SEMESTER AT SEA COURSE SYLLABUS University of Virginia, Academic Sponsor

SEMESTER AT SEA COURSE SYLLABUS University of Virginia, Academic Sponsor Voyage: Fall 2014 Discipline: Sociology SOC 3290: The Sociology of Childhood ...
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SEMESTER AT SEA COURSE SYLLABUS University of Virginia, Academic Sponsor Voyage: Fall 2014 Discipline: Sociology SOC 3290: The Sociology of Childhood Division: Upper Faculty Name: Allison J. Pugh Credit Hours: 3; Contact Hours: 38 Pre-requisites: At least one introductory course in sociology. COURSE DESCRIPTION: What if “age inequality” was as potent a source of injustice as gender, race or class inequality, those mainstays of sociological analysis? What if we take seriously the ways that society is organized to benefit adults, who are in power, and disenfranchise children, who are not? This class will introduce students to the “new social studies of childhood,” and the central idea that the experience of childhood is a social construction, not a string of biological facts. This is a new paradigm for childhood studies, as it has until recently been dominated by “socialization” theories suggesting that the main point of children is that they are future adults. After a brief orientation, we will consider in turn each of the three tenets of the new subfield: that childhood varies by social context, that children are active social actors, and that children are not innocent victims. We’ll look at variations in childhood across cultures and situations, and include studies of childhood in the countries we visit. We’ll examine children’s active participation in work and care, in constructing inequality, and in managing family breakups. We’ll investigate social problems such as racism, homophobia, child labor and domestic abuse, and analyze the social causes and consequences of innocence and exploitation as prisms on childhood. We’ll conclude by weighing the impact of new ways of seeing children on children’s lives, children’s rights and children’s politics. COURSE OBJECTIVES: To introduce students to the “social studies of childhood,” in which they grapple with the implications of the social construction of age. Through readings, class discussions and field assignments, students will explore the ways in which childhood is both universal and intensely local. Students will also hone their “sociological imaginations” while developing their collaborative and communication skills, particularly in oral presentation. REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS AUTHOR: Pugh, Allison J. TITLE: Longing and Belonging: Parents, Children and Consumer Culture PUBLISHER: University of California Press ISBN #: 9780520258440 DATE/EDITION: 2009 1

AUTHOR: Bocock, Sarane Spence and Kimberly Ann Scott. TITLE: Kids in Context: The Sociological Study of Children and Childhoods. PUBLISHER: Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN #: 0-7425-2025-0 DATE/EDITION: 2005 AUTHOR: Malloy, Aimee. TITLE: However Long the Night: Molly Melching’s Journey to Help Millions of African Women and Girls Triumph. PUBLISHER: New York: HarperOne. ISBN #: 978-0062132765 DATE/EDITION: 2013 TOPICAL OUTLINE OF COURSE Depart Southampton- August 23: A1- August 25: Introduction: What is childhood? How have childhoods changed? What are some major social trends affecting childhood? Reading: Bocock, Sarane Spence and Kimberly Ann Scott. 2005. Kids in Context: The Sociological Study of Children and Childhoods. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Chapters 1 and 2, pp 1-32. Zelizer, Viviana A. (1994 [1985]). “From mobs to memorials: The sacralization of child life.” In Pricing the Priceless Child. The Changing Social Value of Children. (pp. 22-55). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Further Reading (Optional) Mintz, Steven. Huck's Raft: A History of American Childhood. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004. Chapter 8. A2-August 27: Childhood in a Flexible World Reading: Lee, Nick, 2001. “What Do You Want to Be When You Grow Up?” in Childhood and Society: Growing Up in an Age of Uncertainty. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press. Chapter 5, pp 7-20.* Walker, Charlie. 2009. "From 'inheritance' to individualization: disembedding working-class youth transitions in post-Soviet Russia." Journal Of Youth Studies 12, no. 5: 531-545. Emerson, Robert M., Rachel I. Fretz and Linda L. Shaw. 1995. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Read pp. 17-65. St. Petersburg: August 29- September 2 A3- September 3: The Social Construction of Age Due First Set of Fieldnotes Reading: 2

