 3 meter distance (LpA dB)

Weight (Kg)

AIR-J-U-315

32/8

0,75/0,12

1,8/0,4

2.850/1.460

60/45

50

AIR-J-U-355

58/14

1,5/0,25

3,6/0,7

2.850/1.460

68/52

61

AIR-J-U-400

82/20

2,2/0,37

5,1/1,0

2.850/1.460

72/55

80

AIR-J-U-500

120/30

3/0,55

6,5/1,5

2.900/1.470

81/62

116

Accessories

Emergency stop switch

Frequency inverter (optional accessory)

CE

GOST R Rusya

119

7 J-Smart

J-Smart “Smart” Jet Fan Automation Implementation

I

n all the implementations done so far, jet fans have been used as double stage and bidirectional conditionally and the control of these fans made by means of motor safety switch/contactor/ thermal and auxiliary relays as well as PLC inlet/ outlet units connected to such data. Also, jet fan motors have been manufactured with two speed Dahlander wound motors. So, the cabling is made separately for 1. and 2. speed with (4 + 3 = 7 x 2.5 mm2) cable. For carbon monoxide system, low (0-50 PPM) and high (50-120 ppm) level alarm data is obtained and the system operates according to this 2 levels. The carbon monoxide level data in zones cannot be observed in detail in ppm. In J-SMART “smart fan” implementation, all the jet fans are operated with “frequency inverters” with Fire Mode property. This way, there is no need for the usage of materials such as contactor/ thermal and auxiliary relays. As the jet fans are controlled with the frequency inverter, they are manufactured as single wound. This way, it is possible for jet fans to be operated at the required speed between % 0 & % 100 rather than double speed. In addition, by laying a cable in size of 4x 2,5 mm instead of 7x2,5 mm, the costs of cables and labour involved in cable installation can be saved. As the frequency inverter and central PLC communicate on the panel over a single cable, there will be no need for an extra PLC inlet/outlet units for jet fan condition, malfunction and command information. Besides, with J-Smart CO addition, jet fan automation system and carbon monoxide alarm system can be presented in one package. This way, the user can see the average carbon monoxide value for each zone from the J-Smart jet fan automation system panel screen in a detailed manner. This enables the user to operate the jet fans of zones having different carbon monoxide densities at different speeds. This way, significant energy is saved.

122

ADVANTAGES Longer lasting Jet Fans Frekans invertörlü çalışmada kalkış, hız değişimleri ve duruş aşamaları yumuşak bir biçimde gerçekleştiğinden jet fan motor mekanik aksamında zorlanmalar oldukça azalır. Yıpranmanın azalması sonucunda mekanik aksamların ömrü uzar, yenilenme gereksinimleri azalır, bakım ve malzeme giderlerinden tasarruf edilir. Frekans invertörü, şebeke beslemesini, motor bağlantılarını ve motorun ısınmasını sürekli izleyerek gereken durumlarda koruma sağladıklarından jet fanın bu gibi nedenlerle arızalanmasını önlerler.Bu noktalarda sisteme zarar verebilecek herhangi bir anormallik belirlediklerinde bunu hata olarak kaydederler. Bu sayede bakım-arıza personelinin hataların nedenlerini geriye dönük olarak aramalarına yardımcı olurlar. Bu sayede jet fanın toplam arıza oranını azaltmak ve hataların kaynaklarını daha çabuk ve daha doğru olarak teşhis ederek gidermek mümkün olmaktadır.

Less Cabling Cost When a single speed motor is used, the cable section is 4 x 2,5 mm². The cost of N2XH FE 180 cable with section of 4 x 2,5 mm² is 56 % less than N2XH FE 180 cable with 7 x 2,5 mm² section. Besides, using a cable section of 4 x 2,5 mm² means reducing the labour cost. PPM

Consumed Power (kW) 50 Hz

100-120

Example: Operation with frequency inverter at 35 Hz, the fan power of 1,5 kW will reduce down to: (Low frequency / nominal frequency)³ x Nominal power= (35/50)³ X 1,5 kW) = 0,76 kW

45 Hz

40 Hz

35 Hz

30 Hz

25 Hz

1,5

80-100

1,1

60-80

0,51

40-60

0,76

20-40

0,32

0-20

0,18

More flexible Scenarios With J-Smart “smart” automation implementation, the users can operate the jet fan system at the required speed either as time-adjusted or depending on the carbon monoxide level. There are no two speed limits such as 1st cycle and 2nd cycle. In the zones having different carbon monoxide densities, jet fans can operate at different speeds proportionately as per ppm values.

