Biol 179 Study Guide: Fungi & Plants. Sample questions for the Midterm exam on Fungi & Plants are given below. The exam will be on Friday, March 2, 2007 usual time and place. Sample fill-in-the-blank questions. 1. Fungi are decomposers and obtain their food by ____ the organic molecules released by the action of secreted enzymes. 2. Fungi, together with bacteria are the principal ____ in the biosphere. 3. The symbiotic relationship between green algae or cyanobacteria and fungi produce ____. 4. Fungi exist mainly in the form of slender filaments, barely visible to the naked eye, called ____. 5. In fungi, the process of cell division called ____ occurs within the nuclear envelope, which remains intact at all times. 6. Fungal hyphae in which two genetically distinct kinds of __ occur together are said to be heterokaryotic. 7. The yeasts, common molds, morels, and truffles are common and economically important and also found in the group of fungi called ___. 8. A type of fungi that has been long useful for baking, brewing, and wine making, and is now becoming very important in genetic research is ______. 9. Most of the ____ of basidiomycetes in nature are dikaryotic. 10. Mushrooms are fungi belonging to the phylum, ___. 11. It has been discovered that some fungi can break down almost any carbon containing compound as well as some inorganic substances that contaminate the environment. For this reason, fungi are being studied for use in _______ to remove these substances. 12. An _____ is a nonphotosynthetic plant—a third member of a symbiotic relationship involving a fungus and another plant, obtaining nutrients from these two members. 13. _____ , produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus, are carcinogenic compounds which can also damage kidneys and the nervous system. 14. Plants dominate all _ communities. 15. The first plants clearly evolved from an organism that, if it existed today, would be classified as a multicellular green ___. 16. ____ plants include among others, the ferns, conifers, and the flowering plants, all of which contain nutrient-conducting systems. 17. Plants have a ______ life cycle in which the haploid and diploid stages are multicellular. 18. Plant cell walls help in preventing ____, the tendency to lose water to the air. 19. All plants exhibit _ of generations of diploid sporophytes with haploid gametophytes. 20. In plants, the sporophyte generation produces _______ as a result of meiosis. 21. The gametophytes of liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are green and nutritionally independent of ____. 22. Mosses are remarkably sensitive to air ____. 23. ______, which contain the embryo and food supply occur only in heterosporous plants. 24. In _____, both the sporophytes and the smaller gametophytes are photosynthetic. 25. Gymnospores and angiosperms differ in whether their ______ are completely enclosed by sporophytic tissue or not, at the time of pollination. 26. In all seed plants, male and female __ develop within the parent sporophyte and are completely dependent on it for nutrition and water. 27. Pollen grains are immature ____ gametophytes. 28. The most familiar gymnosperms are _______ which include pines, firs, and others.
Sample multiple choice questions 1. The fungal group that is most closely related to ancestral fungi are the A) zygomycota B) chytrids C) ascomycota D) zygomycota E) microsporidia 2. Specialized symbiotic associations between the roots of plants and fungi are called A) lichens B) hyphal associations C) heterokaryotic junctions D) mycorrhizae E) a mycelium unit 3. A mass of hyphae is commonly referred to as A) a mycelium B) a mycorrhizae C) a conidium D) a sporangium E) an oomycota 4. The cell walls of fungi are made up of polysaccharides and A) polyglycans B) phospholipids C) bilipid layers D) glycolipids E) chitin 5. Fungi can be characterized by which of the following properties? A) being heterotrophic B) having filamentous bodies C) having nonmotile sperm D) having chitin cell walls and mitosis taking place within the nucleus E) all of the above 6. Fungi are ecologically important because of all of the following except A) they break down organic material and return them to the ecosystem B) all can exist in symbiotic relationships C) some can ferment and produce bread, beer, wine, cheese, and soy sauce D) some cause diseases in plants and animals E) they can break down lignin 7. The first antibiotic that was used on a wide scale was derived from a fungus. Its name is A) penicillin B) streptomycin C) sulfanilamide D) neomycin E) actinomycin 8. A symbiotic association between a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium is called a
A) B) C) D) E)
lichen mycorrhiza protist kelp mushroom