Solberg A. 1997. Negotiating childhood: changing constructions of age for Norwegian children. In Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. James A, Prout A (eds). Routledge Falmer: London; 126–144. A4- September 5: Children and Immigration Reading: Barrie Thorne, Marjorie Faulstich Orellana, Wan Shun Eva Lam, and Anna Chee. “Raising Children, and Growing Up, Across National Borders: Comparative Perspectives on Age, Gender, and Migration.” In Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, ed., Gender and U.S. Immigration: Contemporary Trends. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003, pp. 241-262.* Mandel, Ruth. 1995. “Second-Generation Noncitizens: Children of the Turkish Migrant Diaspora in Germany,” in Sharon Stephens, ed., Children and the Politics of Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.. Further Reading (Optional): Dreby, Joanna. 2007. “Children and Power in Mexican Transnational Families.” Journal of Marriage and Family. 69: 1050–1064. Dreby, Joanna. 2010. Divided By Borders: Mexican Migrants and Their Children. Berkeley: University of California Press. (available as an ebook) Hamburg: September 7-11 A5- September 12: The Global Commodity Chain of Childcare Reading: Parrenas, Rhacel. 2003. “The Care Crisis in the Philippines: Children and Transnational Families in the Global Economy.” In Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Hochschild, eds. Global Woman New York: Metropolitan Books. Pp. 39-54.* Brougère, Gilles, Nacira Guénif-Souilamas, and Sylvie Rayna. "Ecole maternelle (preschool) in France: a cross-cultural perspective." European Early Childhood Education Research Journal 16, no. 3 (September 2008): 371-384. Further Reading (Optional): Coe, C. (2011), What is Love? The Materiality of Care in Ghanaian Transnational Families. International Migration, 49: 7–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00704.x Clawson, Dan and Naomi Gerstel. 2002. “Caring for our Young: Child care in Europe and the United States.: Contexts 1(4): 28-35.* Getis, Victoria L. & Maris A. Vinovskis. 1992. "History of Child Care in the United States Before 1950," pp. 185-205 in Child Care in Context. Cross-Cultural Perspectives edited by Michael E. Lamb, Kathleen J.Stemberg, Carl-Philip Hwang & Anders G. Broberg. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Antwerp: September 14-16 Proposed Field Lab: What Makes a Child-Friendly City? Exploring Rotterdam Le Havre: September 17-19 A6-September 20: Inequality and Parenting 3

Due: Second Set of Fieldnotes Reading: Lareau, Annette, 2002. “Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black and White Families.” American Sociological Review 67:747-76.* Karsten, L. (2005). “It All Used to Be Better? Different Generations on Continuity and Change in Urban Children’s Daily Use of Space.” Children’s Geographies 3(3): 275-290. * Further Reading (Optional): Bocock and Scott, Kids in Context, Chapter 5 A7- September 22: Children constructing race Reading: Van Ausdale, Debra, and Joe R. Feagin. 1996. “Using Racial and Ethnic Concepts: The Critical Case of Very Young Children.” American Sociological Review, Vol. 61, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 779-793.* Devine, D. and Kelly, M. (2006), ‘I Just Don't Want to Get Picked on by Anybody’: Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion in a Newly Multi-Ethnic Irish Primary School. Children & Society, 20: 128–139. Further Reading (Optional): Bocock and Scott, Kids in Context, Chapter 8. Dublin: September 24-27 A8- September 28: Children and Consumer Culture: Making Belonging Reading: Pugh, Allison J. 2009. Longing and Belonging: Parents, Children and Consumer Culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. P 1-148 (skip pp. 27-47). Further Reading (Optional): Schor, Juliet. 2004. Born to Buy: The Commercialized Child and the New Consumer Culture. New York: Scribner. Bocock and Scott, Kids in Context, Chapters 6 and 7. Corsaro, William. 1988. Routines in the Peer Culture of American and Italian Nursery School Children. Sociology of Education 61:1-14.* A9- September 30: Children and Consumer Culture: Making Inequality Reading Pugh, Allison J. 2009. Longing and Belonging: Parents, Children and Consumer Culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Pp 149-228. Douglass, Carrie B. 2005. "We're Fine at Home": Young People, Family and Low Fertility in Spain.” Barren States: The Population Implosion in Europe. Oxford, UK: Berg Publishers. pp 183-206. Further Reading (Optional): Santos Ortega, Juan Antonio. 2003. “Long-term Youth: Discontinuity in Labor Profiles of Young Spanish People in the Age of Informational Flexibility” in Laurence Roulleau-Berger, ed. Youth and Work in the Post-Industrial City of North America and Europe. Koninglijke Brill NV: Leiden, the Netherlands. Pp 122-135. Mercedes Sánchez-Martínez and Angel Otero. 2009. Factors Associated with Cell Phone Use in 4

