Simple Machines Work!

Simple Machines Work! Physical Science Work and Machines Simple Machines Winners! teacher notes adhere to the following format: A general introductio...
Author: Jack Gibbs
8 downloads 0 Views 1MB Size
Simple Machines Work! Physical Science Work and Machines Simple Machines

Winners! teacher notes adhere to the following format: A general introduction to the book A table of article information for the main articles Text Type

Science Concepts

Vocabulary Not Glossarized

Visual Literacy Features

High-Frequency Words

Phonics Revision

A table of outcomes, activities, and assessment for the main articles Language Mode

Outcome

Demonstration Materials

Student Task

Assessment

A suggested teaching sequence for each article. The teaching sequence for the main articles has sections for before, during, and after reading. Within these, there are opportunities for you to demonstrate and teach, and for the students to apply learning. The notes also contain graphic organizers for demonstration and for the students to complete. A wrap-up of the book

Simple Machines Work! – 

Simple Machines Work! Introduce the Book Read the title to the students and have them look at the cover photos. Discuss the photos as they relate to the title. Introduce the discussion by asking questions such as: What can you see in these photos? Can you see a machine? Can you name some machines? What do they do? What do you think a simple machine might be? Ask the students to share what they know about simple machines and what they do. Have the students turn to the contents page. Revise the purpose of the table of contents by asking questions such as: What does the table of contents tell you about what is in the book? Which page would you turn to if you wanted to find out about hanging gardens? Which article is the longest? What is the name of the first article in the book? Ask the students to share all the information they already know about simple machines. Fill in the brainstorm map graphic organizer OHT (on page 18) with their responses. Have the students turn to pages 2–3 to establish a purpose for reading. Read the questions with the students. If they answer yes to any of the questions, invite them to share their information and add it to the brainstorm map. If they answer no to any question, explain that as they read the book they need to add their new knowledge to the brainstorm map. Ask the students to read aloud the words at the bottom of the page. Demonstrate how to use the pronunciation guide. Have the students read chorally the words five times to become fluent with the pronunciation. Invite the students to turn to the glossary on pages 30–31. Have them look at the photos and read the glossary items and definitions. Write on the board any words in the glossary definitions that students do not know the meaning of, for example: fixed point, thread, force, result. Tell the students that they need to reinforce the meaning of these words as they read.

Simple Machines Work! – 

Hard at Work Article Information Text Type

Science Concepts

Vocabulary Not Glossarized

Visual Literacy Features

High-Frequency Words

Phonics Revision

Feature Article

Work is done when a force is used to move an object. Simple machines help people do work. Simple machines have few or no moving parts.

block, direction, edge, fixed, force, joins, lift, load, machines, object, point, pole, ridge, rollerblading, skateboard, straight, thread, wheels

Photos

about, around, change, help, learn, move, much, need, read, think, time, turn, work

Consonant digraphs: change; much; sharp; push; that, things, think; path; wheelchair, wheels; hangs, things

Outcomes, Activities, Assessment Language Mode

Outcome

Demonstration Materials

Student Task

Assessment

Vocabulary

Understand and explain some common antonyms.

Opposites chart

Fill in opposites chart.

Opposites chart

Reading Comprehension

Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.

Q&A template

Fill in Q&A worksheet and draw a picture to illustrate.

Appropriateness of information

Writing Strategies/ Applications

Write an advertisement for a simple machine.

Advertisement template

Write and illustrate an advertisement.

Advertisement has all the features.

Speaking and Listening

Present advertisement as a TV or radio ad.

Work in groups to act out advertisement.

Effectiveness of presentation

Bone Idol - 

Before Reading Introduce the Text and Build Background Have the students turn to page 4 of the book and read the title of the article. Look at the photos on pages 4–5 together. Ask the students to say what the people are doing and invite their suggestions about which things might be machines. Revisit the discussion of the cover to discuss simple machines further. Have the students share any further information they now have on simple machines. Add any new ideas to the brainstorm map. Leaf through the article together, looking at the photos and wondering aloud which things might be simple machines.

Demonstrate Reading Outcome

My Simple Machine Q. What is your simple machine called? A. My simple machine is called a ramp.

Tell the students that a good way to understand new information is to write it again in a different way. Use the Q&A template OHT (on page 19). Tell the students that they will learn about some simple machines in the article. When they have finished reading, they will choose a simple machine from the book and answer questions about it on a form like this one.

Q. How does it work? A. It has a high end and a low end. Q. What can you do with it? A. I can push this woman in a wheelchair up a ramp. Q. How does it make your work easier? A. That uses less force than lifting her into my van! Draw a picture that shows your simple machine working.

