A PUBLICATION BY
The one beauty weapon you need for whiter teeth
At last, a diet that gives you something to smile about!
Are you brushing too hard, too fast, too furious?
Smile for Life cosmetic dentistry procedures to suit your needs REGISTRATION No. 198901967K
Scan here to see our videos for the latest healthcare tips!
MICA (P) 124/10/2013
ISSUE 02 / 2014
Are you bothered by: r gaps Chips, cracks o r teeth? in you
You can now enhance your smile with aesthetic dental treatments Smile makeover is a single or combination of aesthetic dental treatments to attain the desired smile. Treatment includes:
• Teeth whitening gel contains carbamide peroxide, which releases oxygen to whiten stains within tooth enamel without damaging them.
• Restore the function and beauty to your smile with Cerec® restoration technology – a superior method of creating precisely-designed, colour-matched and highly durable ceramic restorations in ONE DENTAL VISIT*. • The benefits are: High-quality, customised, tooth-coloured ceramic restoration, usually within a single appointment. • Painless and comfortable 3D digital dental impression. • Ideal for fabrication of crowns, inlays / onlays, veneers and bridges.
• Veneers are thin laminates of porcelain cemented over the front of your teeth. Veneers have strong colour stability and higher resistance to staining from coffee, tea or cigarette.
• Ideal for teeth which are discoloured / stained due to: Genetics, ageing, medications, smoking, coffee and tea.
• Ideal for closing gaps, improving the shape, colour and position of your teeth.
*Bridges will require 2 visits.
Call us for an appointment Raffles Hospital: 6311 2360 | Causeway Point: 6891 0255 | Changi Airport T3: 6241 8866 | Marina Square: 6339 7800 Marina Bay Financial Centre: 6636 0390 | Raffles Place: 6533 3640 | Tampines One: 6787 0093 | Bedok Mall: 6844 9291 White Sands: 6585 1279 | Jurong Point: 6790 0583 For general enquiries, please email [email protected]
Visit us at www.rafflesdental.com
Contents Issue 2 | 2014
LIVEWELL 9 COVER STORY Makeover your Smile Nothing gives you confidence quite like a dazzling white smile. We share six procedures to polish your smile to its full potential. Plus, learn to select the right dental specialist to address your specific dental woes. 13 Too fast, too hard, too furious Over-brushing your teeth may bring more damage than benefits. Find out why. 14 4 Jaw-dropping Facts about TMD All you need to know about pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and muscles. 16 Back to Basics Know your essential tools for home dental care and learn useful oral health tips for your entire family. 18 Watch your Mouth Discover more about oral cancer and how it can be prevented. 20 Dental Myths: DEBUNKED! We put to rest some of the myths behind many common dental misconceptions. 22 Your Guide to Oral Care for Kids We spill the beans on how to manage your child’s growing teeth.
EATSMART 24 The Great Smile Diet Toast to good dental health by making the right food choices and planning your meal well.
26 Superfoods for Super Smiles Snack your way to pearly whites when you add these five superfoods to your diet. 27 The Sweet Truth We uncover facts on the safety of sugar substitutes.
GETGORGEOUS 30 The Siren Pout Red lipstick, complemented with super pearly white teeth – a classic combo every girl needs. 32 Do your Teeth Complement Your Face Shape? Get a winning smile for your face shape and unique features.
SHAPEUP 34 Drop your Excuses Train your brain and get motivated to work out in these four ways. 36 Figure Out your Shape Exercise right for your body type.
4 RMG Directory + Editorial Team 5 Editor’s Note 6 Newsroom Stay updated with top news and events in RMG.
28 UpClose Prosthodontist Dr Jeffrey Sng reveals his passions and his top two tips to getting terrific teeth. 37 Made Me Smile We catch up with Resident Physician Dr Timothy Tan in the 24-Hour Emergency Department. 38 Ask The Experts Our experts answer your top questions on dental care. 39 Social Media Check out the latest happenings on our social media scene.
Editorial Dr Sarah Packer Writers Magdalene Lee, Joanna Lee, Nur Asykin Ismail, Jacquelyn Tan, Katherine Teo, Stella Phua, Amy Chan Creative Tan Wee Yen, Nur Khaleeda Rusley Advisory Panel Cardiology Dr Abdul Razakjr Endocrinology Dr Abel Soh Orthopaedic Surgery Dr Bernard Lin Dermatology Dr Chris Foo Psychiatry Dr Joshua Kua Gastroenterology Dr Kelvin Thia Physiotherapy Mr Lim Hun Teck Urology Dr Lim Kok Bin Medical Oncology Dr Lynette Ngo Neuro-Interventional Radiology Dr Manish Taneja Neurology Dr N V Ramani Radiology Dr Ong Keh Oon Ear, Nose & Throat Dr Stephen Lee Obstetrics & Gynaecology Dr Tony Tan Paediatrics Dr Wendy Sinnathamby General Surgery Dr Wong Kutt Sing Dental Dr Jeffrey Sng The information contained in this publication should not be regarded as a substitute for detailed medical advice in individual cases. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of the publisher. Please address all correspondence to The Editor, Raffles HealthNews Email: [email protected]
Raffles HealthNews is published by Raffles Medical Group Ltd 585 North Bridge Road, Raffles Hospital #11-00, Singapore 188770 www.rafflesmedicalgroup.com
Printed by Xpoprint (Asia) Pte Ltd Issue 02 - May 2014
DIRECTORY www.rafflesmedicalgroup.com Corporate Accounts Enquiries Fax No.
6311 1333 6311 2383
www.rafflesmedical.com General Enquiries Fax No. • Anchorpoint • Ang Mo Kio • Anson Centre • Asia Square • Bedok Mall • Bedok North • Bishan • Capital Tower • Causeway Point* • Centrepoint* • Changi Business Park • Changi City Point • Clementi* • Compass Point* • Harbour Front • Hougang Central • Jurong East • Jurong Point • 112 Katong • Lot 1 Shoppers’ Mall • Loyang Point • Mapletree Business City • Marina Square • Millenia Walk • Nex • Ngee Ann City* • Northpoint • 80 Robinson Road
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• Raffles Airport Medical Centre Passsenger Terminal 2* 6543 1118 Passsenger Terminal 3* 6241 8818 Airport Transit 1 6543 1113 Airport Transit 2 6543 1118 Airport Transit 3 6241 8333 • Raffles City 6339 6911 • Raffles [email protected]
Hospital* 6311 2233 • Science Park I 6776 7155 • Sembawang Way 6853 7703 • Siglap Centre 6442 0488 • Singapore Land Tower* 6534 2900 • Sixth Avenue 6462 3426 • Tampines 1* 6260 5116 • Toa Payoh Central 6254 7667 • White Sands 6585 1279 • Yew Tee Point 6634 3132 * Clinics near / with X-ray facilities
• Raffles Hospital* 6311 2360 • Causeway Point 6891 0255 • Changi Airport T3 6241 8866 • Marina Square 6339 7800 • Raffles Place 6533 3640 • Tampines One 6787 0093 • Bedok Mall 6844 9291 • White Sands 6585 1279 • Jurong Point 6790 0583 • Marina Bay Financial Centre 6636 0390 * Specialist dental services
Regional Representative Office PT Raffles Medika Indonesia
www.raffleshospital.com General Enquiries Call Centre Fax No. 24 Hour Emergency Admissions / Business Office Raffles International Patients Centre International Patients Centre Fax No.
6311 6311 6311 6311 6311 6311
1111 2136 1555 1888 1666 2333
24 Hour Appointments Hotline 6311 1222 Fax No. 6311 2136 Email [email protected]
Raffles Cancer Centre Raffles Children’s Centre Raffles Chinese Medicine Raffles Counselling Centre Raffles Dental Raffles Diabetes & Endocrine Centre Raffles Dialysis Centre Raffles ENT Centre Raffles Executive Medical Centre Raffles Eye Centre Raffles Fertility Centre Raffles HealthScreeners Raffles Heart Centre Raffles Internal Medicine Centre Raffles Japanese Clinic Raffles Neuroscience Centre Raffles Orthopaedic Centre Raffles Pain Management Centre Raffles Physiotherapy Centre Raffles Skin & Aesthetics Raffles Surgery Centre Raffles Urology Centre Raffles Women’s Centre Radiology
Liaison Centres Offices Solo Dhaka Chittagong Phnom Penh / Siem Reap Myanmar Brunei Surabaya
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Central Li Dong (852) 3168 2102 Taikoo Place (852) 2525 1730 Hong Kong International Airport (852) 2261 2626
(86) 21 6197 2300
Danger zone Are you brushing too hard? Aggressive brushing can have damaging effects on your teeth and gums. Discover why. Page 13
Hello Readers! In this issue, we are drawing the focus back to a part of your health that’s often neglected: the mouth. Most people are unaware that poor oral hygiene (not flossing, not using mouthwash or not brushing at least twice a day) doesn’t just mean having bad teeth and bad breath, it can lead to a host of other health problems. This is why we are here to help you brush up on your dental knowledge. Here are some highlight reads that you can look forward to in this issue:
1. A fresh look We are sporting a new look this issue! With this revamp, we are looking forward to bringing you better stories and health news at your fingertips. Like our new look or have a great story idea that you would like us to work on? We want to hear from you! Write in to us at [email protected]
Watch your mouth Chronic hoarseness. Aching in the ears. These are but just some of the symptoms of oral cancer. Read on to find out more about how oral cancer can be prevented. Page 18
2. Smile artistry We have heard this over and over again: first impressions count. We understand that the way your teeth look can have a real impact on your confidence. And what better way to get on the good side of someone you just met than with a great, confident smile? Cosmetic dentistry has made it possible for us to get better, brighter, and healthier teeth with greater convenience. Read our cover story on page 9 to find out more about the different procedures suited for your needs.