Single cycle jet fan motor

PPM 100-120 80-100 60-80 40-60 20-40 0-20

Jet fan speed frequencies (Hz) 50 45 40 35 30 25

Less Malfunction Source In jet fan implementation with frequency inverter, much less switch material is used. As savings are made over contactors, phase sequence relay and phase protection relay, thermal switch and motor

123

winding, less malfunction sources occur. By also eliminating the starting current during the start-up of jet fans as well as mechanical strains, it increases the lifespan of the motor.

More silent operation In jet fan implementation with frequency inverter, the start-up of jet fans is more silent than direct start implementation.

Less Energy Consumption In start-up with frequency inverter, starting current does not exceed 1,5-2 times more of the rated current of the motor. This starting current rate reaches 3 – 4 times in voltage control based devices and 7 to 8 times in stepped control based motors. During slow down, frequency inverter does not draw any current from the grid circuit and even consumes the energy supplied back by the motor running like a generator on a resistance. Voltage controlled devices, on the other hand, generate currents towards the low speed winding, and supply voltage to the main winding if necessary during slow-down. This means energy consumption throughout the slow-down process. With the usage of inverter, energy savings are provided up to 30 – 50 % compared to the stepped jet fans.

Control of more points Jet fan & Axial Fans (With frequency inverter) • Fan operating information • Fault information • Control in desired cycle rate between 0% - 100% - proportional control • Rotation selection (For bi-directional fans) • Çalışma Süresi raporlama = Reporting on Operation duration • Bakım zamanı bilgilendirme = Maintenance time alert • Motor aşırı yükte bilgisi = “Motor over loaded” alert • Motor durduruldu bilgisi = “Motor stopped” alert • Düşük gerilim bilgisi = “Low voltage” alert • Yüksek gerilim bilgisi = “High voltage” alert • Topraklama hatası = Grounding fault alert • Faz U/V/W - toprak kısa devre bilgisi - ayrı ayrı = Phase U/V/W – “Grounding short circuit” alert • Faz U-V, U-W, V-W kısa devre bilgisi = Phase U-V, U-W, V-W short circuit alert Motorized smoke dampers • Damper full open information • Control Other Systems • Carbon monoxide alarm (All values between 0-100 ppm are detailed) • Fire alarm information

124

8 Our Axial Fans

AIR-A

SERIES

AXIAL TYPE FRESH AIR FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Dimension range between 400-1250 mm diameters Galvanized coated sheet metal body Cast aluminum fan blades (ABS fan baldes as alternative) Dynamical balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Convenient for horizontal and vertical installations Adjustable fan blade angle Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options Class F insulation IP55 Protection class Terminal box coupled with fan (optional) Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional)

AIR-A Series Axial Fan Components

126

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized coated sheet metal body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

Dynamically balanced fan hub

IE2 Efficiency class fan motor

Inspection hatch which allows easy access to motor and makes electrical connections easier.

Vibration damping isolator options

Dimensions

MODELS

A

B

C

0D

E

F

G

H

AIR-A-400 AIR-A-450

0N

456

360

417

400

430

280

363

488

9x8

515

400

417

455

482

330

363

548

9x8

AIR-A-500

556

450

417

500

532

380

369

593

9x8

AIR-A-560

622

500

417

560

596

410

363

666

9x8

AIR-A-630

696

540

417

634

667

450

363

728

9x8

AIR-A-710

776

600

417

714

747

510

364

818

9x8

AIR-A-800

867

680

555

805

838

610

505

910

11x16

AIR-A-900

968

760

680

904

939

670

627

1009

11x16

AIR-A-1000

1069

850

750

1005

1040

760

701

1110

11x16

AIR-A-1120

1188

950

750

1124

1159

840

698

1129

12x16

AIR-A-1250

1308

1060

750

1250

1279

950

700

1354

12x16

Examples of Accessories

Sound absorber with steel sheet metal body (with Al-Zn coating alternative)

