Schottky barrier heights of Pt and lr silicides formed on Si/SiGe measured by internal photoemission J. R. Jimenez ElectraOptics Techrmlo,qy Center; Tufts li’niversit), Medjord, Mussachussetts 021.55
X Xiaoa) and J C Sturm E~ectricnl Engineek~
Depnrtment, Princeton Urzi\*er.Gt~ Princeton, New Jersey 08544
P. W. Pellegrini and M. M. Weeks Rome Laborutoty~ Hunscotn Air Force Base, hfmsachusserts 01731
iReceived 22 July 1993; accepted for publication 3 1 January 1994) Loweredbarrierheight silicide Schottky diodes are desirable for obtaining longer cutoffwavelength Sibased infrared detectors. Silicide Schottky diodes have been fabricated by the reaction of evaporated Pt and Ir films on pSi,.Ge, alloys with a thin Si capping layer. The onset of metalSiGe reactions was controlled by the deposited metal thickness. Internal photoemission measurements were made and the barrier heights were obtained from these. PtSiGe and IrSiGe reacted diodes have barrier heights of 0.27 and 0.31 eV, respectively, higher than typical values of 0.22 and 0.12 eV for the corresponding silicidelpSi diodes. Their emission constants are also lower and more voltage dependent than silicide/Si diodes. PtSiiSQSiGe diodes, on the other hand, have lower barrier heights (0.15 sV) than the PtSi/Si barrier height. The barrier height shifts in such silicide/Si/SiGe diodes are interpreted by accounting for tunneling through the unconsumed Si layer. This is done analytically using a simple model based on the Cohen, Vilms, and Archer (unpublished) modification to the Fowler equation, and leads to an extracted barrier height, that is! the Si barrier height reduced by the Si/SiGe band offset.
I. INTRODUCTION Arrays of PtSi/Si Schottky diode detectors have excellent electrooptical characteristics for infrared imaging in the mediumwavelength infrared (MWIR) window (3S pm!.’ The detection mechanism is infrared absorption in the metal, followed by internal photoemission over the Schottky barrier into the semiconductor. Despite the low quantum efficiency of this detection process, focal plane arrays (FPAsj of PtSi/Si diodes produce exceptional infrared images be.cause of the high uniformity of response from diode to diode. This, together with other advantages of Si such as mature processing technology and the ease and low cost of integration with Si twodimensional multiplexers, has allowed silicide infrared detectors to compete favorably with older, more established infrared materials such as HgCdTe. There is, therefore, considerable impetus for estending the wavelength range of silicide/Si detectors into the longwavelength infrared (LWIR) window (S12 pmj, where other materials still have an advantage, by reducing the Schottky barrier height fSBH) of 4.22 eV for PtSi!pSi and 0.12 eV for IrSi/pSi.“‘” SilicideiSi, ....k;)r(E)dk,,
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i2j FIG. 4. Measured Fowler plots of PtSi/SiC3,,Gc,, diodes, formed with 35 A Pt on 40 .A Si on SiGe, shown for two of the reversebias voltages used (0.i and 0.5 V). The values of (s and C, are from linear fits without accounting for tunnzling through the Si harrier. 5162
J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 75, No. 10, 15 May 1994
where 7(E) is the transmission probability through the Si barrier, q5$is the SBH with Sil and $sg= 4,U,, where A,!?, is the valenceband offset. We have kept the assumpJimenez ei al.
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FIG. 5. Diq~am in A space showing the escape cap and its two regions, wrqxmding to tunneling through the Si barrier, and emission over the Si hwtier.
tions of the Fowler 1node1 so that .T= 1 ahave Cp, and ~=0 belo\v &$*. Calculations based on a simple barrierandstep model it&ate that the transmission coefficient through the Si barrier increases almost linearly with energy over the range of the Si barrier. If, as a first approximation, we neglect this energy dependence and use an average value T,,~ over the height of the Si barrier: then we obtain17
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~c’*, I .~~_~,,,ji2tll,~,,cb,,i7 hv>A’ 1 ass I1v (3 ys(lTavg ~lll~;lQ~~I) q!plt v> &g . > The first term in Eq. I?1 is the normal e.quation for carriers emitted over the Si barrier height, and the second term is due to the fraction of excited carriers tunneling through the Si barrier. Equation (41 holds for photon energies such that all the emitted carriers tunne.1through the Si barrier, and is of the same form as the modified Fowler equation, with the coefficient reduced by a factor of TV,, . A plot of the expected behavior is shown in Fig. 6. Only the slope of the low energy part, and not the barrier height, depends on the value of zdvg. This value can be obtained from the data by noting that Eq. (31 can be rearranged as Y= c* (, 1  7&
(lZl,Kr
(hvcp,,)’ + c * Tavg =h 1'
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./;
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FIG. 6. Calculated Fowler plots of the yield predicted by the model accnunting for tunneling through the Si barrier, for various average transmission probabilities. The calculations were made for q5,=0.22 eV, &.~0.12 eV, and C, =O.l4/‘eV.