Lip, lip, hurray! A touch of red on the lips and a girl’s ready to conquer the world! Learn how to pick the right shade and other secrets to getting a whiter and brighter smile. Page 30
3. Starting young Eighty per cent of parents do not take their children to the dentist once every six months (as recommended), revealed a survey on 202 parents by students from the Nanyang Technological University (NTU). But do you know that good oral hygiene and practice starts from young? Flip to page 22 for a quick guide to managing your child’s oral hygiene.
Dr Sarah Jane Packer Guest Editor Consultant Family Physician Raffles Executive Medical Centre
CONNECT WITH US AT: http://www.youtube.com/user/RafflesHospital
New Docs on the Block We warmly welcome the following doctors to the Raffles family! Dr Lee Eu Jin Specialist in Orthopaedic Surgery & Consultant Raffles Orthopaedic Centre Dr Lee Eu Jin has keen clinical interests in joint replacement surgery, which includes total hip replacement and total and partial knee replacement, arthroscopic key-hole surgery, arthroscopic ligament reconstruction of the knee, minimally-invasive techniques and computer-aided surgery. He subspecialises in joint reconstruction and sports surgery for the hip and knee.
Dr Lee Yian Ping Specialist in Cardiology & Consultant Raffles Heart Centre Dr Lee Yian Ping’s areas of expertise include general cardiology, cardiac catheterisation, percutaneous coronary intervention, pacemaker implantation and peripheral vascular intervention. He has special interest in Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS), Fractional Flow Reserves (FFR), complex coronary interventions, Chronic Total Occlusions (CTO), Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) and rotablation. He is also wellversed in non-invasive tests such as echocardiography, ambulatory ECG, ambulatory blood pressure and treadmill stress tests. Dr Paul Chia Min Wee Specialist in Dermatology & Consultant Raffles Skin Centre Dr Paul Chia sub-specialises in skin cancers, dermatological and Mohs micrographic surgery – a precise surgical technique used for treating skin cancer. His special interests are in nail disorders and laser surgery.
Dr Tan Hwee Sim Specialist in Psychiatry & Consultant Raffles Counselling Centre Dr Tan Hwee Sim is trained in adult psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, addiction psychiatry and forensic psychiatry. She is also well-versed in psychological counselling. She is both a Certified Substance Abuse Counsellor (CSAC) and a Certified Gambling Addiction Counsellor (CGAC).
Mr Chew Hong Gian TCM Physician Raffles Chinese Medicine Physician Chew’s special interests are in the use of acupuncture and herbal medicine for pain management of conditions such as chronic arthritis, spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome and sciatica. He couples pain management with other treatment techniques to improve mobility, digestion and mental wellbeing in elderly patients. Physician Chew also works with executives to manage weight and bodily disorders arising from stress and chronic fatigue, such as recurrent headaches, cough, poor digestion, sleeplessness and mood disorders.
2 “Horse” Babies Born at the Stroke of Midnight! When the clock struck midnight on 31 January 2014, two baby boys, Ashden Tee and Keefe Gan, were born in Raffles Hospital. They became two of the three “Horse” babies who were born first in Singapore.
The proud parents, Mr Dennis Tee Jyh Eng and Ms Lee Bab Ing, both 35, of Ashden, along with Mr Tee’s 60-year-old mother, were also born in the Year of
the Horse. They have a daughter born in the Year of the Rabbit.
They also each received a hamper and a free upgrade from single to deluxe rooms.
Baby Keefe is the first son to Mr Gan Thong Hoe, 37 and Ms Yao Yi Zhen, 31. They too have a daughter, who was born on Labour Day in 2011. Ms Yao said that now both her children have special birthdays. Raffles Hospital threw a surprise dinner for the Tees and Gans in celebration of this joyous occasion.
In addition, giftmaker Risis, who have celebrated the birth of the first Chinese New Year babies with families for 10 years, gave the families $888 in cash and a gold-plated palm-sized horse figurine each. They also each received a hamper and a cash prize worth $684 from Dettol.
General Manager of Raffles Hospital Dr Prem Kumar Nair (left) and Obstetrics & Gynaecologist Dr Cordelia Han (right) with Mr Dennis Tee and Mdm Lee Bab Ing, and their newborn son Ashden Tee. (Photo credit: Dettol)
Happy parents of baby Keefee Gan, Mr Gan Thong Hoe and Mdm Yao Yi Zhen, with (from left) General Manager of Raffles Hospital Dr Prem Kumar Nair, Obstetrics & Gynaecologist Dr Watt Wing Fong, Nurse Clinician Mary Jane and Nurse Clinician II Veron. (Photo credit: Dettol)
Raffles Hospital Clinches Top Healthcare Spot in CSISG 2013 Tabulation of 2013 results for private hospitals measured in the sub-sector
CSISG 2013 Healthcare Sector 69.9 Private Hospitals Sub-sector 72.2 Raffles Hospital 73.6 Mount Elizabeth 73.0 Mount Alvernia 72.1 Gleneagles 71.6 Parkway East 69.9 Thomson Medical Centre 69.5 Source: Institute of Service Excellence, SMU
Raffles Hospital has scored the highest Customer Satisfaction ratings in the healthcare sector according to the Customer Satisfaction Index of Singapore (CSISG) survey, administered by the Institute of Service Excellence at Singapore Management University (SMU) in 2013. Raffles Hospital scored the highest points (73.6) among private and restructured hospitals, above the national average score of 70.7 across all industries. The results were derived from face-to-face interviews with respondents who were surveyed on their consumption experiences and perceptions of Raffles Hospital between October and December 2013. Dr Prem Kumar Nair, General Manager of Raffles Hospital, said: “We are very pleased to have topped the 2013 CSISG results for the healthcare category. This achievement is testimony to the teamwork and cooperation among our staff who have worked hard to create a conducive environment for the comfort and recovery of our patients.” HealthNews 7
Support and Care for Cancer Patients Led by medical professionals, the Raffles Cancer Support Programme started in April last year and serves as a platform for patients diagnosed with cancer and their caregivers to meet, connect, inspire and be inspired by others in the same situation while increasing their knowledge of cancer, treatments and how to better manage side effects. This year, the centre has launched a new bi-monthly programme known as “The Look Good,…Feel Better” programme, developed specifically for women undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Supported by the Singapore Cancer Society, this hands-on workshop led by volunteer cosmetic professionals aims to help women learn cosmetic techniques and hair alternatives to manage the physical changes brought on by cancer treatment.
FOBT Screening Offered at Raffles Hospital
RH staff (from left to right): Dietitian / Executive Ms Correia Claudia, Consultant Medical Oncologist Dr Lynette Ngo, Senior Dietitian Ms Sarah Sinaram and Clinical Psychologist Dr Cecilia Chu during a Christmas party held for cancer patients last year.
Interested parties who are keen to find out more and attend upcoming sessions are welcomed to approach our staff or email [email protected]
In conjunction with Colorectal Cancer Awareness month last March, Raffles Hospital offered FOBT (Faecal Occult Blood Test) kits and screenings to individuals aged 50 and above, from 18 February to 30 April 2014. The kits were issued at Raffles Hospital and all 45 Raffles Medical clinics in Singapore. As of 8 April 2014, a total of 822 kits were dispensed and 596 kits were sent back for analysis. “We aim to educate the public about early detection and prevention of the nation’s leading cancer killer, and to increase regular screenings for people who are at risk. Providing the FOBT screening for marks a key step in helping us keep our patients in good health,” explained Dr Prem Kumar Nair, General Manager of Raffles Hospital.
Makeover your Smile Getting to Know Cosmetic Dentistry Before we begin, let’s get the basics out of the way. What exactly is cosmetic dentistry? Cosmetic dentistry refers to procedures that improve the appearance of teeth and gums. Apart from teeth straightening procedures such as braces and Invisalign, Dr Edgar Kieu, Dental Surgeon, Raffles Dental, added, that “the range of cosmetic dental treatment is very wide, spanning from simple
Today, cosmetic dentistry is more popular than ever, from whitening and shaping, to closing spaces and replacing teeth. Find out the different ways you can go about getting a beautiful, confident smile. By Katherine Teo
tooth coloured fillings to changing the shape, size, and colour of the teeth, to more complex procedures like veneers, crowns, and of course, braces.” This means that teeth whitening, straighter teeth and more, are all part of cosmetic dentistry. One thing to note though is that cosmetic dentistry isn’t a sudden trend and it certainly looks like it’s here to stay – according to a report by Mind Your Body, The Straits Times, dental clinics recorded a 25 to 50 per cent rise in demand on cosmetic dentistry from 2009 to 2013.
The Push Factors
So why are more people opting for such procedures? Apart from being able to fix your flaws and achieve a beautiful and aesthetically-pleasing smile, the allure of cosmetic dentistry is the new-found confidence and increase in self-esteem levels that come along with improving your appearance. Not forgetting that better teeth often means teeth that are easier to brush and this in turn leads to better oral hygiene and oral health. Plus, the best part – thanks to technological advances coupled with experienced dentists, these procedures are usually convenient, fuss-free and take only a few days to weeks for completion with minimum downtime required for recovery. Dr Kieu explained: “With advances in digital dentistry, it is now possible to fabricate veneers and crowns on the same day in one visit. Previously, impressions needed to be taken and sent to an external lab to be made before cementing. With digital CADCAM technology like CEREC, highly aesthetic crowns and veneers can be milled right in the clinic to be cemented on the same day. These are currently available at the Raffles Hospital Dental Centre and we will be expanding it to include other branches in the near future.”