Adolescents in the Community of Madrid (Spain). CyberPsychology & Behavior. April 2009, 12(2): 131-137. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0164. Moreno Mìnguez, Almudena. 2003, The Late Emancipation of Spanish Youth: Keys For Understanding. Electronic Journal of Sociology (2003). Lisbon: October 1-2 In transit: October 3 Cadiz: October 4-5 A10- October 7: Child Labor and Children Laboring Due: Third Set of Fieldnotes Reading: Zelizer, Viviana. 2002. “Kids and Commerce.” Childhood 9 (4): 375-96.* Schlemmer, Bernard (2007): Working children in Fez, Morocco: Relationship between knowledge and strategies for social and professional integration. In: Beatrice Hungerland, Manfred Liebel, Brian Milne, and Anne Wihstutz (eds.), Working to Be Someone: Child Focused Research and Practice with Working Children. London: Jessica Kingsley, 109–115. Further Reading (Optional): Schildkrout, Enid 2002 [1978]. ‘Age and Gender in Hausa Society: Socio-Economic Roles of Children in Urban Kano.’ Childhood 9 (3): 344–68. Marjorie Faulstich Orellana. (2001). "The Work Kids Do: Mexican and Central American Immigrant Children’s Contributions to Households and Schools in California." Harvard Educational Review, 71 (3): 366-389.* Song, Nfiri. 1996. “Helping Out: Children’s Labor Participation in Chinese Take-Away Businesses in Britain.” In Brannen, Julia and O’Brien, Margaret, eds., Children in Families, Falmer Press.* Lancy, David F. 2008. “His First Goat.” In The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattels and Changelings. Pp. 234-271. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jacquemin, Melanie Y. 2004 Children’s domestic work in Abidjan, Cote d' Ivoire: the petites bonnes have the floor. Childhood 11(3):383-397. Majka, Linda C., and Theo Majka. 2005. Child Farm Workers in US Agriculture. In Children’s Human Rights: Progress and Challenges for Children Worldwide. Mark Ensalaco and Linda C, Majka. Pp 173-198. London: Rowman and Littlefield. Casablanca: October 8-11 A11-October 13: How Do Children Make Gender? Reading: Thorne, Barrie. 1993. Gender Play. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Chapter 4. Further Reading (Optional): Bocock and Scott, Kids in Context, Chapter 9. A12- October 15: The Cultural Politics of Children’s Rights Reading: Malloy, Aimee. 2013. However Long the Night: Molly Melching’s Journey to Help Millions of 5