During Reading Review Glossary Vocabulary Have the students leaf through the article again, looking for the bold-faced words. Have the students read the words to reinforce the pronunciation. Then invite the students to give the meaning of the words or refer back to the glossary to refresh their memories.

Demonstrate Vocabulary Outcome Tell the students that they are going to look for pairs of words with opposite meanings as they read the article. Point to the word push on page 5. Tell the students that on the same page, they will find a word with the opposite meaning: pull. Use the opposites chart (on page 21). Tell the students that after they have read the article, they will fill in the chart with pairs of words with opposite meanings. Word

push

Word

pull

Simple Machines Work! – 

Teach Reading Outcome Read pages 4–5 together. Discuss the ideas together and check the students’ understanding by asking questions such as: What do you do every time you use force to do something? When you work, you use a force. What are the two kinds of force? What makes work easier? How many different kinds of simple machines are there? My Simple Machine

Q. What is your simple machine called? A. My simple machine is called a ramp.

Now turn to page 6 and read about the ramp, or inclined plane, with the students. Discuss when students have used ramps, what they have used them for, and how ramps make it easier to lift things. Tell the students you are going to look at the picture on page 6 and answer some questions as if you were the man using the ramp. Use the Q&A template (on page 19) and think aloud as you demonstrate answering the questions. My simple machine is called a ramp. A ramp has a high end and a low end. I can push this woman in a wheelchair up a ramp. That uses less force than lifting her into my van!

Q. How does it work? A. It has a high end and a low end. Q. What can you do with it? A. I can push this woman in a wheelchair up a ramp. Q. How does it make your work easier? A. That uses less force than lifting her into my van! Draw a picture that shows your simple machine working.

Demonstrate drawing a picture to illustrate the Q&A template. You can base this on the photo in the book if you wish.

Apply Reading Outcome Ask the students to read the rest of the article. Tell the students that when they have finished reading, they will choose a simple machine, answer interview questions about it and draw a picture to illustrate.

After Reading

My Simple Machine Q. What is your simple machine called? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Apply Comprehension Outcome

Q. How does it work? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Ask the students to share what they learned from reading the article. Have the students think about times they have used one of these simple machines and what they used it for. Hand out the Q&A sheet (on page 20) and ask the students to choose a simple machine and answer the questions. They can use the photo of the simple machine in the book to help them, just as you did in the demonstration. Students draw a picture showing the simple machine working to illustrate.

Q. What can you do with it? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Q. How does it make your work easier? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Draw a picture that shows your simple machine working.

Simple Machines Work! – 

Apply Vocabulary Outcome

Word push

Word pull

Hand out the opposites chart (on page 22). Ask the students to go through the article again, finding pairs of words with opposite meanings and filling in the chart. If students need help, give them these words and ask them to find the opposites: high, joins, together, up. Extend by giving students the following words from the article and brainstorming the opposites together: simple, sharp, straight, heavy. Have the students add these pairs of words to their chart.

Demonstrate Writing Outcome Use the advertisement template (on page 23). Tell the students that you are going to show them how to write an advertisement to tell people about your simple machine and how it makes work easier. You can use the answers to the Q&A sheet to help you. Think aloud as you write an advertisement for a ramp. An advertisement needs a picture. I’ll use the picture I drew for the interview. Here I am, pushing the woman in the wheelchair up a ramp into my van. I’ll tell people who I am and the work I need to do. Now I want to tell people how a ramp makes my work easier. Then I’ll explain how a ramp works. Lastly, I’ll get people to think about how they could use a ramp to help them. Make sure all the features of the simple machine are covered. Then tell the students that they are going to write their own advertisements.

I’m a taxi driver. I have to lift people into my van every day. A ramp makes lifting easy! A ramp has a high end and a low end. Do you need to lift a heavy load? Use a ramp!

Apply Writing Outcome Hand out the advertisement sheet (on page 24). Have the students refer to the book and their answers on the Q&A worksheet and write an advertisement for their simple machine.

Demonstrate Oral Language Outcome Tell the students you are going to act out the text of your advertisement as if it was a TV or radio advertisement. Read the text of the ad with appropriate expression. Use suitable props, such as models and toys, if possible.

Apply Oral Language Outcome Have the students act out their advertisements and perform them to the group. Have them use suitable props, such as models and toys, if possible.

High-Frequency Words and Phrases Teach or revise high-frequency words and phonics as necessary.