Dental clinics recorded a
25 to 50% rise in demand on cosmetic dentistry from 2009 to 2013
Source: Mind Your Body, The Straits Times
What Works for you? Among the many cosmetic dentistry procedures that are offered, how do we know what works for us? According to Dr Kieu, it’s important to always do your research and discuss with your dental surgeon. “Depending on the patient’s aesthetic requirements, the dental surgeon will discuss the aesthetic concerns of the patient and work with the patient to address them with the appropriate mix of treatments available,” he said. So what are the more common sought-after cosmetic dentistry procedures? We give you the run-down.
Contrary to popular belief, apart from just straightening the teeth for aesthetic purposes, tooth straightening procedures correct biting issues to enable you to chew your food better and also avoid potential dental problems. Crooked teeth are harder to clean and tend to lead to more cavitie s and gum problems, plus they wear in ways that can lead to even more problems in future. So what are some tooth straightening procedures available to consumers? The two popular procedures are braces and Invisalign.
“People with pre-existing dental diseases, for example tooth decay and gum diseases, need to have those problems fixed before cosmetic dentistry can be performed.” - Dr Edgar Kieu, Dental Surgeon, Raffles Dental
Yes, however, requires an orthodontist to remove and
Braces feature brackets running along the wires and held in place with the use of rubber bands
Yes Invisalign is a new revolutionary treatment option that uses a series of nearly invisible, completely removable plastic aligners
Tightened at regular (usually monthly) appointments to replace the wires or regular maintenance
New set of aligners prescribed for every two weeks
Works even for the most complicated set of teeth
Works for teeth
Can be clear or obvious, never completely invisible
After removal of braces, retainers are required to be worn
May affect speech, eating, and brushing as the wires may irritate cheeks and gums
Cheaper than Invisalign
Clear aligners used every night
No retainers required Does not affect speech, eating and brushing, since it can be
More costly than braces
Aesthetic Tooth Whitenin g
There are mainly two types of whitening procedures: take-home whitening kits and in-office whitening. Dr Kieu outline s the differences.
Features Take-home whitening kit How does it work? Cost
Involves the fabrication of a bleaching tray that fits over the teeth. The patient then places whitening gel insid e Che the tray aper and wears the tray with the gel for 30 minutes to a few hours in a day One to two weeks
In-office whitening kit Involves the application of a gel by the dentist directly over the teeth to be whitened and the gel is activMor costly atedewith a light
About 1.5 hours
If you have lost some or all of your natural teeth, dentures is a good option that will benefit your appearance and oral health to enable you to eat and speak better. Do note that even if you wear dentures, you must still take good care of your mouth.
terial are mercury-free, plastic ma Composite (white) fillings parts sing mis lace rep ur used to matching natural tooth colo the of st mo tore res and th too of a tooth. They bond to the l appearance of the tooth. ura nat and h ngt stre l ina orig
Veneers are thin pieces of porcelain cemented over the front of your teeth to change their colour or shape. They are used on teeth with
Crowns and Bridges
Crowns (see Fig 1) are designed to make your teeth stronger and impr ove their appearance. They fit over a tooth like an armour. Crowns are necessary when a tooth is generally broken down and filling s would not solve the problem. Bridges (see Fig 2) are made of seve ral crowns connected together to resto re
Brush your gums, tongue and palate every morni ng with a soft-bristled brush before you insert your dentu res to stimulate circulation in your tissues and help remov e plaque. All dentures should be cleaned with a denture brush and stored safely every night before sleep ing.
uneven surfaces which are chipped, discoloured, unevenly spaced or crooked.
three appointments: diagnosis and treatment planning, preparation and cementation.
Porcelain veneers can mask undesirable defects, such as tetracycline stains, from an injury, or as a result of a root-canal procedure, and are ideal for masking discoloured fillings on front teeth. Patients with gaps between their front teeth or teeth that are chipped or worn may consider porcelain veneers.
During the tooth preparation visit, the teeth shape is modified, and a mould is taken of the teeth, which is sent to the laboratory for the fabrication of the veneers.
Typically, veneers entail at least
At the final “bonding” visit, the veneers are checked for fit and colour before being permanently bonded to the teeth using special light-activated adhesives.
your smile, maintain the shape of your face, as well as reduce the stress in your bite by replacing missing teeth with artificial teeth. Unlike a denture that you can take out and clean, only a dentist can remove a fixed bridge. However, there is no cause for worry, as they are often natural and unnoticeable.
Your Guide to Dental Specialties
See a periodontist specialises in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of gum disease and oral inflammation, and in the placement of dental implants
Is it inflamed (red & swollen)?
A space between your front teeth?
See an oral and maxillofacial surgeon
See a prosthodontist specialises in reconstructing or replacing missing and deficient teeth
Any missing teeth that you have not replaced?
A chipped, cracked or missing tooth?
Most of the time, the word “dentist” is the only one you need to know in reference to your oral health. Here’s the lowdown on various dental specialties to help you get the proper dental care and treatment you need.
specialises in treating conditions, defects, injuries, and aesthetic aspects of the mouth, teeth, jaws and face
An impacted wisdom tooth and a painful jaw?
Teeth grinding problems and a sharp pain when biting or eating cold or hot foods?
By Jacquelyn Tan
Do you have …
Darker front teeth than the others?
Discoloured / yellow teeth?
See an endodontist specialises in treating the soft inner tissue of the teeth
See an orthodontist
See a general dental surgeon
specialises in corrective dentistry, straightening of the teeth as well as correcting misaligned jaws and bite problems
specialises in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity
Too fast, too hard, too furious
Are you too tough on your teeth? When it comes to cleaning your teeth, it’s not about how hard you brush. We find out more about the dangers of aggressive brushing. By Amy Chan
It may seem like good sense to brush your teeth harder – the harder you brush, the more plaque you remove, and the whiter your teeth get. It sounds like a good thing, but it’s far from the truth. In reality, vigorous brushing can cause serious damage to your teeth and gums.
Just the Right Amount
“Be thorough, not forceful. Ultimately, brushing teeth is most effective with the right technique.”
Here’s the thing – when you apply too much pressure when brushing, your teeth and gums take the brunt of the damage. This is made worse when you use the wrong brushing techniques or a hard-bristled toothbrush. According to Dr Aaron Tan, Dental Surgeon at Raffles Dental, aggressive brushing can result in receding gums when the individual has a poor existing gum condition. Receding gums are caused by untreated gum disease and can lead to exposure of the teeth’s root surface when coupled with unfavourable factors such as aggressive brushing. What this means is that your gums form a protective layer and when injured or damaged, your teeth can become extremely sensitive due to the exposed roots. This makes eating hot or cold foods very uncomfortable or even painful. In fact, even simple everyday acts such as drinking water or coming into contact with cold air can become a miserable affair. On top of it all, not only are receding gums unattractive, gum disease and eventual tooth loss are possible risks when left untreated. Aggressive brushing may lead to tooth enamel erosion when coupled with whitening toothpastes, which are highly abrasive. Enamel erosion exposes the internal dentin layer, and can result in discoloured and weakened teeth.
So why does aggressive brushing occur? The problem is, very often, people tend to overestimate how hard they should brush. According to a study conducted by Newcastle University, UK, a useful tip is to apply pressure similar to the weight
- Dr Aaron Tan, Dental Surgeon, Raffles Dental of an orange in your palm. You should apply enough pressure to feel the bristles on your gums, but not so much that you squash the bristles. Another tip is to switch to a soft-bristled toothbrush. Combined with aggressive brushing, hard bristles can do much damage to your teeth and gums while not adding considerably to teeth cleanliness. Removing plaque does not require much force – a gentle approach will achieve the best results for your oral health. On a final note, Dr Tan reminds: “Be thorough, not forceful. Ultimately, brushing teeth is most effective with the right technique.”
Signs of overbrushing • The bristles on your toothbrush are squashed • Your gums are bleeding after brushing your teeth • Your teeth feel sensitive to hot or cold foods
4 Jaw-dropping Facts about Te Ever suffered from any of the following symptoms? q Difficulty chewing q Toothache, earache or swelling q Popping, clicking or grating sounds in the jaw joint when opening or closing your mouth q Inability to open your mouth fully q Pain or discomfort in the face, jaw joint area
If your answer to any of the above is yes, you may be suffering from Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMD). Read on to find out how TMD can affect you. By Magdalene Lee
TMD is a collective term embracing a group of dental and medical conditions that involve the jaw joint (also known as the Temporomandibular Joint), chewing muscles and associated structures. It is a major cause of non-dental facial pain. Many people have the signs and symptoms of TMD but may not have been diagnosed.
TMD is more common than you think
About one-third of the adult population have symptoms of TMD and 40 to 60 per cent of the population have signs of TMD. Based on the findings from the first-ever large scale TMD study named Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA), TMD is three times more common than we thought. In the study, the people who were recruited started out without TMD. However, over the course of the study, it was noted that 3.9 per cent of them developed TMD every year, until a total of 9.5 per cent of them were affected.