Protection grill

Companion flange

Motorized/ unmotorized dampers

Emergency stop switch

Frequency inverter

Differential pressure sensor installations

Pressurization system control panel

Terminal connection box

127

AIR-A

SERIES

AXIAL SMOKE EXHAUST FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■



300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compliance with EN 12101-3 Dimension range between 400-1250 mm diameters Hot-dip galvanized sheet metal body Cast aluminum fan blades Dynamical balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Convenience for horizontal and vertical installations Adjustable fan blade angle Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options Class H insulation IP55 Protection class Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has high temperature resistance and has porcelain connecting terminals. Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional)

AIR-A Series Axial Fan Components

128

Corrosion resistant dip galvanize coated sheet metal body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

Dynamically balanced fan hub

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor

Inspection hatch which allows easy access to motor and makes electrical connections easier

High temperature resistant terminal connection box

Vibration damping isolator options

Dimensions

MODELS

A

B

C

0D

E

F

G

H

AIR-A-400 AIR-A-450 AIR-A-500

0N

456

360

417

400

430

280

363

488

9x8

515

400

417

455

482

330

363

548

9x8

556

450

417

500

532

380

369

593

9x8

AIR-A-560

622

500

417

560

596

410

363

666

9x8

AIR-A-630

696

540

417

634

667

450

363

728

9x8

AIR-A-710

776

600

417

714

747

510

364

818

9x8

AIR-A-800

867

680

555

805

838

610

505

910

11x16

AIR-A-900

968

760

680

904

939

670

627

1009

11x16

AIR-A-1000

1069

850

750

1005

1040

760

701

1110

11x16

AIR-A-1120

1188

950

750

1124

1159

840

698

1129

12x16

AIR-A-1250

1308

1060

750

1250

1279

950

700

1354

12x16

Examples of Accessories

Sound absorber with steel sheet metal body (with Al-Zn coating alternative)

Protection grill

Companion flange

Motorized/ unmotorized dampers

Emergency stop switch

Frequency inverter

Differential pressure sensor installations

Control panel for pressurization systems

129

AIR-AS

SERIES

“SOUND ABSORBER BODY” AXIAL TYPE FRESH AIR FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Aironn licenced 50mm thick rock wool isolated double membrane body structure Dimension range between 400-1250 mm diameters Hot-dip galvanize coated sheet metal body Cast aluminum fan blades (ABS fan blades as alternative) Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Convenience for horizontal and vertical installations

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Adjustable fan blade angle Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options Class F insulation IP55 Protection class Terminal box coupled with fan (optional) Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional)

AIR-AS Series Axial Fan Components

Hot-dip galvanized coated, 50mm thick rock wool isolated double membrane body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

IE2 Efficiency class fan motor

Vibration damping isolator options

Dynamically balanced fan hub

Examples of Accessories

Protection grill

130

Companion flange

Motorized/ un-motorized dampers

Emergency stop switch

Frequency inverter

Differential pressure sensor installations

Control panel for pressurization systems

Terminal connection box

AIR-AS

SERIES

“SOUND ABSORBER BODY” AXIAL TYPE SMOKE EXHAUST FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Aironn licenced 50mm thick rock wool isolated double membrane body structure 300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compliance with EN 12101-3 Dimension range between 400-1250 mm diameter Hot-dip galvanized sheet metal body Cast aluminum fan blades Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Convenience for horizontal and vertical installations Adjustable fan blade angle Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options

Class H insulation IP55 Protection class ■ Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has high temperature resistance and has porcelain connecting terminals. ■ Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional) ■ ■

AIR-AS Series Axial Fan Components

Hot-dip galvanized, 50mm thick rock wool isolated double membrane body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

Dynamically balanced fan hub

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor

High temperature resistant terminal connection box

Vibration damping isolator options

Examples of Accessories

Protection grill

Companion flange

Motorized/ unmotorized dampers

Emergency stop switch

Frequency inverter

Differential pressure sensor installations

Control panel for pressurization systems

131

AIR-AC

SERIES

CELL TYPE AXIAL FRESH AIR FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Dimension range between 400-1250 mm diameters Galvanized sheet metal body Body structure (glass wool layered) with sound isolation Cast aluminum fan blades Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Adjustable fan blades Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options Class F insulation IP55 protection class Terminal box coupled with fan (optional)

AIR-AC Series Axial Fan Components

132

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized sheet metal body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

IE2 Efficiency class fan motor

Inspection hatch which allows easy access to motor and makes electrical connections easier.