Simple Machines Work! – 

How People Built the Great Pyramid Article Information Text Type

Science Concepts

Vocabulary Not Glossarized

Visual Literacy Features

High-Frequency Words

Phonics Revision

Explanation

Some ancient civilizations used simple machines to help build elaborate buildings.

blocks, building, chisel, Egypt, ground, hammer, huge, limestone, mallet, pieces, pyramid, sledge, slippery, smooth, split, weighs

Labelled drawings Photos

could, great, move, people, place, right, think, where

Consonant digraphs: they, think, this; smooth

Outcomes, Activities, Assessment Language Mode

Outcome

Vocabulary

Demonstration Materials

Student Task

Assessment

Use dictionary to find meanings of unknown words.

Use dictionary – write definitions in own words.

Appropriateness of definitions

Reading Comprehension

Identify problems and solutions.

Find problems and solutions in text.

Appropriateness of responses

Writing Strategies/ Applications

Write instructions.

Write instructions for moving stone blocks from the ground to the building.

Check instructions are complete.

Instructions for splitting stones

Before Reading Introduce the Text and Build Background Have the students turn to page 12 and read the title of the article. Look at the photo together and read the caption. Discuss with the students what they already know about the Great Pyramid. Have the students share ideas about why it was hard to build and how the workers in ancient times might have built it. Invite the students to scan the first paragraph for any word that they do not know the meaning of. Invite the students to use the dictionary to find the meanings. Discuss the dictionary definitions together to ensure understanding.

Simple Machines Work! – 

During Reading Teach Reading Outcome Have the students read page 12. Tell them that when they have read the paragraph you are going to ask them some questions. They need to read carefully and also look at the other features on the page to help them with comprehension. After they have finished reading, ask the following questions: What problems might workers on the Great Pyramid have to solve? How would you solve those problems today? Ask the students to read page 14. Then ask questions such as the following: What do people think workers did to solve the problem of building the Great Pyramid? Which simple machines did they use? Ask the students to read page 15. Then ask questions such as the following: What work did the stonemasons on the Great Pyramid do? What problem did they have to solve? Which simple machines did they use? Ask the students to read pages 16–17 by themselves.

After Reading Apply Comprehension Outcome Discuss the the process of lifting blocks up from the ground onto the Great Pyramid. Have the students identify the problem and the solutions in the text. Ask the students to tell you which simple machines the workers used.

Apply Vocabulary Outcome Have the students use the dictionary to find the meanings of three of the following words. Ensure that they choose a meaning that fits the context. Have them write the meanings in their own words. wedge, lever, ramp, chisel, mallet, sledge

Simple Machines Work! – 

Demonstrate Writing Outcome

Instructions How to cut big blocks of stone into smaller blocks

Use the completed instructions template (on page 25). Tell the students that you are going to show them how to use the text to help you write instructions for a stonemason for cutting big blocks of stone into smaller blocks. Remind students of the features of a set of instructions: a title that includes the words How to…, a list of things that the workers will need, and a set of steps, numbered in the order that the workers should do them.

You will need: a big block of limestone from the limestone mine a wooden wedge, or chisel a wooden hammer with a big head, or mallet 1. Mark where to split the big block of stone. 2. Put the chisel on the mark. 3. Hit the chisel with the mallet.

Apply Writing Outcome Hand out the instructions worksheet (on page 26). Tell the students to use the text on pages 16–17 to help them write instructions for workers on the Great Pyramid to tell them how to lift blocks of stone from the ground up onto the building. Instructions How to

High-Frequency Words and Phrases Teach or revise high-frequency words and phonics as necessary.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ You will need: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ What to do: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Simple Machines Work! – 

Hanging Gardens Article Information Text Type

Science Concepts

Explanation

Some ancient civilizations used simple machines to help build elaborate buildings.

Vocabulary Not Glossarized

Visual Literacy Features

High-Frequency Words

Phonics Revision

Labelled diagrams Drawings Photos

Outcomes, Activities, Assessment Language Mode

Outcome

Vocabulary

Demonstration Materials

Student Task

Assessment

Know and use the suffix -ing.

Fill in word web graphic organizer.

Word web graphic organizer

Reading Comprehension

Extract information from factual text.

Read article.

Answer questions.

Writing Strategies/ Applications

Write a dialogue in the present tense.

Write a dialogue in speech bubbles for a four-panel comic strip.

Check comic strip has all features.

Speaking and Listening

Perform a dialogue.

Act out the comic strip in pairs.

Perform with expression.

Before Reading Introduce the Text and Build Background Have the students turn to page 18 and read the title of the article. Look at the photo together and read the speech bubble. Discuss with the students what they already know about the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Have students heard people talk about the seven wonders of the world?