There are many causes of TMD
The four most common causes of TMD include bruxism (excessive grinding or clenching of teeth), trauma to the face or jaws, degenerative arthritic conditions or degenerative joint diseases, and malocclusion (having poorly aligned or crooked teeth). According to Dr Jeffrey Sng, Dental Specialist in Prosthodontics, Raffles Dental, stress, anxiety, and psychological conditions can also lead to bruxism, causing TMD. Although there are specific reasons for some cases of TMD, as a group, they have no common cause and are usually the result of multiple contributing factors.
90% of TMD sufferers are women of childbearing age
The symptoms are often overlooked
The symptoms of TMD are similar to many other conditions including toothache, sinus problems, arthritis, or gum disease. As a result, many sufferers of TMD go on with life undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Common symptoms of TMD include: • Headaches • Ear pain, ringing in the ears • Jaw pain • Jaw joint sounds • Jaw function difficulty • Abnormal jaw opening • Bite problems • Neck and shoulder pain TMD-related pain, dysfunction and disability can significantly affect your quality of life.
mporomandibular Joint Disorder How is it treated?
Treatment largely depends on the kind of TMD that you are suffering from. Comprehensive history taking and physical examination is essential for complete diagnosis. The goals of the treatment are to decrease pain, decrease adverse loading to jaw joints and muscles, restore function, restore normal daily activities and improve your quality of life. Treatment usually begins with conservative therapies that do not invade the tissues of the face, jaw or joints.
Behaviour modification of harmful habits
Education and self-care Psychotherapy including stress management and relaxation techniques
Medications Dental splint therapy
If your disorder is longstanding and associated with major structural changes and / or prominent psychological distress and disability, jaw surgery, bite (occlusal) therapy, orthodontics and medical specialist referrals may be warranted. Temporalis muscle
Women are at a higher risk
Women have higher risk for longstanding TMD, and this may explain the higher prevalence of women seeking care for TMD. According to some studies, close to 90 per cent of TMD sufferers are women of childbearing age.
Did you know? TMD strikes more commonly in those between 20 to 40 years old
Temporo mandibular joint
Cross-sectional viewHealthNews of a male human 15 skull
Back to Basics
Proper dental care at home, combined with seeing your dentist regularly, is your family’s ticket to good dental health. Find out how basic dental care habits and choosing the right dental products can help keep your family’s teeth in tip-top form. By Stella Phua
It’s never too early or too late to learn the basics of oral health care. To avoid dental problems and maintain good oral health over time, it’s important to practice good hygiene habits at home. From kids to grandparents, we share with you some tips on how to keep your teeth strong and healthy.
• For infants, wipe their teeth with a clean, damp cloth or a soft brush • When the child reaches one or two years old, teach them how to brush using a teeth model • Ensure that the child brushes their teeth for around two minutes • Allow a child to use fluoride-based toothpaste only when they can use it without swallowing • Flossing may not be necessary for a young child but a good time to start is when their permanent front teeth are out
• Brush your teeth at least twice a day and floss every once a day • Choose soft-bristled brushes as they are more flexible and can clean under the gum margins without traumatising the gums • Store your toothbrush in an upright position to air dry • Replace the toothbrush as soon as the bristles become frayed • Visit the dentist every six months
• Floss daily and brush twice a day • Seniors with limited dexterity due to medical conditions can consider using an electric toothbrush or getting help from a caregiver • Ensure that dental appliances such as dentures and dental bridges are cleaned daily • Seek a dental professional if your dentures no longer fit
Basic Home Dental Kit Know your must-have daily dental products for maintenance of good oral health
When it comes to choosing the best toothpaste for you, it’s important to think about your unique oral health needs. Toothpaste is available in paste, gel, or powder form and the most important ingredient to look for when choosing toothpaste is fluoride.
Avoid hard bristles as they tend to damage your gums and cause dental erosion with abrasive brushing. Get a medium to soft toothbrush which is best for removing plaque and bacteria from your teeth. Make sure your toothbrush head is small enough to reach all your teeth including the ones right at the back of your mouth. Some toothbrush heads are rectangular in shape or angled in order to reach those far places.
First, fluoride makes your tooth enamel stronger and less likely to suffer acid damage. Second, it can reverse the early stages of acid damage by remineralising areas that have started to decay. Overuse of whitening toothpastes may result in thinning of enamel over time.
If you find your toothbrush hard to hold and control you may require a bigger handle with a non-slip grip on it. If you suffer from manual dexterity problems, a battery-powered toothbrush can ease the brushing process for you. However, there is no scientific proof that electronic toothbrushes are more efficient than manual ones.
Dental floss is a bundle of thin filaments used to remove food and dental plaque and clean tight spaces between teeth. The floss is gently inserted between the teeth and scraped along the teeth sides, especially close to the gums or underneath them.
4. Dental mirror
The dental mirror is used to examine teeth for the beginning of decay, but also for checking gums for sores and lesions as well as general health. For best results, look into a wall mirror and reflect back into the dental mouth mirror. Use the dental mirror to check for swollen or irritated looking gums, bleeding gums, tooth decay (brown or black spots) and heavy tartar build-up.
Using a dental scaler ensures that your teeth remain stain-free and your gums remain healthy. The scaler removes tartar (also called calculus), plaque, stains, bacteria and debris from your teeth. Used once a week or as needed in conjunction with your brushing and flossing, the dental scaler helps keep your teeth and gums in optimal condition.
Watch your Mouth
Rule number one of preventing oral cancer: knowing the who, what, when, where and why of it all. By Nur Asykin Ismail
WHAT IS ORAL CANCER? Oral cancer or mouth cancer – a subtype of head and neck cancer – refers to any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity. It usually occurs when cells in the mouth begin to multiply unnecessarily. Ordinarily, new squamous cells are produced to replace older cells that are dying off. When you have oral cancer, however, new cells form before the old ones are ready to expire. A cluster of these extra cells forms a tumour, which may be benign or malignant. Alternatively, the oral cancers may originate in any of the tissues of the mouth, and may be of varied histologic types: teratoma, adenocarcinoma derived from a major or minor salivary gland, lymphoma from tonsillar or other lymphoid tissue, or melanoma from the pigment-producing cells of the oral mucosa.
WHO IS AT RISK?
“There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90 per cent are squamous cell carcinomas, originating in the tissues that line the mouth and lips. Oral or mouth cancer most commonly involves the tongue,” said Dr Jennifer Wong Lai Yee, Dental Surgeon, Raffles Dental.
- Consume excessive alcohol Oral cancers are about six times more common in drinkers than in non-drinkers.
People who are more likely than others to develop oral cancer include those who: - Smoke Cigarette, cigar, or pipe smokers are six times more likely than non- smokers to develop oral cancers.
- Have an unbalanced diet Studies have found a link between diets low in fruits and vegetables and an increased oropharyngeal and oral cancer risk.
- Have poor oral habits An unhealthy mouth reduces your immune system and inhibits your body’s ability to fight off potential cancers. - Face excessive sun exposure Cancers of the lip, especially the lower lip, are more common among people who work outdoors or others with prolonged exposure to sunlight. - Have a family history of cancer Those with a significant family history of cancer may stand a higher risk of developing the disease.
LiveWell WHERE DOES IT HAPPEN? - A lump or thickening in the cheek
Oral cancer may develop in these three main areas:
- A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, tonsil, or lining of the mouth
- A sore throat or a feeling that something is caught in the throat
b) Oral cavity (Fig 1), which includes: • The front two-thirds of the tongue • The gingiva (gums) • The buccal mucosa (the lining of the inside of the cheeks) • The floor (bottom) of the mouth under the tongue • The hard palate (the roof of the mouth) • The retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth)
- Difficulty chewing or swallowing - Difficulty moving the jaw or tongue - Numbness of the tongue or other area of the mouth - Swelling of the jaw or lymph nodes (glands) in your neck
c) Oropharynx, which includes: • The middle part of the pharynx (throat) behind the mouth • The back one-third of the tongue • The soft palate • The side and back walls of the throat • The tonsils
Fig 1. Anatomy of the human mouth
WHEN SHOULD YOU SEE A DOCTOR? You should contact your doctor or dentist immediately if you notice the following symptoms: - A sore or lesion in the mouth that does not heal within two weeks - A lump or thickening in the cheek - A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, tonsil, or lining of the mouth
WHY SHOULD YOU DO A SELF-EXAMINATION? If left untreated or not diagnosed early, oral cancer can spread, which may lead to chronic pain, loss of function, irreparable facial and oral disfigurement requiring or following surgery, and even death. An oral cancer examination and screening is best done regularly by your dentist. Patients can also perform self-examination once a month between dental visits to check for any early signs of oral cancer. After all, the earlier you detect it, the higher your chances of recovery.
Dr Wong outlines 7 simple steps that you can take to conduct your own oral self-exam at home:
- A sore throat or a feeling that something is caught in the throat
1. Wash your hands and stand in front of a mirror
- Difficulty chewing or swallowing
2. Press along the sides and front of your neck and feel for any tenderness or lumps
- Difficulty moving the jaw or tongue
3. Examine your lips and gums for white or red spots, bumps and lumps
- Numbness of the tongue or other area of the mouth
4. Tilt your head back, examine and feel the roof of your mouth
- Swelling of the jaw or lymph nodes (glands) in your neck - Chronic hoarseness - Aching in the ears
5. Pull your cheeks out and examine their insides 6. Pull your tongue out (using gauze, take hold of the front of your tongue) and pull to each side, examining your entire tongue (eg. top, bottom, sides) 7. Examine the back of your throat
Dental Myths: DEBUNKED!