Dynamically balanced fan hub

Dimensions

MODELS

A

AIR-AC-400

519

AIR-AC-450

569

AIR-AC-500

619

AIR-AC-560 AIR-AC-630

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

434

557

572

29

486

607

552

29

514

337

510

534

424

535

535

657

592

29

534

424

535

708

569

774

778

679

844

762

39

684

590

800

742

29

684

571

760

AIR-AC-710

858

759

924

AIR-AC-800

948

809

1114

742

29

684

670

760

954

50

854

950

970

AIR-AC-900

1043

904

1209

1104

50

1002

950

1000

AIR-AC-1000

1143

AIR-AC-1120

1263

1145

1309

1104

50

1004

1100

1000

1123

1430

1305

50

1205

1200

1200

AIR-AC-1250

1393

1253

1560

1305

50

1205

1200

1200

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop switch

Frequency inverter

Differential pressure sensor installations

Control panel for pressurization systems

Terminal connection box

133

AIR-AC

SERIES

CELL TYPE AXIAL SMOKE EXHAUST FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compliance with EN 12101-3 Dimension range between 400-1250 mm diameters Galvanized sheet metal body Body structure (rock wool layered) with sound isolation Cast aluminum fan blades Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Adjustable fan blades angle Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options Class H insulation IP55 Protection class Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has high temperature resistance and has porcelain connecting terminals

AIR-AC Series Axial Fan Components

134

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized sheet metal body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

Dynamically balanced fan hub

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor

Inspection hatch which allows easy access to motor and electrical connections.

High temperature resistant terminal connection box

Dimensions

MODELS

A

AIR-AC-400

519

AIR-AC-450

569

AIR-AC-500

619

AIR-AC-560 AIR-AC-630

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

434

557

572

29

486

607

552

29

514

337

510

534

424

535

535

657

592

29

534

424

535

708

569

774

778

679

844

762

39

684

590

800

742

29

684

571

760

AIR-AC-710

858

759

924

AIR-AC-800

948

809

1114

742

29

684

670

760

954

50

854

950

970

AIR-AC-900

1043

904

1209

1104

50

1002

950

1000

AIR-AC-1000

1143

AIR-AC-1120

1263

1145

1309

1104

50

1004

1100

1000

1123

1430

1305

50

1205

1200

1200

AIR-AC-1250

1393

1253

1560

1305

50

1205

1200

1200

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop switch

Frequency inverter

Differential pressure sensor installations

Control panel for pressurization systems

135

AIR-AR

Series

ROOF TYPE AXIAL FRESH AIR FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Dimension range between 400-900 mm diameters Galvanized sheet metal body Horizontal air throw, mushroom shaped design Cast aluminum fan blades Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Adjustable fan blade angle Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options Class F insulation IP55 Protection class Terminal box which is coupled with fan (Optional)

AIR-AR Series Roof Fan Components

136

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized coated sheet metal body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

IE2 Efficiency class fan motor

Inspection hatch which allows easy access to motor and makes electrical connections easier.

Dynamically balanced fan hub

Dimensions

MODELS

A

B

C

D

E

F

AIR-R-U-400

400

420

32

500

700

680

AIR-R-U-450

455

420

32

555

800

680

AIR-R-U-500

500

420

32

600

800

685

AIR-R-U-560

560

420

32

660

900

706

AIR-R-U-630

630

450

32

730

990

768

AIR-R-U-71O

710

500

32

810

1150

817

AIR-R-U-800

800

560

32

900

1260

919

AIR-R-U-900

900

680

32

1000

1330

1073

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop switch

Frequency Inverter

Differential Pressure Sensor Installations

Control Panel for Pressurization System

Terminal connection box

137

AIR-AR

SERIES

ROOF TYPE AXIAL SMOKE EXHAUST FANS

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compliance with EN 12101-3 Dimension range between 400-900 mm diameters Galvanized sheet metal body Horizontal air throw, mushroom shaped design Cast aluminum fan blades Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO 1940/1-1986 Adjustable fan blade angle Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options Class H insulation IP55 Protection class Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has high temperature resistance and has porcelain connecting terminals

AIR-AR Series Roof Fan Components

138

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized coated sheet metal body

Unique Aironn design cast aluminum fan blades

Dynamically balanced fan hub

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor

Inspection hatch which allows easy access to motor and makes electrical connections easier.