African Women and Girls Triumph. New York: HarperOne. Excerpt James, Allison. 2011. “To Be (Come) or Not to Be (Come): Understanding Children's Citizenship.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science January 1, 2011 633: 167-179 Further Reading (Optional): Roche, Jeremy 1999. ‘Children: Rights, Participation and Citizenship.’ Childhood 6 (4): 475–93. Jans, Marc 2004. ‘Children as Citizens: Towards a Contemporary Notion of Child Participation.’ Childhood 11 (1): 27–44. Penn, Helen 2002. ‘The World Bank's View of Early Childhood.’ Childhood 9 (1): 118–32. Hill, Malcolm, Davis, John, Prout, Alan, Tisdall, Ka. 2004. "Moving the participation agenda forward." Children & Society, 09510605, Apr2004, Vol. 18, Issue 2 * Valentin, Karen and Lotte Meinert, 2009. “The Adult North and the Young South: Reflections on the Civilizing Mission of Children’s Rights. Anthropology Today 25 (3): 23-28. Boyden, J. 1990. “Childhood and the Policy Makers: A Comparative Perspective on the Globalization of Childhood.” In James and Prout, Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. Westman, Jack C. 1996. "The Rationale and Feasibility of Licensing Parents," Society, vol. 34, no. 1 (Nov/Dec):46-52. Dakar: October 16-19 Proposed Field Lab: Infants in Senegal: The Local and the Global in Childrearing A13- October 21: The Perils of the Universal Due: Fieldlab Reflection In-class debate on children’s rights. Reading: Van Krieken, Robert. 1999. “ The `Stolen Generations' and Cultural Genocide: The Forced Removal of Australian Indigenous Children from their Families and its Implications for the Sociology of Childhood. Childhood August 1999 6: 297-311. Further Reading (Optional): Tuchman, Gaye, 1996. “Invisible Differences: On the Management of Children in Postindustrial Society.” Sociological Forum , Vol. 11, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 3-23. A14- October 23: Children as Active Caregivers Reading: Elise Boulding. The Nurture of Adults by Children in Family Settings.” In Helena Lopata, ed., Research in the Interweave of Social Roles: Women and Men, JAI Press. Vol. 1, 167189.* Mizen, P. and Ofosu-Kusi, Y. (2013), A Talent for Living: Exploring Ghana’s ‘New’ Urban Childhood. Children & Society, 27: 13–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00386.x Further Reading (Optional): Brannen, J., Heptinstall, E. and Bhopal, K. 2000. Connecting Children: Care and Family Life in Later Childhood. London: Routledge Falmer. Chapter 8. “Children’s Contribution to Family Life.” Available on-line at Pia Christensen. 1993. “The Social Construction of Help Among Danish Children.” Sociology of Health and Illness. 15: 488-502.* 6

Takoradi: October 25-26 Tema: October 27-28 A15- October 29: Due Fourth Set of Fieldnotes In-class exam. A16- October 31: Kids’ Folk Culture Reading: Bocock and Scott, Kids in Context, Chapter 6. Corsaro, William and L. Molinari 1990. ‘From seggiolini to discussione: The Generation and Extension of Peer Culture among Italian Preschool Children.’ International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 3: 213–30. Further Reading (Optional): Corsaro. Chapter 5: “Children's Peer Cultures and Interpretive Reproduction” (pp. 92-115). Corsaro. Chapter 6:”Sharing and Control in Initial Peer Cultures” (pp. 117-141). Study Day: November 2 A17-November 3: The Withdrawal of the State, the Flourishing of the Market Reading: Katz, Cindi. 2005. The Terrors of Hypervigilance: Security and the Compromised Spaces of Contemporary Childhood. In Studies in Modern Childhood. Jens Qvortrup, ed. Pp. 99-114. Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillian. Further Reading (Optional): Katz, Cindi. 2002. “Vagabond Capitalism and the Necessity of Social Reproduction.” Antipode. V33 n4:709-728. Shaffner, Laurie. 2005. “Capacity, Consent, and the Construction of Adulthood.” In Regulating Sex: The Politics of Intimacy and Identity, edited by Elizabeth Bernstein and Laurie Schaffner, 189-205. New York: Routledge. Schoppa, Leonard. 2013. “Residential Mobility and Local Civic Engagement in Japan and the United States: Divergent Paths to School.” Comparative Political Studies. 46:1058-1081. A18- November 5: Globalization, the State and the Child Reading: Scheper-Hughes, Nancy & Hoffman, Daniel. 1998. “Brazilian Apartheid: Street Kids and the Struggle for Urban Space,” in Small Wars: The Cultural Politics of Childhood, ScheperHughes & Sargent, (eds.). Pp. 352-388.* Bar-On, Arnon. 1998. “So what’s so wrong with being a street child?” June 1998, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 201-222. Rio de Janeiro: November 7-9 In-transit: November 10-11 Salvador: November 12-14 7