Myth: Brushing regularly and using mouthwash will remove bad breath
Myth: My child doesn’t need to see a dentist
Halitosis, also known as bad breath, can be caused by odourcausing food, bacteria, gum disease, tooth decay, infection in the throat and sinuses and more. While brushing your teeth may reduce bad breath, it can’t remove bacteria found at the back of the tongue, so scraping your tongue is a must.
It’s not hard to see why this myth is perpetuated. After all, a baby’s teeth eventually fall out eventually to be replaced by the adult set. Early dental visits get your child used to the dentist and can prevent dental problems and anxiety about dental procedures in the future. Bring a favourite book or toy for a sense of familiarity and comfort. If you make it a fun, happy experience it will likely translate to a positive visit.
As with mouthwashes, most contain alcohol which has a drying effect and may end up encouraging bacteria growth. Mouthwashes only provide temporary relief from halitosis so the best solution is to visit your dentist and get proper cleaning and advice!
Myth: A toothache is no cause for concern
On a scale of 1 to 10, survey respondents rate the importance of an attractive smile a
9.33 on average
Newsflash: a toothache can be fatal. What you think is a “minor” problem, when left unchecked, can lead to life-threatening conditions. This is especially so if the toothache originated from a medical condition as opposed to a dental condition, or if a toothache leads to severe infection. So don’t dismiss a toothache even if the pain is bearable. Always make it a point to consult your dentist.
LiveWell If you are one of those people who believe that a toothache is no big deal, read on to find out what other dental myths you’ve been buying into – it’s time to distinguish fact from fiction. By Katherine Teo
Myth: Wisdom teeth are useless
Myth: It’s good to brush your teeth immediately after every meal
Our third molars, commonly known as wisdom teeth, usually appear between the age of 17 and 25. When properly aligned, they can be left undisturbed. But more often than not, wisdom teeth are misaligned (Fig 1). In these instances, most people opt for an extraction to prevent infection, pain, swelling or other problems. This is why many people have the misconception that wisdom teeth are superfluous and problematic. However, research by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan, found out that the pulps inside your wisdom teeth contain stems cells which may be conserved for use.
Yes, brushing your teeth after a meal is good dental hygiene and goes a long way in protecting your teeth. But too much of a good thing can be bad. Research has shown that brushing your teeth too soon after meals or drinks can cause more damage to your teeth – especially if the meals or drinks are acidic.
Fig 1 Misalignment of the wisdom tooth
Would you date someone with bad teeth and poor dental hygiene?
said that a person’s smile is the first thing they notice about potential partners, with body type and eyes tied at 12.5 per cent, and fashion sense and complexion at 6.3 per cent
of respondents cited bad breath as the biggest turn-off in a potential romantic partner
states that unattractive teeth are an even bigger turn-off than body odour, lack of personality, and unkempt appearance
This is because acid attacks your teeth and erodes the enamel (a tissue which protects your teeth) and the layer below it known as dentin. By brushing your teeth after a meal, you push the acid deeper and accelerate the process. Hence, it is advisable to wait for 30 minutes to an hour before brushing your teeth.
The majority says no, according to surveys conducted by Cosmolite. Here are some of the results.
On a scale of one to 10, respondents rate the importance of an attractive smile a 9.33 on average
Good dental habits should start from young. Dr Wendy Sinnathamby, Consultant Paediatrician, Raffles Children’s Centre, shares how to manage a child’s oral hygiene. By Amy Chan
When your child is…
For babies below 24 months, gently wipe their gums with a damp cloth after each feeding to remove plaque. A child’s first tooth will usually come in at around six months of age. Parents should brush their child’s teeth twice a day, using a soft-bristled, child-sized toothbrush and a dab of non-fluoride toothpaste.
At the age of three, your child should have his full set of baby teeth. Switch to a fluoride toothpaste to help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay. Parents should also limit their child’s intake of sugary foods and drinks, especially before bedtime.
Children aged five and above begin to lose their baby teeth and form their first permanent teeth. At this age, kids should also begin learning how to brush their teeth independently. Parents should supervise their child’s brushing from time to time to ensure that they are using the right technique.
5 Frequently Asked Questions on Dental Care for Kids 1. When should my child first visit the dentist?
2. What should I do when my baby begins teething?
As a general rule, your child should visit the dentist by his first birthday. Subsequently, your child should have a check-up every six months.
When a child begins teething, he will tend to drool and may become irritable due to gum discomfort. To soothe his discomfort, rub his gums gently with a cool cloth. You can also use teething gels or give your baby a cool object to bite on, such as a rubber teething ring that has been placed in the fridge.
It is also important to wipe away the drool from your baby’s face as the saliva can lead to rashes. If your child is very irritable or unable to sleep at night, give him a dose of Paracetamol to ease his discomfort.
3. Is thumb-sucking or using a pacifier harmful for my child’s teeth? For babies and children below the age of four years old, both ways are perfectly harmless. Thumb-sucking and pacifiers encourage the development of an open bite where the teeth move to make space for the thumb or pacifier. This will not cause permanent damage as long as the child stops these habits before his permanent teeth develop.
LiveWell 4. What are common dental problems that children face? Tooth decay is by far the most common dental problem that children face. Another common problem is teeth grinding during sleep, usually resulting from stress. Children who grind their teeth at night will need to wear mouth guards, and so to avoid this inconvenience it is best that parents address the cause of their stress.
5. My child doesn’t like to brush his teeth. What should I do to encourage him? Make it fun by brushing your teeth together or singing silly songs while brushing. Allow your child to choose his own toothbrush and toothpaste, as this will make him interested in using them. For older children, you can also explain the importance of brushing by using pictures of decayed teeth to warn them of the consequences.
Other than brushing regularly and visiting the dentist, it is also necessary to limit your child’s intake of sugar and monitor their eating habits. Dr Wendy recommends these tips: • To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, do not give your child sweetened drinks in a feeding bottle. • Encourage your baby to drink from a beaker after six months of age, and discourage drinking from a bottle after one year. • Avoid giving your child sugary drinks such as fruit juices or flavoured milk. Instead, offer your child milk or water as drinks. • If you offer sugary snacks to your kids, do it soon after meals. Savoury snacks should be given in between meals. • Make your child finish their milk before bedtime so that their teeth can be cleaned before they go to bed. • Whenever possible, feed your child only sugar-free medicines.
The The Great Great Smile Smile Diet Diet Choosing the right foods in your diet is an important aspect in having healthy teeth and good oral hygiene. We show you how to get your plate in shape to strengthen and protect your chompers. By Stella Phua
e Veg s each
ing ts & Frui to 3 Serv 2
Rice & Alternatives 5 to 7 Servings (2 -3 servings should be whole grain products)
Fats, Oil, Sugar, Salt
Meat & Alternatives 3 Servings (1/2 servings should come from diary or other high calcium products)
Tips in planning your diet for better oral health Moderation is key Follow the dietary recommendations from the Health Promotion Board (HPB) and incorporate a well-balanced diet. Low-carb diets may lead to ketosis, which is the breakdown of fats for energy when there is a lack of carbohydrates. This process also results in bad breath. 24 HealthNews
Avoid foods that cause bad breath Halitosis, the medical term for bad breath, can result from poor dental health habits. Sulphur-containing foods such as onions, garlic usually cause your breath to smell while coffee and alcoholic drinks reduce saliva flow, allowing foul-smelling bacteria to linger longer.
Stay hydrated Saliva helps to balance the acidity of our mouth and reduces food odour by washing away food particles and bacteria. Drinking water also helps to prevent dehydration and dry-mouth syndrome.
Avoid foods that promote tooth decay Sweet and sticky foods usually cling to the surfaces of our teeth, allowing the bacteria to feed off the sugars and causing damage to your enamel. Carbohydrates are broken down into sugars by pre-digestive enzymes in our saliva. Such teeth-eroding acid may weaken our enamel.
Tipping in the Right Direction The pH Scale 14 Base
Teeth gain minerals when mouth chemistry is neutral or slightly alkaline
The critical pH Teeth lose minerals when mouth chemistry becomes acidic
Try this at home!
Mighty Minty Mouthwash Keep bad breath at bay with this all-natural homemade recipe. The baking soda, tea tree and peppermint essential oils contain anti-bacterial properties that will keep your mouth feeling fresh and prevent infections. What you need - A glass jar or container - ½ cup of filtered or distilled water - 2 tsp of baking soda - 2 drops of tea tree essential oil - 2 drops of peppermint essential oil
Instructions 1. Mix all the ingredients together in a glass jar. 2. Swish about 3 teaspoons of the concoction around in the mouth, and then spit it out.
Tip: Use filtered, distilled or mineral water rather than tap water, as the latter contains various chemicals. Always shake your mouthwash well before use.
Chew on this! When it comes to how dietary habits can affect our susceptibility to tooth decay and erosion, here are the factors to consider. 1. Nature of food Is the food sweet? Does it stick to your teeth? Is it a form of carbohydrate such as sugar or starch? These are the characteristics that can influence the tooth decay equation. Foods that clear from the mouth quickly, such as cheese and milk, will decrease one’s risk of tooth decay compared to foods that adhere to the teeth such as chewy candies or biscuits. This is especially true for carbohydrate containing foods since they tend to linger longer around the teeth. What this means is that the bacteria will have a longer time to produce harmful acids, resulting in greater chances of demineralisation – a process whereby acids from bacteria dissolve the minerals (calcium and phosphorus) in the enamel. 2. Frequency of eating The following might not be good news to constant snackers out there. There seems to be a link between one’s frequency of consuming carbohydrates, and the development of dental caries (also known as tooth decay). Demineralisation begins when we nibble foods containing carbohydrates. So the longer the food remains trapped, the longer is the process of demineralisation. Our saliva can only work to neutralise the acid and assist in remineralisation – a process whereby the saliva helps in neutralising the pH level in the mouth between meals. This increase in pH helps in returning the minerals (calcium and phosphate) back to the enamel.