Thus, after ct~,,~ is obtained from the slope of the lowenergy segment, the extrapolation of this segment can be subtracted from the highenergy part. The resulting slope gives Cr(1  7avg)Ywhich is combined with C,Q~,, to give both CL and ravg. An estimate of the Si barrier thickness d can be obtained from Tag,,. If one approximates T~%,~ by the expression for tunneling through a rectangular birrier of height &, 3avg=exp{  2d[2m(E,,
~,~)]‘!“/fi},
then the model predicts essentially a Silike Schottky barrier for Si thicknesses of greater than 40 A. In this model, if it is easily seen that what is described as the “barrier height” for a silicide./Si/SiGe diode is just the silicide/Si barrier height reduced by the SiCe/Si band offset. Figure 7 is a magnification of the lowenergy part of Fig. 4, showing clearly the change in the slope of the Fowler plot. The data are fitted using the model described above, and values of 73,g, Cr, 4$, and $,sg (shown in the figure) are obtained. For an Eavg halfway between rfs and &, these values of 7,, correspond to an estimated Si barrier thickness of ‘ o10 1, which is consistent with the deposited film thicknesses (Pt and Si), within their error limits. The lowenergy segment extrapolates to &0.15 eV, which is rcasonably consistent with a valenceband offset of about 0.09 eV for 13% strained SiGe. Incorporating the energy dependence of 7 would only result in some curvature of the lowenergy segment, which is not discernible in the data. More extensive modeling is therefore not warranted. V. SUMMARY
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J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 75, No. 10: 15 May 1994
In summary, we have obtained loweredbarrierheight PtSi/Si/SiGe diodes useful for extending the cutoff wavelength of silicide Schottky barrier diodes. Diodes formed by reacting Pt and Ir into the SiGe layer had higher barrier Jimenez et al.
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FIG. 7. Fowler plots of PtSi/Si/Si&ets diodes, magnified to show clearly the lowenergy segment, with fitted values for ravs, C, , 4, , +sa, and the St harrier thickness dsi .
heights than the corresponding silicide/Si diodes, a result in disagreement with some previous reports. The tunneling of carriers through the thin Si barrier in silicide/Si/SiGe diodes was modeled based on Cohen and coworkers’ de.rivation of the modified Fowler equation. Tunneling, however, reduces the potential quantum efficiency of the device and could introduce spatial nonuniformities in the responsivity because of thickness variations in the unconsumed Si barrier after silicide formation. This, together with the sensitivity of the fabrication process to the relative accuracy of metal and Si thicknesses, suggests optimization by forming intimate silicide/SiGe diodes with simultaneous deposition of metal and Si. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Dr. Jonathan Mooney and Maxwell Chi for helpful discussions, and James Murrin, Darin
5164
Leahy, and James Bockman for their contributions in fabricating the diodes. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under Work Unit No. 2395JlOl.
J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 75, No. 10, 15 May 1994
‘For recent reviews, see F, D. Shepherd, Proc. SPIE 1735, 250 !1992), and W. F. Kosonocky, ibid. 1308, 2 (1990). “B. Y. Tsaur, M. M. Weeks, R. Trubiano, P. W. Pcllcgrini, and T. R. Yew, IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL12, 6% (19SSj. “P W. Pellegrini, A Gotubovic, C. E. Ludington, and M. M. Weeks, IEDM Tech. Digest 157, 93 (1982). ‘H. Kanaya. F. Hasegawa, E. Yamaka, T. Moriyama. and M. Nakayima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, LSL54411989). ‘II. K. Liou, S. Wu, U. Gennser, V. P. Kesan, S. S. Iyer, K. N. Tu, and E. S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60. 577 11992). “X. Xiao, J. C. Sturm, S. R. Parihar, S. A. Lyon, D. Meyerhofer, S, Palfrey, and F. V. Shallcross, IEEE Electron Device L.&t. EDL14, 1YY ( lYY3j. ‘H. Kanaya, Y. Cho, F. Hasegaws, and E. Yamaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, LXSI (lYY0). ‘J. C. Sturm, P. V. Schwartz, E. .I. Prinz, and H. Manoharan, J. Vat. Sei. Technol. B 9,2011 (1991). “J. R. Jimcnez, X. Siao, J. C. Sturm, P W. Pcllegrini, and M. C’hi, Mater. Res. Sot. Symp. Proc. (to be publishedj. “‘J M. Mooney,J. Appt. Phys. 45, 2869 (lY89’j. “i Zl Ciao ,.J C. Sturm, S. R. Parihar, S. A. Lyon, D. Meyerhofer, S. Palfrey, and E V. Shallcross, J. Var. Sci. Technol. B 11, llh8 (1993). ‘zJ. Cohen, J. Vilms, and R. J. Archer, HewlettPackard Final Report AFCRL6X0651, DTJC No. AD6825222, 1968. “R. H. Fowlcr, Phys. Rev. 38, 4.5 (1931). “This dithers from the original Fowler equation, Ya(h v $I)“, by a factor of l/h v. This factor does not cause a significant difference around 1 eV, but may significantly affect lowenergy thresholds and, therefore, the determination of small barrier heights. “J. M. Mooney and J. Silverman, iEEE ‘kuls. Electron Devices ED32.33
(1984). ‘“Fowler’s theory, on the other hand, is equivalent to taking Y to be proportional to the kspace volume of states that can emit, and neglecting the division by the kspace volume of states that carriers can be photoexcited into. 17The equations for Y are obtained by expanding the exact results of the integration to second order in h v/E, and #EF in the. numerator, and first order in the denominator.
Jimenez ei a/.
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