Demonstrate Vocabulary Outcome Tell the students that many words have a part added at the end, called a word ending, or suffix. Tell the students to find the word with the suffix -ing in the title of the article. Have the students notice that this word is made up of the verb hang plus the suffix -ing. This makes the adjective, or describing word, hanging, which describes the gardens.

Simple Machines Work! – 10

During Reading Teach Reading Outcome Have the students read page 19. Tell them that when they have read the paragraph you are going to ask them some questions. They need to read carefully and also look at the other features on the page to help them with comprehension. After they have finished reading, have students point to the terraces in the drawing of the hanging gardens. Ask questions such as the following: What sort of plants grew in the hanging gardens? What sort of plants grow in a desert? Why do you think the gardens were in a building?

Apply Reading Outcome Ask the students to read the rest of the article. Remind them to study the diagram and look carefully at the the drawing. Ask questions such as: What problem did the gardeners at the Hanging Garden have? Why? Where did they get water for the gardens from? What are the three main parts of the simple machine the gardeners used? Where did the water go when the bucket got to the top of the chain pulley?

After Reading Apply Comprehension Outcome Discuss the chain pump with the students and how water flowed from the pool down channels to the plants in the terraces. Have the students work in pairs to retell the information from the text.

Apply Vocabulary Outcome Hand out the word web graphic organizer (on page 27). Have the students turn to page 19 and find two words in the text that have the suffix -ing. For each word, ask them to take off the suffix. Lead the students to notice that the verb build plus -ing makes the noun, building. The verb draw plus -ing makes the noun, drawing. Work together to brainstorm more verbs and see if you can make them into nouns by adding -ing. Add them to the word web.

____ing

Simple Machines Work! – 11

Demonstrate Writing Outcome Tell the students that you are going to pretend you are the head gardener at the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. You need to explain to a new gardener how the garden gets the water it needs. You are going to write the words the head garden says. Have the students look at page 20 as you demonstrate. The hanging gardens need water. We use a simple machine to get water to the plants. It is called a chain pump. Have the students notice that you are changing the verbs in the text from the past tense to the present tense, to show that the head gardener is speaking now.

Apply Writing Outcome Tell the students to look at pages 20–21 and continue writing the words the head gardener would say to explain to the new gardener how the plants get water at the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. When they have finished writing, ask them to draw a four-panel comic strip, showing the head gardener and the new gardener and the gardens. Students write the words the characters say in the speech bubbles.

Apply Oral Language Outcome Have the students act out their comic-strip dialogues in pairs.

Simple Machines Work! – 12

Gift from the Gods Article Information Text Type

Visual Literacy Elements

Comic Strip

Illustrations Speech bubbles

Outcomes, Activities, Assessment Language Mode

Outcome

Reading Fluency

Read fluently with expression and intonation.

Demonstration Materials

Student Task

Assessment

Make a presentation in groups of four.

Ability to read fluently with expression

Before Reading Introduce the Text and Build Background Read the title with the students and have them predict what the story is about. Discuss what daily life might have been like for workers building the Great Pyramid. Invite the students to predict what the workers might talk about when they took a break from hauling heavy stone blocks. Explain to the students that they are going to read this comic strip as if it was a play script. The background colour behind the text will help them know which character is speaking.

Demonstrate Reading Outcome Read the entire text to the students, changing your voice for each different character.

During Reading Teach Reading Outcome Have the students read the text along with you, changing their voices appropriately.

Apply Reading Outcome Assign the students different roles. Have one student play the narrator. Students practise reading the comic strip until they are fluent. Present readings to the class.

Simple Machines Work! – 13

After Reading Discuss the story with the students. Use starter questions such as: What was the pyramid going to be used for when it was finished? Why did the workers want a gift from the gods? Why did Rasui want a hippopotamus? What did Ako think was wrong with that idea? How is a bulldozer like a hippopotamus?

Simple Machines Work! – 14

Multimedia Information Explore the multimedia pages with the students.

FAQS Discuss with the students how they use the Internet to access information. Have them read the FAQS page. Invite the students to formulate further questions that they think may be frequently asked about simple machines and to which they do not know the answers. List these questions and discuss the key words that they would use in an Internet search for the answers. Assign the students the task of finding the answers on the Internet. Discuss the answers and also the process they used. Use questions such as these to start the discussion if necessary: How many sites did you have to visit in order to find the answers? Could you have refined your search better at the outset? Are there some sites, for example, Wikipedia, that you go to first? How can you check that information you find on the Internet is correct?