High temperature resistant terminal connection box

Dimensions

MODELS

A

B

C

D

E

F

AIR-R-U-400

400

420

32

500

700

680

AIR-R-U-450

455

420

32

555

800

680

AIR-R-U-500

500

420

32

600

800

685

AIR-R-U-560

560

420

32

660

900

706

AIR-R-U-630

630

450

32

730

990

768

AIR-R-U-71O

710

500

32

810

1150

817

AIR-R-U-800

800

560

32

900

1260

919

AIR-R-U-900

900

680

32

1000

1330

1073

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop switch

Frequency Inverter

Differential Pressure Sensor Installations

Control Panel for Pressurization System

139

140

9 Fan Selection Curves

AIR-A-U/400-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

AIR-A-U/400-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

142

AIR-A-U/400-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/400-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

143

AIR-A-U/450-6/Two-Pole/ Airflow-Pressure Curve

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

AIR-A-U/450-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

144

AIR-A-U/450-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

AIR-A-U/450-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

145

AIR-A-U/500-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

AIR-A-U/500-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

146

AIR-A-U/500-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

AIR-A-U/500-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

147

AIR-A-U/560-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

AIR-A-U/560-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

148

AIR-A-U/560-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

AIR-A-U/560-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

149

AIR-A-U/630-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20

AIR-A-U/630-6/ Two-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20

150

AIR-A-U/630-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

AIR-A-U/630-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

151

AIR-A-U/710-3/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

AIR-A-U/710-3/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

152

AIR-A-U/710-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/710-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

153

AIR-A-U/800-3/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

AIR-A-U800-3/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

154

AIR-A-U/800-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/800-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

155

AIR-A-U/800-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/800-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

156

AIR-A-U/900-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/900-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

157

AIR-A-U/900-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/900-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

158

AIR-A-U/1000-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curve

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/1000-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

159

AIR-A-U/1000-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/1000-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

160

AIR-A-U/1250-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

AIR-A-U/1250-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

161

AIR-A-U/1250-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

AIR-A-U/1250-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

162

10 Testing and Certification

LGAI

LGAI Technological Center, S.A. Campus UAB s/n Apartado de Correos 18 E - 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) T +34 93 567 20 00 F +34 93 567 20 01 www.applus.com

X/F

Title:

File No. 13/5402-2107

Determination of the category of a fan for smoke extraction at 300ºC/2h according to the European standard UNE EN 12101-3:2002 and UNE EN 12101-3:2002/AC:2006, "Smoke and heat control systems - part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat exhaust ventilators."

Nº 9/LE 897

Tested material: A fan for smoke extraction at 300ºC/2h reference “AIR-A-U/12509-18/30-4-50Hz/300-2” from AIRONN

File number: 13/540213/5402-2107

Sponsor reference: Aironn Havalandirma Ve Klima Sistemleri Sanayi Dis Ticaret Limited Sirket. Baris Mahallesi Dr. Zeki Acar Cadessi. 1802 Sokak No:3 (Tübitak karsisi) Posta kodu:41400 Gebze-KOCAELI/TURKEY Report date: 29th April of 2013 Test carried on: 15th February of 2013

This document will not be reproduced otherwise than in full. Only the reports with the original signature or collated will be legally valid. This document consists of 41

pages out of which 34 are annexed d

LGAI Technological Center S.A. Inscrita en el registro Mercantil de Barcelona, Tomo 35.803, Folio1, Hoja Nº B-266.627 Inscripción 1ª C.I.F. : A-63207492

Page 1

5. - CLASSIFICATION 5.1 Specifications of received fan Fan reference: “AIR-A-U/1250-9-18/30-4-50Hz/300-2” supplied by Aironn:  -

Motor: Manufacturer: LEROY SOMER Model: LSHT200 LT Serial number: 728519A13001 Type: F300 Constructive size: 200 L Power: 30 kW Impeller rotational speed: 1460 rpm. Voltage: 400 V Frequency: 50Hz Cos ϕ: 0.84 Polarity: 4p

Has the next classification: CLASS F3 F300 (60 (60 minutes of minimum operation). Motor model: LSHT200 LT of LEROY SOMER Fan model: AIRAIR-A-U/1250 U/12501250-9-18/3018/30-4-50Hz/30050Hz/300-2: Operation during 133 133 minutes Including 9 minutes of warming and 2 minutes for the stop.