Superfoods for Super Smiles! By Stella Phua
Water This is one indispensable drink that we can’t live without! Not only does it help to wash sugars and acid off your teeth, fluoridated water can also help to strengthen your tooth enamel and prevent tooth decay.
We put together a list of the top superfoods that take proper care of your pearly whites.
Apart from being a rich source of antioxidant and nutrients, green tea contains polyphenols which help to kill bacteria that cause plaque. It also has anti-inflammatory properties that can help to prevent periodontal gum disease and bad breath.
What’s the prime ingredient for healthy teeth? Calcium is the word. Calcium-containing foods such as milk and cheese help to strengthen the alveolar bone which surrounds and supports the roots of the teeth.
Whole Grains From preventing diabetes and heart ailments to aiding in weight loss, the benefits of whole grains are certainly extensive. Packed with B vitamins, iron, magnesium and fibre, these tiny seeds are great for your teeth and gums as well.
Fibre-rich Fruits and Vegetables
According to the American Dental Association (ADA), foods such as leafy vegetables and fruits can act as our mouth’s natural detergent. Their abrasive nature helps to promote chewing and in turn, stimulates saliva production and neutralises the acidity in our mouth.
The Sweet Truth
Good or bad? We find out just how tooth-friendly artificial sweeteners are. By Amy Chan
The four things about artificial sweeteners you need to know now
They can reduce the risk of tooth decay As cavity-causing bacteria thrives on sugar, consuming artificial sweeteners as a replacement for sugar can lower the risk of tooth decay. One such sweetener is Xylitol, which has shown to be beneficial for dental health. Along with other substitutes such as Sorbitol and Lactitol, it reduces cavity-causing bacteria in the mouth.
They can reduce teeth erosion by producing more saliva When artificial sweeteners are consumed, more saliva is produced in the mouth. The increase in saliva production acts as a buffer for teeth, protecting them from acidic erosion. This is especially so when mixed with non-polyol sweeteners such as aspartame and saccharin.
What the expert says: “While artificial sweeteners are a healthier option for your teeth, natural sugar is not the only cause of tooth decay. Good oral health requires a holistic approach. This includes regular dental check-ups, good oral hygiene habits, a balanced diet and adequate water consumption.”
The product label may be inaccurate Don’t let the label lull you into a false sense of security. According to Dr Aaron Tan, Dental Surgeon at Raffles Dental, manufacturers have difficulties in confirming the exact concentration of sweetener in products. This in turn makes it hard for consumers to find out how much sweetener they are ingesting. Labels such as “sugar-free” and “diet” can also lead to false perceptions on how healthy a product actually is.
Consuming too much may result in sugar dependency As with everything in life, moderation is key. If you become too dependent on artificial sweeteners, it is possible that you might become addicted to them and that can make you prefer sugar-filled foods. Out of habit and over time, you may start to seek out foods with natural sugar when artificial alternatives are unavailable. This is why for the benefit of your health and oral health, it is still more advisable to go on a low-sugar diet whenever possible.
- Dr Aaron Tan, Dental Surgeon, Raffles Dental
Transforming Smiles, One at a Time When it comes to his chosen dental specialty as a Prosthodontist, Dr Jeffrey Sng Hong Cheong’s finely-tuned abilities makes his professional practice very rewarding. By Nur Asykin Ismail
Name: Dr Jeffrey Sng Hong Cheong Age: 35 Dental Specialist in Prosthodontics, Raffles Dental
UpClose A prosthodontist is… a specialist dentist who reconstructs or replaces missing or deficient teeth. Most of the time, people like us need the precision of a fine craftsman and aesthetic eyes to give our patients harmonious beauty. If I was not a prosthodontist, I’d probably be… an owner of a vintage car workshop, restoring old cars back to their former glory.
A typical day for me starts… early. I am an early riser and I will reach my clinic as early as 7am, check my emails and make the necessary preparations for my first appointment at 8.30am. In a day, I will see about six patients depending on case complexity. Once I knock off at 6pm, I will drive home and go for my daily run by the beach at East Coast Park.
A bad tooth is like a… ticking time bomb that can self-ignite anytime. The worst part of it all is having to clear up the mess and rebuild everything when the damage is already done.
Your teeth are important because… they are vital for your health and longevity. You need them to be able to chew and eat food properly, which is a very basic need for survival.
The best part of my job… is being able to make people look great and help them regain their confidence. It gives me tremendous job satisfaction to know that my patients are pleased with my work.
You need them to be able to speak, which allows you to express yourself and communicate; and let’s face it – everyone wants to have a gorgeous smile and look great, right?
If I was a dental instrument, I would be the high-speed handpiece, fast and precise with minimal room for error during treatment. Since young, I love cars. Nothing satisfies me more than restoring things to what they originally were, or even better. One lesser known talent that I have is… using my creativity to build anything. Since I was young, I love to fix and assemble things. I would wake up in the wee hours, dig into my Lego box, search for the correct pieces of various colours and create automobile miniatures of any kind!
People assume that dentists are… people who only extract teeth and not do anything else. My late grandmother used to tell all her friends that I am a doctor who extracts teeth, and would refer me to anyone who would like to have their teeth done. It doesn’t bother me to be in a person’s face that closely because… I am more interested in perfecting that “piece of art” in my patient’s mouth.
Top Two Tips for Terrific Teeth!
You shouldn’t be afraid to visit the dentist because… we are all here to help you, really. Advances in technology have also improved dentistry and treatments can now be completely painless. More dentists understand their patients’ fears these days. With a combination of kindness and gentleness, we can do a lot to make your dental treatment stress-free.
Avoid acidic foods Acids will thin down your enamel and weaken your teeth. Try to reduce or eliminate drinking carbonated drinks or acidic fruit juices. If you must consume acidic drinks, use a straw so that the liquid bypasses your teeth during consumption. Don’t swish them around or hold them in your mouth for prolonged periods.
Avoid sweet and sticky foods Foods that cling to your teeth such as candies and chocolate may get lodge in the pits and grooves of your teeth, promoting tooth decay. Always remember to brush your teeth after eating such foods.
I do have a sweet tooth and my secret indulgence… is vanilla ice cream, especially those with visible speckles of vanilla beans – love it! As with all foods, moderation is key and one should always practise good oral hygiene habits. If I was a dental instrument, I would be…the high-speed handpiece, fast and precise with minimal room for error during treatment. The most important thing in life…is to live your purpose, values and dreams, and fulfil your potential. Only then can you give your best in everything you do.
Trivia Did you know that there are only 50 accredited prosthodontists in Singapore? HealthNews 29
Red lips don’t just scream glam, they also have a teeth-whitening effect that we all love. We teach you how to up the wattage of your smile with this timeless shade. By Nur Asykin Ismail
The Siren Pout Rules on Wearing Red Lipstick
your 1. Know hues
Red lips don’t just look good on fair skinned ladies. It works for every woman as long as you find the right shade. Women with fair skin should lean toward true reds with no orangey tones, while medium-skinned women look best in pinkish or orangey reds. Dark-skinned women should go for darker shades and even sport purple and wine-coloured hues of red. “To make the teeth look whiter, choose red shades with a bluish base and stay away from orangey hues!” said Mr Eric Chew, founder of bud Cosmetics.
it 2.Keep simple
that 3. Avoid awkward moment
Similarly, make sure you do not overstate your eyeliner. Also, remember to opt for a subtle and softer blush shade. The thing is, you want the focus to be on your lips – so ensure that the rest of your makeup is simple and does not distract.
Or, try an old trick well known amongst beauty gurus – insert a clean finger into your mouth, form an ‘O’ shape with your mouth around your finger, then slowly pull the finger out. You’ll get rid of the excess lipstick found on the inside of your lips this way. Just be sure to wash your hands before and after.
When wearing red lipstick, be sure to tone the rest of your makeup down. For example, red lipstick pairs well with softer eyeshadow shades such as light brown, as compared to stronger, darker shades.
Red lipstick draws attention – this attention is often good, but it can be bad in the form of teeth stains. To prevent this, lightly blot your lips after applying the final layer (it helps your lipstick to last longer too).
GetGorgeous Expert’s Advice on Getting Whiter Teeth:
There are generally no reported significant side effects on teeth whitening procedures. However, some patients may experience teeth sensitivity which can be easily treated with prescribed desensitising gel, and in very rare cases, allergy to the whitening material. Teeth whitening treatments can be categorised into professionally done in-office whitening, take-home teeth whitening kits (self-administered) and over-the-counter products.
Professionally done in-office whitening has the fastest result of all, but it is also the most costly. Bring home teeth whitening kits require patient’s compliance to use the kit for a designated period of time before the results can be visible.”
Teeth whitening works by a chemical reaction whereby the whitening gel (carbarmide peroxide or hydrogen peroxide) breaks down into oxidant molecules and leaches out the stains from your teeth.