9. The three kinds of reproductive structures that occur in fungi are A) sporangia B) gametangia C) conidia D) mycorrhiza E) a, b, and c 10. A division of fungi that lacks septa in their hyphae except when they form sporangia or gametangia is the A) ascomycetes B) zygomycetes C) chytrids D) basidiomycetes E) none of the above 11. The fungi that cause serious plant disease, such as Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight, belong to the phylum A) Ascomycota B) Zygomycota C) Imperfect fungi D) Basidiomycota E) Actinomycetes 12. The only diploid nucleus in the ascomycetes' life cycle is the A) ascus B) ascospore C) conidium D) zygospore E) zygote 13. A mature ascus contains A) eight diploid spores B) eight haploid spores C) many multinucleate conidia D) an egg and a sperm E) a zygote 14. The most economically useful unicellular fungi are A) basidiomycetes B) actinomycetes C) yeasts D) mushrooms E) Neurospora
15. Some fungi have structures that are entirely made up of secondary mycelium which on the underside contain many spore-producing gills. Some of these are even edible and commonly sold as foods. These fungi are commonly known as A) mushrooms B) yeasts C) lichen D) kelp E) algae 16. The only diploid cell of the life cycle of basidiomycetes is produced within the basidium by A) mitosis B) meiosis C) syngamy D) ascus bursting E) budding 17. Lichens are adversely affected by A) humidity B) sunlight C) pollution D) sexual reproduction of the fungal partner E) asexual reproduction of the photosynthetic partner 18. Mycorrhizal associations replace and perform the same functions as A) root hairs B) chloroplasts C) xylem D) phloem E) all of the above 19. All of the following statements about the Kingdom Fungi are true except A) All fungi are heterotrophs. B) All fungi are composed of hyphae. C) All fungi conduct mitosis, but in contrast to other eukaryotes, fungal mitosis does not use a spindle apparatus. D) All fungi have cell wall composed of chitin. E) All fungi lack chlorophyll. 20. A mycologist visits your biology class and discusses her research on a particular fungus that lives on the bark of damaged spruce trees. She explains that the fungal hyphae of her research organism is heterokaryotic. You raise your hand and request that she define that word. Her correct response is A) Heterokaryotic means that the nuclei of the fungal hyphae are genetically the same. B) Heterokaryotic means that the nuclei of each compartment of the hyphae are genetically distinct. C) Heterokaryotic means that each compartment of the hyphae contain two distinct nuclei. D) Heterokaryotic means that each compartment of the hyphae contains only one nucleus. 21. Select the incorrect statement related to fungi. A) All fungi secrete digestive enzymes and practice external digestion. B) Some fungi can break down cellulose into its glucose subunits. In addition, some fungi are predaceous.
C) One method of reproduction in fungi is by flagellated sperm. Water is a requirement for those particular fungi to reproduce. D) Some fungi are able to grow to many hectares in size. E) Cheese, wine, and soy sauce are but a few examples that employ fungi in their production. 22. Which of the phyla of fungi is incorrectly matched with its example? A) Ascomycota—yeast B) Basidiomycota—rust C) Zygomycota—bread mold D) Ascomycota—mushrooms E) Basidiomycota—toadstools 23. Plants lacking well-developed conducting systems such as mosses, liverworts, and hornworts have been called A) gametophytes B) sporophytes C) angiosperms D) gymnosperms E) bryophytes 24. Which plants are characterized by a conducting system, the possession of cuticles, specialized stems, and roots, stomata, and in many species, seeds? A) liverworts B) mosses C) vascular D) horsetails E) club mosses 25. Bryophytes, like ferns and certain other vascular plants, require A) air to reproduce sexually B) water to reproduce sexually C) soil to reproduce sexually D) shade to reproduce sexually E) sunlight to reproduce sexually 26. This condition occurs only in vascular plants which have microspores and megaspores. It is called A) alternation of generation B) syngamy C) heterospory D) homospory E) polyspory 27. Which of the following tissues transport water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots? A) phloem B) xylem C) cortex D) vascular cambium E) cork cambium 28. Carbohydrates are transported away from the green parts of the plant by the cells of A) phloem
B) C) D) E)
xylem cortex vascular cambium cork cambium
29. A process unique to angiosperms is A) single fertilization B) double fertilization C) syngamy D) alternation of generation E) seed production 30. Fertilization in angiosperms leads to the formation of a diploid zygote and the typically triploid primary A) endosperm nucleus B) seed C) ovule D) ovary E) carpel 31. Plants, and their predecessors, green algae, do not share the property of A) containing chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids B) containing cellulose-rich cell walls C) containing a system of roots and stems D) containing starch as the primary food storage product E) forming a cell plate during cytokinesis 32. Well-developed vascular systems are absent in A) mosses B) liverworts C) hornworts D) b and c E) a, b, and c 33. Survival on land for organisms is difficult because of the problem of A) desiccation B) pollination C) syngamy D) spore germination E) coevolution 34. A feature not thought of as being important in the colonization of land by plants is that of A) thicker cell walls B) waxy cuticles C) controlled opening and closing of stomatal pores D) sunlight-based photosynthesis E) mycorrhizae 35. Vascular plants are characterized by A) possession of specialized conducting systems B) possession of a cuticle