Fan located inside the furnace with the inlet and outlet air flow in horizontal direction.

Fire Laboratory Responsible LGAI Technological Center, S.A.

Fire Resistance Responsible LGAI Technological Center, S.A

The results refer exclusively to the sample, product or material tested and under the conditions indicated in this document.

Quality Service Warranty Applus+, guaranties that this work has been realized following the exigencies of our Quality and Applus+ Sustainable System, complying with honoring the contractual conditions and the legal standard. We would be very grateful if you would send us any comment you consider appropriate , addressing either to the signatory of this document or to the Applus+ Quality Director, to the direction [email protected]

File number: 13/5402-2107

164

Page: 7

165

LGAI

LGAI Technological Center, S.A. Campus UAB s/n Apartado de Correos 18 E - 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) T +34 93 567 20 00 F +34 93 567 20 01 www.applus.com

X/F

Title:

File No. 13/5402-230

Determination of the category of a fan for smoke extraction at 300ºC/2h according to the European standard UNE EN 12101-3:2002 and UNE EN 12101-3:2002/AC:2006, "Smoke and heat control systems - part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat exhaust ventilators."

Nº 9/LE 897

Tested material: A fan for smoke extraction at 300ºC/2h reference “AIR-J-U-315-45 0,12-0,75 4-2 50Hz 300-2” from AIRONN

File number: 13/540213/5402-230

Sponsor reference: Aironn Havalandirma Ve Klima Sistemleri Sanayi Dis Ticaret Limited Sirket. Baris Mahallesi Dr. Zeki Acar Cadessi. 1802 Sokak No:3 (Tübitak karsisi) Posta kodu:41400 Gebze-KOCAELI/TURKEY Report date: 29th April of 2013 Test carried on: 13th February of 2013

This document will not be reproduced otherwise than in full. Only the reports with the original signature or collated will be legally valid. This document consists of 43 pages out of which 36 are annexed LGAI Technological Center S.A. Inscrita en el registro Mercantil de Barcelona, Tomo 35.803, Folio1, Hoja Nº B-266.627 Inscripción 1ª C.I.F. : A-63207492

Page 1

5. - CLASSIFICATION 5.1 Specifications of received fan Fan reference: “AIR-J-U-315-45 0,12-0,75 4-2 50Hz 300-2” supplied by Aironn (6 blades): 

Motor: - Manufacturer: LEROY SOMER - Model: LSHT80L - Serial number: 395110 - Type: F300 - Constructive size: 80 - Power: 0.75/0.12 kW - Impeller rotational speed: 2880/1470 rpm. - Voltage: 400 V - Frequency: 50 Hz - Cos ϕ: 0.84 - Polarity: 2/4p

Has the next classification: CLASS CLASS F300 (60 (60 minutes of minimum operation). Motor model: LSHT80L of LEROY SOMER Fan model: AIRAIR-J-U-315315-45 0,120,12-0,75 44-2 50Hz 300300-2: Operation during 13 134 minutes Including 7 minutes of warming and 2 minutes for the stop.

Fan located inside the furnace with the inlet and outlet outlet air flow in horizontal direction.

Fire Laboratory Responsible LGAI Technological Center, S.A.

Fire Resistance Responsible LGAI Technological Center, S.A

The results refer exclusively to the sample, product or material tested and under the conditions indicated in this document.

Quality Service Warranty Applus+, guaranties that this work has been realized following the exigencies of our Quality and Applus+ Sustainable System, complying with honoring the contractual conditions and the legal standard. We would be very grateful if you would send us any comment you consider appropriate , addressing either to the signatory of this document or to the Applus+ Quality Director, to the direction [email protected]

File number: 13/5402-230

166

Página: 7

167

168

169

MY TOWERLAND ATAŞEHİR

EVORA PARK

RINGS ISTANBUL

11 References

References

172

SELİN YAPI - RINGS İSTANBUL Smoke Exhaust Fans, Pressurization Fans and Jet Fans

TEKNİK YAPI - EVORA PARK Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

DEDEMAN BOSTANCI HOTEL Smoke Exhaust fans and Jet Fans

AVRASYA EXHIBITION CENTER Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

LİMAK MERSİN STADYUM Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

MY WORLD EUROPE Smoke Exhaust Fans, Pressurization Fans and Jet Fans

JUMEIRAH BEACH HOTEL - BAKU, AZERBAIJAN Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