A19- November 15: Changing Family Patterns Due Fifth Set of Fieldnotes Reading: Bocock and Scott, Kids in Context, Chapter 4. McLanahan, Sara. “Diverging Destinies: How Children Fare Under the Second Demographic Transition.” Demography. 41(4): 607-627. Further Reading (Optional): Hemandez, Donald. (1997). “Child development and the social demography of childhood.” Child Development, 68(l),149-169. (read only Kelly, Joan and Emery, Robert. 2003. “Children’s Adjustment After Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives.” Family Relations V 52, (4) October. Pp. 352-362.* A20- November 17: Children’s Rights in Family Dissolution Reading: Haavind, Hanne and Agnes Andenaes. “When Parents Are Living Apart: Challenges and Solutions for Children with Two Homes.” In Amlaug Leira, ed. Family Sociology Report no. 5, Institute for Social Research, Oslo. * Smith, Anne B. and Nicola J. Taylor 2003. ‘Rethinking Children's Involvement in DecisionMaking After Parental Separation.’ Childhood 10 (2): 201–16. Students will also read a case study and come prepared to discuss/debate/role play the appropriate way for society to handle children’s rights in family dissolution. Study Day: November 19 A21-November 20: Private and Public Power: Abuse and Conflict in Families Reading: Kitzinger, Jenn. 1996. “Who Are You Kidding: Children, Power and the Struggle Against Sexual Abuse.” In Allison James and Alan Prout, eds., Constructing and reconstructing childhood. London: Falmer Press. 165-189. Barrow, Christine. (2003) ‘Children and Social Policy in Barbados: The Unfinished Agenda of Child Abuse’, The Caribbean Journal of Social Work, 2:36-53. Further Reading (Optional): Scheper-Hughes, Nancy & Sargent, Carolyn. 1998. “Introduction: The Cultural Politics of Childhood,” in Small Wars: The Cultural Politics of Childhood, Nancy Scheper-Hughes & Carolyn Sargent, (eds.). Pp. 1-33. Berkeley: University of California Press.* Levine, Judith. 2002. Harmful to Minors: The Perils of Protecting Children from Sex. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press (Ch. 4: “Crimes of Passion: Statutory Rape and the Denial of Female Desire” pp.68-89). Bridgetown: November 22-24 A22-November 25: Youth Activism and Age Inequality Due in class: presentations Reading: Gordon, Hava Rachel. 2007. "Allies Within and Allies Without: How Adolescent Activists Conceptualize Ageism and Navigate Adult Power in Youth Social Movements." Journal of 8

Contemporary Ethnography. 36 (6): 631-668. A23- November 27: Conclusion Due in class: Presentations Reading: Pugh, Allison J. 2013. “The Theoretical Costs of Ignoring Childhood: Rethinking Independence, Insecurity and Inequality. Theory and Society. Advance online publication, 19 November, 2013; doi: 10.1007/s11186-013-9209-9. Havana: November 29- December 2: Study Day- December 3 A24-December 4 (A Day Finals): Final paper due at the end of classtime.