A proper consult with your dentist is prudent. In general, patients with heavy teeth wear, heavy dietary stains, large fillings and who are heavy cigarette smokers should take precaution.
Dr Jeffrey Sng Hong Cheong Dental Specialist in Prosthodontics, Raffles Dental
For more information on our dental services, visit www.rafflesdental.com or email [email protected]
What’s your Favourite?
My go-to shade of red has definitely got to be the 743 Rouge Dior Zinnia. It’s a voluptuous red on the cooler side and is very pigmented. This creamy lipstick takes me from day to night and doesn’t budge. Great, great red lipstick!
- Kelly Leong, 28, PR Exec
I’m loving the NYX Soft Matte Lip Cream in Monte Carlo. It’s lightweight and easy to apply with the brush applicator. Perfect for the fuss-free busy girl on the go like me!
Here’s a shopping tip: Swatch the colour on the back of your hands when you’re shopping the next time. Walk around the department store and see how the colour appears under different lighting (indoors, natural day light, and in darker areas) – you may take a photo of yourself too so you can send it to your friends to get their opinions. Purchase it only when you think that you are comfortable with how the shade looks on you.
These ladies tell us their favourite red lipstick.
- Nadia Natasha, 29, Teacher
NARS Velvet Matte Lip Pencil in Dragon Girl works like a dream! It has a blue undertone which gives me nice, gleaming teeth. The colour payout is excellent and no lipliner is required. Need I rave more? - Patricia Lee, 31, Flight Attendant
Enjoy whiter teeth and maintain that bright white for a longer time by cutting down on the items below:
Drinking several cups per day will cause the tannin chemicals in coffee and tea to turn your teeth yellowish or into a darker shade. Limit yourself to one cup a day and whenever possible, avoid black coffee or tea – try milk-based choices instead. #2: Cigarettes Not only do tobacco leaves stain your teeth, the habit of smoking causes the smoker to continually expose the teeth to the staining process. #3: Wine Red wines have the greatest staining impact on your teeth due to the dark purple pigments found naturally in the grapes used for their production. Lighter
wines have a lesser impact, but can still stain your teeth over time.
The first time a friend introduced me to the brand and the shade, I knew I was hooked for life. My Lime Crime Velvetine in Red Velvet is definitely my “stiletto heel of makeup”. Goes on like a gloss but dries matte. Perfect.
#4: Carbonated drinks The food colouring in soda heads right to the tooth and begins darkening almost immediately. Using a straw can help reduce the staining effect by limiting contact between the soda and your teeth.
#5: Processed foods Many processed foods are chock-full of chemicals and food colourants that make them look and taste mouthwateringly yummy. Unfortunately, those artificial goodies stain your teeth pretty badly.
Formulation is key for me before I decide to purchase a lip product. I’m sold on PIXI Lip Blush - No 3 Happiness. This non-drying formula has a unique felt tip that gives a precisely defined lip line, and a highly pigmented color payoff. - Noelie Evans, 32, Social Worker
- Priya Kaur, 29, Banker
Do Your Teeth Complement Your Face Shape?
As cliché as it sounds, the best accessory one can have is a beautiful smile. Find out how you can achieve a smile that complements your face shape and your facial features. By Jacquelyn Tan
Cosmetic dentistry is one of the centrepieces for most dental practices and it focuses on improving the appearance of a person’s gums and teeth to result in a pleasing smile. This could be a whiter and brighter smile, straighter teeth or a more symmetrical gum line. Dental aesthetics, if strictly adhered to, follows the Golden Proportion which has been applied to many aspects of beauty.
The Golden Proportion
The Golden Proportion or ratio is known as the basis for perfect beauty found in ancient Egyptian and Greek architecture. It is expressed numerically through an irrational number, and is marked with the letter (phi) ≈1.618. When applied to dentistry, the Golden Proportion states that the teeth look most harmonious when viewed from the front if the amount of visible tooth surface of the central incisors to lateral incisors forms a ratio of 1.6 to 1. Today’s beautiful smile, as trends dictate, is composed of the teeth being pushed forward and out to the front and sides of the mouth, filling of the spaces with an exaggerated presence of teeth, a dazzling white monochrome canvas with minimal artistry. It is simply the Hollywood “wider and whiter” model.
SMILE FOR YOUR FACE SHAPE
The following is a guide to different facial shapes and their complementary teeth shapes:
Small face: Steer clear of long, squareshaped teeth as they might look too overwhelming and disproportionate to your petite size. Opt for shorter and more rounded teeth.
Angular or square-shaped face: Aim for a smile with soft edged teeth, sharp angles may look too harsh. This will soften up and contrast the sharp angles of your face’s contour.
Fuller face: Slightly longer teeth are your best bet because they can create a slimming effect – a more streamlined appearance.
Thin face: Avoid thin and long teeth as it will add unnecessary length. Broaden your smile with slightly wider teeth to break up the length and add fullness.
Correcting the Smile
Aesthetic dentistry also includes orthodontic treatment, porcelain veneers and tooth whitening. Orthodontic treatment helps to correct the alignment of the teeth or jaw while porcelain veneers – wafer-thin, custommade shells of porcelain placed over the prepared surface of a natural tooth – help to recreate the natural look of teeth by improving the shade and contour of teeth. Porcelain veneers are one of the best ways to achieve a perfectly customised smile that will compliment your face shape in all the right ways. Moreover, it resist stains better than resin veneers and better mimic the light reflecting properties of natural teeth. Tooth whitening, as its name suggests, serves to improve colour harmony. “When advising patients on dental aesthetics, other than the Golden Proportion, factors like symmetry, lip length, smile line, gum line, space constraints, parafunction habits, financial and time constraints, need to be considered and discussed,” explained Dr Lee Leing, Dental Surgeon, Raffles Dental.
greater functionality and be a great confidence booster. After all, a smile is a curve that sets everything straight, the best clothing is confidence and the best make up is a smile.
“The best clothing is confidence and the best make up is a smile.”
Furthermore, when it comes to aesthetic dentistry, it is difficult to standardise aesthetics because the perception of beauty varies from person to person. Dr Lee shared: “Besides the pursuit of certain fundamental theories, we must take into account the dental and facial characteristics of the patients. Ultimately, I feel the most important factor is the management of the patient’s expectations.” Besides pure comestic reasons, aesthetic dentistry can confer HealthNews 33
With these fun exercises comes a great payoff (aka an active lifestyle and a stronger mind and body). You no longer have a reason to be a couch potato. By Katherine Teo
“I have no time!” Weighted hula hoops
“My current routine is no longer challenging enough.”
You may really be unable to fork out an hour or two to hit the gym, but surely you can afford 15 minutes in the morning and before your bedtime to get a quick but thorough workout? Try weighted hula hoops. Apart from adding resistance to strengthen your core muscles and hips, it also builds your concentration, coordination and stamina for a good workout. The best part is, according to a study by the American College on Exercise (ACE), hula hooping can burn seven calories per minute, so you no longer have to clock hours on the treadmill. Don’t just take our word for it though – the First Lady of the United States of America, Michelle Obama is a fan. So is Kelly Osborne who has claimed that weighted hula hoops is the secret to her weight loss and lean physique. Get started: Purchase your weighted hula hoops on http://www.hulahoopsingapore.com
Hot yoga Why:
It’s time to shake things up and take your exercise one notch higher by taking on a class of traditional hot yoga at BYCH Hot Yoga. Here, you go through a series of 12 standing poses, 14 floor series and two breathing exercises in a 40 degree celsius hot room. Each class lasts for 90 minutes. This class requires discipline (you are encouraged to stay in the room for the full 90 minutes. You will be allowed to sit down and rest if you are feeling dizzy or uncomfortable in your first few classes). With focus and determination, you will leave the hot room feeling energised, stronger, and sweating buckets. Sounds challenging? It is, and you can look forward to pushing yourself physically and mentally. It is also said that each class burns more than 600 calories so by committing yourself to a minimum of three classes a week, you can say hello to a leaner and stronger physique. Get started: Choose the number of trial classes you wish to take in 30 days and purchase each trial class for just $18 per class at BYCH Hot Yoga. Email [email protected]
to receive a first timer card. Quote ‘RMG2014’. Offer is valid till 30 June 2014. For more information, log on to http://www.bych.sg/. Terms and conditions apply.
ShapeUp Your excuse:
“I can’t afford gym memberships or exercise equipment.”
“I don’t even know where to start.” Try this:
Gym membership and exercise equipment can be costly but that doesn’t mean if you can’t afford them, you won’t be able to get a good workout done. Lack of resources simply isn’t a good enough reason to be unhealthy and inactive considering how these days, there are a lot of step-by-step fitness exercises available on the internet. One of our favourite fitness programmes is the FitnessBlender which features full-length workouts for total body workout sessions. The best part? These videos are available on YouTube for free and most require no equipment – just internet connection and a laptop and you are ready to work up a sweat.
There’s a reason why personal trainers charge a hefty amount per hour (between $80 to $120 on average). This is because you are paying them for their expertise. Apart from giving you fitness tips and motivating you to get started on a regime, they should be able to come up with a complete exercise plan that includes cardio, weight training and flexibility that suits your needs to help you get a full body workout. Regardless of your goals, whether it is to lose weight, get fit, run your first marathon, or simply kickstart a healthy lifestyle, they will be able to get you going in the right direction, in the shortest amount of time.
Get started: http://www.youtube.com/user/FitnessBlender
Get started: http://www.pt.com.sg
Here are three ways to start committing to a healthy and active lifestyle of working out and eating right.