KAHRAMANMARAŞ - RONESANS SHOPPING CENTER Smoke Exhaust Fans

SHAHDAG SHOPPING CENTER & HOTEL – AZERBAIJAN Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

AĞAOĞLU ANDROMEDA Smoke Exhaust Fans, Jet Fans and Ex-Proof Fans

MY TOWERLAND ATAŞEHİR Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

HYATT HOTEL – BAKU, AZERBAIJAN Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

173

174

ARTAŞ GÜNER İNŞAAT; ISPARTAKULE 1 AND ISPARTAKULE 2 HOUSES All Ventilation Fans, Fire Smoke Exhaust, Sanctuary Fans and Aspirators

SARISSA HOUSES Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

ARTAŞ GÜNER İNŞAAT; ISPARTAKULE 3 HOUSES All Ventilation Fans, Fire Smoke Exhaust, Sanctuary Fans and Aspirators

PIRI REIS UNIVERSITY Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

ÇALIŞKAN İNŞAAT; ISTANBUL YORUM HOUSES All Ventilation Fans, Jet Fans, Smoke Exhaust Fans, Roof Aspirators, Duct Type Aspirators, Cell Type Aspirators

SAMSUN RONESANS SHOPPING CENTER & HOTEL Smoke Exhaust Fans

EDREMIT IDAPARK SHOPPING CENTER Smoke Exhaust Fans and Cell Type Apirators

BAYRAKTAR GROUP – BAYRAKTAR PLAZA Smoke Exhaust Fans

AYKUTOGLU SHOPPING CENTER & RESIDENCE Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

ASTAY REAL ESTATES AKADEMIA APARTS Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

AGAOGLU 212 RESIDENCE Smoke Exhaust Fans, Pressurization Fans and Jet Fans

DUMANKAYA ADRES-BOTANİK Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

MASLAK – MY HOME Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

SUNEL TOBACCO FACTORY Smoke Exhaust Fans

NEZİH TOWERS Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

GOLDEN WAY HOTEL Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

FEVZIYE SCHOOLS FOUNDATION ISIK COLLEGE Smoke Exhaust Fans, Ventilation Fans

GREIF FACTORY Roof Type Smoke Exhaust Fans

BOZ GROUP; ASHGABAT RACECOURSE -TURKMENISTAN Jet Fans and Duct Type Fans

IMES HOTEL Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

ANTAKYA MAHVELI CAR PARK Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

OZKARDESLER TRADE CENTER Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

ACARLAR TRADE CENTER Smoke Exhaust Fans

112 IMMEDIATE AID – DENIZLI Smoke Exhaust Fans

175

176

AĞAOĞLU MY PRESTIGE CHEEF RESTAURANT Cell Type Aspirators

BASAKSEHIR MUNICIPALITY Cell Type Aspirators

AKSARAY UNIVERSITY Cell Type Aspirators

BORSA RESTAURANT Cell Type Aspirators

AIRPORT SHOPPING CENTER Cell Type Aspirators

TARFAŞ A.Ş. - BURSA Duct Type Aspirators

As you are well aware, everything starts with encouragement. The demand that you will raise for your own products today will promise the domestic goods to be of higher quality and more reasonable day by day. A nation that relies on its own is the one that has gained the right to live. Turkey may only advance with the development of Turkish economy with Turkish hands. Buy Turkish goods, use Turkish goods. Let Turkish Lira remain in Turkey.

M. K. Atatürk

• PP

N



A

SMOKE, EXHAUST AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS

AT I O N

SMART

J

FA N A U T O

M

ET

LIC ATIO

S M O K E , E X H AU S T Aironn İklimlendirme Sistemleri San. ve Taahhüt A.Ş.

AND PRESSURIZATION

Head Office: Tatlısu Mah. Şenol Güneş Bulvarı Mira Tower Kat: 2 D: 12 Şerifali - Ataşehir / İstanbul Tel: (0216) 594 56 96 Fax: (0216) 594 57 17 E-mail: [email protected]

SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS

Ankara regional directorate: Yıldızevler Mah. 708. Sok No: 8/2, 06550 Çankaya / Ankara Tel ve Fax : (0312) 441 80 88 E-mail: [email protected] www.aironn.com.tr

EN