FIELD WORK Field lab attendance is mandatory for all students enrolled in this course. Please do not book individual travel plans or a Semester at Sea sponsored trip on the day of our field lab. FIELD LAB (At least 20 percent of the contact hours for each course, to be led by the instructor.) Proposed Field Lab I: What Makes a Child-Friendly City? Urban environments have always had children in them, but children have not always been part of urban planning. In the United States, suburbs are often thought to provide childhood ideals of green space and safety, but they also rely upon particular notions of childhood, involving, for example, adult control over transport and adult-organized activities. How might an urban environment be made more child-friendly? What kind of childhoods do urban settings reflect and produce? In this lab, students will visit Rotterdam, the city with the youngest population in the Netherlands. They will meet with city staff charged with implementing the “child in the city” program, a sevenyear effort of child-centered urban planning aimed at reversing a trend of families moving out of the city. They will make a bus tour of 5 of the 11 neighborhoods in which the program was piloted including some of Rotterdam’s new playgrounds, neighborhoods with 3-meter sidewalks and safe traffic routes, and green space with climbing trees. Students will also fan out in small groups with a scavenger hunt-style list of children’s challenges and accommodations to observe and record. Along the way we’ll have lunch in a local restaurant. Assignment: Students will record their observations of child-friendly accommodations, and they will compare these observations to those of two other cities we visit along the way. They will write a short report on their comparisons, and as part of the exercise, design a mock neighborhood with children in mind. Dress and Conduct: Standard tourist clothing is fine. Be sure to bring a camera and a notebook 9

for taking notes or making maps throughout the lab. A field lab is an extension of class, meaning conduct and classroom rules apply, including use of cell phones, headphones, and other electronics. Active participation during the lab is expected and will be part of student assessment. Only serious student illnesses will be marked as excused. All other student absences will result in a zero for the field lab assignment.

FIELD LAB (At least 20 percent of the contact hours for each course, to be led by the instructor.) Proposed Field Lab II: Infants in Senegal: The Local and the Global in Childrearing The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, a treaty signed by all but the United States and Somalia, stipulates that children should have the right to “the development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential.” Yet who defines that potential, and the best practices that would contribute to it? In this field lab, students will visit a field site where Tostan, an international NGO with extensive operations in Senegal, is implementing their program, Reinforcing Parental Practices. This program encourages parents and other community members to create an environment for children's development, including techniques that enrich interactions between parents and their young children and are all linked to children’s basic human rights to education and health. Students will meet with Tostan staff for a discussion and Q&A, observe a school management committee in action, and accompany staff on home visits as part of the program’s implementation. Assignment: Students will prepare for the fieldlab by reading excerpts from “However Long the Night,” an account of Tostan founder Molly Melcher’s work in Senegal, as well as other work about children’s rights. They will reflect on their observations in a 3-5 page position paper they will write, which will contribute to a classroom debate about children’s rights. More details about this will be given in a class handout. Dress and Conduct: A field lab is an extension of class, meaning conduct and classroom rules apply, including use of cell phones, headphones, and other electronics. Active participation during the lab is expected and will be part of student assessment. Only serious student illnesses will be marked as excused. All other student absences will result in a zero for the field lab assignment.

FIELD ASSIGNMENTS Students will conduct ethnographic observations of children in five field assignments in five ports of call over the course of the semester. Students will be able to choose from three potential themes for their field observations (or to propose their own) by the second class meeting: children at play, children and economic life, children and family life. Students will conduct three hours of field observations of children for each set of fieldnotes due; these observations will be in keeping with each theme; some ideas for potential sites (markets, zoos, playgrounds, etc.) in each port will 10

be posted on the class intranet. By the end of the class, students will have 15 hours of field observations on a given theme. Using course readings, students will analyze those fieldnotes in light of course themes, and write a 5-page paper advancing an argument and using their fieldnotes for data. Students will join in small groups of others studying the same themes, and make a 10minute joint presentation, using iMovie, power-point or some other software, during one of the last class sessions. METHODS OF EVALUATION / GRADING RUBRIC Class Participation/Attendance: 20% Field notes: 15% Paper: 15% Field lab and reflection: 20% In-class exam: 20% Group Presentation: 10% HONOR CODE Semester at Sea students enroll in an academic program administered by the University of Virginia, and thus bind themselves to the University’s honor code. The code prohibits all acts of lying, cheating, and stealing. Please consult the Voyager’s Handbook for further explanation of what constitutes an honor offense. Each written assignment for this course must be pledged by the student as follows: “On my honor as a student, I pledge that I have neither given nor received aid on this assignment.” The pledge must be signed, or, in the case of an electronic file, signed “[signed].”



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