Message 1 Discuss this text message with the students. Use questions such as these to start the discussion if necessary: What do you need to get a message like this? What sort of message is this? What do you notice about the spelling? Have you sent a text on a mobile phone? What is this text about? Has the chain ever come off your bike? What did you do? Ask the students what they already know about sending text messages on mobile phones. Have the students write a text message for Tom to send as a reply to this one. Ask questions to help the students get started: Can you understand these instructions? Do you think Tom could fix his bike? What would he write if he did? What would he write if he didn’t?

Simple Machines Work! – 15

Quick 8 Quiz Have the students take the quiz. Choose whether you want them to give the answers orally or write their responses. If you choose to have the students write their responses, hand out page 28. You may want to use this as a formal assessment of science concepts, in which case you will not allow them to refer back to the text. If you are using the quiz as an informal assessment, let the students turn to page 32 of the book for clues that will direct them back to the appropriate page for the information.

Learn More Choose whether you want the students to work independently or in pairs, and in ability groups or mixed ability groups to learn more about simple machines. You may need to specifically teach the following: • How to use people, and/or books, and/or the Internet to find information • How to take notes • How to draw diagrams • How to order facts • How to choose subheadings • How to revise a draft • How to check spelling, grammar, and punctuation • How to present work appropriately Set a time for the research project to be finished. Tell the students the form that the presentation will take.

Simple Machines Work! – 16

Wrap-Up Refer back to the brainstorm map graphic organizer. Invite students to review the information. Have them add to and/or revise the information if necessary. Have the students say where they found the information in the brainstorm map. Record this information in the rectangle. Help the students evaluate the information they learned. Use the following questions as discussion starters if necessary: What do you now know about simple machines and work that you did not know before you started reading? Why do people invent machines? What made this book easy or hard to understand? Which article did you like the most? Why? What did you like best about the book? Why? Which words did you find hard to pronounce, understand, read? If you had written the book, what would you have included, left out? Why? Do you think the author did a good job of giving you information about how simple machines make work easier? Could you take this information and apply it to compound machines? How could you use the strategies that you learned while you were reading this book somewhere else?

Simple Machines Work! – 17

Simple Machines Work!

Hard at Work

Brainstorm Map

Name:____________________________

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 18

Simple Machines Work!

Hard at Work

Q&A Template

My Simple Machine Q. What is your simple machine called? A. My simple machine is called a ramp. Q. How does it work? A. It has a high end and a low end. Q. What can you do with it? A. I can push this woman in a wheelchair up a ramp. Q. How does it make your work easier? A. That uses less force than lifting her into my van! Draw a picture that shows your simple machine working.

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 19

Simple Machines Work!

Hard at Work Name:__________________________

Q&A Sheet

My Simple Machine Q. What is your simple machine called? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Q. How does it work? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Q. What can you do with it? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Q. How does it make your work easier? A. _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Draw a picture that shows your simple machine working.

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 20

Simple Machines Work!

Hard at Work

Opposites Chart ?

Word push

Word pull

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 21

Simple Machines Work!

Hard at Work

Opposites Chart

Name:____________________________ Word push

Word pull

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 22

Simple Machines Work!

Hard at Work

Advertisement Template

Name:____________________________

I’m a taxi driver. I have to lift people into my van every day. A ramp makes lifting easy! A ramp has a high end and a low end. Do you need to lift a heavy load? Use a ramp!

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 23

Simple Machines Work!

Hard at Work

Advertisement Sheet

Name:____________________________ Make an advertisement for your simple machine.

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 24

Simple Machines Work!

How People Built the Great Pyramid Instructions Template

Name:____________________________ Instructions How to cut big blocks of stone into smaller blocks You will need: a big block of limestone from the limestone mine a wooden wedge, or chisel a wooden hammer with a big head, or mallet 1. Mark where to split the big block of stone. 2. Put the chisel on the mark. 3. Hit the chisel with the mallet.

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 25

Simple Machines Work!

How People Built the Great Pyramid

Instructions

Name:____________________________ Instructions How to ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ You will need: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ What to do: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 26

Simple Machines Work!

Word Web

Hanging Gardens Name:____________________________

____ing

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 27

Simple Machines Work!

Quick 8 Quiz

Name:____________________________ 1. What does an inclined plane have? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. How does a wheel and axle work? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. Why do screws have a thread? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 4. Name one kind of wedge. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5. What is a fulcrum? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 6. Name one use for a pulley. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 7. Name two simple machines that people may have used to build the pyramids. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 8. How did people move water to the Hanging Gardens? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Permission is given to teachers to reproduce this page for classroom use. Page 28