Grab a buddy
Working out alone means you can just opt to stay home and watch TV. And this is why getting an exercise buddy with the same goal can help both of you. Having someone to be accountable to means you won’t be able to bail out on him or her without a valid reason. Plus, the two of you will be able to motivate each other along the way and celebrate your progress together too.
a realistic goal up your routine 2 Set 3 Switch Most of the time, people fail in keeping It’s hard not to get bored if all you do to a fitness regime because they get demotivated when they don’t see progress. To see progress, you need time and commitment. Start by setting small goals such as losing 1kg per week or even cutting out fast food for a week – the trick is to celebrate small successes along the way so that you are motivated to keep going.
is run like a robot on the treadmill for an hour, seven days a week. Keep yourself motivated by being open to trying new things. Whether it’s a dance class like Zumba, or weight lifting, or Mixed Martial Arts, or even cycling or badminton – the key is to have fun and keep trying.
Figure Out your Shape Ectomorph
Ectomorphs are typically skinny. They have a light build with small joints and lean muscle, with long thin limbs and stringy muscles. Their shoulders tend to be thin with little width.
• Typically skinny • Flat chest • Lean muscle mass • Hard to gain weight • Fast metabolism • Small shoulders WORKOUT TYPE Short and intense, focusing on big muscle groups TRY: A 20-minute workout, thrice a week. Strength training repetitions of six to 10 with heavier weights, with a resting span of 30 to 45 seconds.
If you are going to be putting in time at the gym and sweating it out, you want your efforts to pay off. In order to get the most out of your workout, the key is in understanding your body type and choosing the best workouts for yourself. Let Mr Lim Hun Teck, Chief Physiotherapist, Raffles Physiotherapy Centre, walk you through the basics. By Joanna Lee
Mesomorph Mesomorphs have large bone structures and muscles. They have a naturally strong and athletic physique, which is the best body type for bodybuilding, and a perfect platform for building muscle.
Endomorphs have a body that is solid yet generally soft. They gain fat very easily and are usually shorter in build with thick arms and legs. They have strong muscles, especially in the upper legs hence they may find leg exercises like squats, easy to do.
• Athletic • Well-defined muscles • Rectangular-shaped body • Gains muscle and fat easily • Broad shoulders
• Typically short and stocky • Soft and round body • Gains muscle and fat easily • Slow metabolism • Large shoulders
WORKOUT TYPE A combination of cardio and weight training
WORKOUT TYPE Cardio and weight training exercises to keep fat gain to a minimum
TRY: A 20-minute workout, thrice a week. A balanced strength training programme composed of low repetitions for size and high repetitions for definition.
TRY: A 30 to 40-minute workout, three to five times a week. Strength training programme composed of higher repetitions with at least 12 to 20 reps (with 30 to 60 seconds of rest between each set).
Made Me Smile
Racing Against Time Dr Timothy Tan Sei Tai Resident Physician, 24-Hour Emergency Department As a doctor in the emergency department, he fights against time to nurse patients back to health. Read on as this calm and composed doctor shares more on what keeps him going. By Joanna Lee
How would you describe your daily routine? My day begins with a time of handover when my colleagues from the last shift pass on existing cases which require follow-up. During this time, I review these cases in greater detail with them before they leave work. Thereafter, I attend to new cases that come in at different intervals throughout my shift.
What are some of the cases that you have attended to? These cases could range from minor ones such as cough and cold, to food poisoning, as well as major cases like accidents and heart attack. My scope of work includes conducting investigations, reviewing cases, as well as suturing and cleaning wounds.
What was the most traumatic case that you have experienced? I have encountered many, but one of such cases that left a deep impression on me was attending to a worker who suffered a laceration on his arm by a metal blade. He had a wound that measured about 10cm long with blood still spurting out from the gash when he arrived at the hospital.
the best treatment option available at that point of time. This is especially important for critical cases like stroke and heart attack, when it is necessary to give immediate attention to patients within the stipulated short “golden hour” period. For this, I am thankful for having fellow colleagues from a different discipline who usually respond very quickly to such cases, thereby allowing patients to be well on the road to recovery.
“I love the action, adrenaline rush, excitement and satisfaction that can be found in the job that I am in.” What do you like most about your job?
What motivates you to serve with a smile?
I love the action, adrenaline rush, excitement and satisfaction that can be found in the job that I am in.
To me, it is just simply being able to help someone in need and this gives me a sense of satisfaction.
Working in such a fast-paced environment keeps me on my toes and enables me to attend to a variety of cases.
#MadeMeSmile is a Twitter tag that is used to share special moments that made you beam. It could be about your experience with us and / or about someone who made you smile
Stitching up a deep cut
Also, this job allows me to be the first respondent to patients who are in need, and to provide them with
during your visit. Share with us something that “made you smile today”. Simply follow and tag us @RafflesMedGp today.
Ask The Experts | Dental Q&A
Which should be done first? Dental braces or wisdom teeth extraction?
In younger patients, braces treatment is usually done first as the wisdom teeth are still under-developed and it is hard to determine if they are able to erupt into good functional positions in the jaw. However, in adult patients, the orthodontist may advise the removal of wisdom teeth first if they are impacted and have little chance of coming into alignment, even after braces treatment.
Dr Janee Lim Dental Specialist in Orthodontics Raffles Dental
What is a good all-around toothpaste?
For most people, a simple fluoride toothpaste is usually suitable. Fluoride is the most important ingredient to look out for as it is very effective in strengthening teeth and reducing tooth decay. It is highly recommended for adults and children alike. For younger children, always use a small quantity of toothpaste to prevent the formation of white spots, otherwise known as fluorosis, on their teeth.
Dr Simon Polley Dental Surgeon Raffles Dental
Are there any risks involved with teeth whitening? Teeth whitening is an extremely safe and routine procedure. The most common side effect experienced is sensitivity, the intensity
of which varies from patient to patient. This sensitivity is usually self-limiting and can be managed with sensitivityspecific toothpastes. Tooth whitening will not affect the integrity of tooth structure and existing fillings. However, it must be noted that existing restorations will not lighten and these restorations may need to be replaced following bleaching.
Dr Hwang Eun Jae Dental Surgeon Raffles Dental
What causes Gingivitis (inflamed and bleeding gums)?
There are two broad categories of Gingivitis, namely Local Gingivitis or Systemic Gingivitis. Local Gingivitis is due to infections (viral and / or bacterial), trauma (over-brushing, toothpicks, food impaction), idiopathic causes (Post Surgery/ Deep Scaling and Polishing) and congenital ones like Hemangiomas (lesions in mouth). Systemic Gingivitis can be due to Hormonal Gingivitis (pregnancy, menstruation), deficiencies (Vitamins A / C / K, blood factors, etc), drug interactions and in severe cases, possible mouth malignancies (oral cancer).
Dr Aaron Tan Dental Surgeon Raffles Dental 38 HealthNews
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An Insight into Colon Cancer
Colorectal cancer is the number one cancer affecting men, and the second top cancer among women in Singapore. What are the different screening methods for colorectal cancer? And what does each of them test for? Find out how you can safeguard yourself and your loved ones from it as Dr Wong Kutt Sing, Specialist in General Surgery, Raffles Surgery Centre shares more. So, you’ve had a fruitful day at the market, buying bags of fresh produce for the next few days. Do you know which foods to refrigerate and which to keep on the counter? Store your produce the right way with this guide.
Best questions asked (Jan - Mar): Jan (Dermatology): I have been diagnosed with Vasculitis on my feet over a year ago. Causes were unknown but I did contract dengue fever a few months before that and had worn ill-fitting shoes which caused friction to my feet prior to the inflammation. I took steroids and now am on colchicine. I am concerned about this recurring again. Is there any advice you would give on how to control this without the use of medication? Feb (Dental): Is the direction in which we brush our teeth important? Or is it ok, as long as we brush our teeth diligently?
[Touching Lives] – X-Ray Vision: Seeing Through You
(Don’t be a) Couch Potato! While we may love staying in once in a while and pigging out on junk food, too much inactivity will turn us into couch potatoes (not literally). Get off that couch and start exercising today! #SHAPEUP
An initiative by Raffles to bring our social media fans closer to us, #AskRMG is a monthly online chat session between our Specialist of the month and our Facebook and Twitter followers. Every last Wednesday of the month, you can log on to Facebook or Twitter to post questions to our specialist for a unique LIVE consultation. What’s more, the best question gets to win shopping vouchers!
Radiographers work with high-tech medical equipment and different techniques to produce high-quality radiographic images of the body. Radiography is as much about healthcare science as technology. In this episode, Principal Radiographer Ms Goh Eik Heau shows you how she sees beyond the human body and looks into the unspoken needs of the patient for sensitive care, attention and assurance. To find out more about allied health career opportunities in Raffles Medical Group / Raffles Hospital, contact our Human Resources colleagues at [email protected]
Mar (TCM): I had a sprained ankle two to three years back. Why do I always feel the pain in my ankle whenever it rains or the weather turns cold? In TCM, is there any way that can prevent this from happening?
May (Geriatric Counselling): Dr Joshua Kua, Specialist in Psychiatry & Consultant, Raffles Counselling Centre June (Neurology): Dr Mohammed Tauqueer Ahmad, Specialist in Neurology & Consultant, Raffles Neuroscience Centre July (Urology): Dr Siow Woei Yun, Specialist in Urology & Consultant, Raffles Urology Centre
Raffles Hospital. Caring As One.
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