C) possession of stomata D) possession of a water pumping system E) a, b, and c only 36. Plant success on the terrestrial landscape is linked to the evolution of A) specialized roots B) stems C) specialized reproductive features D) increased area for photosynthesis in the leaves E) all of the above 37. Most adult vascular plants represent the A) epiphyte generation B) sporophyte generation C) spore generation D) gametophyte generation E) angiosperm generation 38. Plants as well as brown, green, and red algae show a basic life cycle which involves the alternation of generations between a(n) A) spore and a pollen B) megaspore and a microspore C) seed and a cone D) sporophyte and a gametophyte E) egg and a sperm 39. The gametophyte is green and nutritionally-independent in A) mosses, liverworts, and ferns B) angiosperms C) gymnosperms D) conifers E) all of the above 40. To reproduce sexually, bryophytes require A) heterospory B) free water external to the plant C) high temperatures D) solar energy E) insect pollination 41. Seeds occur only in A) heterosporous vascular plants B) mosses C) green algae D) liverworts E) hornworts 42. Heterospory occurs in A) some seedless vascular plants B) bryophytes C) vascular plants
D) a and c E) a, b, and c 43. The most abundant group of seedless vascular plants are the A) club mosses B) horse tails C) angiosperms D) ferns E) gymnosperms 44. In only one of the five phyla of seed plants, at the time of pollination, the ovules are completely enclosed by sporophytic tissues. These plants are A) conifers B) angiosperms C) cycads D) ginkgoes E) gnetophytes 45. Which of the following is not a gymnosperm? A) cycads B) ginkgoes C) conifers D) anthophytes E) cypress 46. Which of the following gymnosperms is used for production of lumber, resin, turpentine, etc.? A) cycads B) ginkgoes C) conifers D) anthophytes E) gnetophytes 47. Angiosperms are primarily characterized by all of the following except A) ovules are enclosed within other tissues at the time of pollination B) a seed develops within a carpel C) the ovary matures into the fruit D) free water is required for pollination E) bear flowers which are modified stems bearing modified leaves 48. Which of the following is not one of the whorls of a complete flower? A) gynoecium containing carpels B) androecium containing stamens C) corolla containing petals D) calyx containing the sepals E) embryo containing zygotes 49. Flowers do not contain a(n) A) stigma B) style C) flagellated sperm D) pistil
E) anther 50. The male gametes, pollen grains of the flower, are formed in the A) gynoecium B) microspores C) perianth D) stigma E) style 51. The fruit of angiosperms is ultimately made from the A) gynoecium B) androecium C) perianth D) corolla E) calyx 52. Endosperm, the nutritive tissue of the fruit, is the product of a(n) A) sperm and egg union B) sperm and polar nuclei union C) spore and zygote union D) corolla and calyx union E) androecium and gynoecium union 53. The process unique to angiosperms is called A) syngamy B) embryogenesis C) double fertilization D) zygote formation E) self-fertilization 54. All of the following statements about ferns are correct except A) Ferns flourish in many habitats, but the majority are located in the tropics. B) The sporophyte is the conspicuous generation. C) The gametophyte is the conspicuous generation. D) Ferns have underground stems called rhizomes. E) Sori are located on the back or ventral surface of fronds. 55. A bryologist (a scientist that studies mosses, and their allies) gives a lecture to your biology class. In her lecture, she makes a reference to fern reproduction. She says, “Fern spores germinate into _____.” A) gametophytes which are often heart-shaped and have rhizoids that anchor the fern to the substrate B) gametophytes which are often heart-shaped and have roots that anchor the fern to the substrate C) sporophytes which are often heart-shaped and have rhizoids that anchor the fern to the substrate D) sporophytes which are often heart-shaped and have roots that anchor the fern to the substrate 56. Secondary xylem and phloem in vascular seed plants allow for A) increased girth later in their development B) increased root penetration in drier habitats
C) increased leaf expansion and elongation D) increased production of flowers and fruits E) increased production of rhizoids at their root tips 57. Conifers have all of the following characteristics except A) Conifers have recessed stomatal opening. B) Conifers have needle-like leaves in clusters of two to five per bundle. C) The gametophyte generation is the most conspicuous generation. D) All conifers are heterosporus. 58. You attend a seminar given by your biology professor. She refers to the third whorl in a complete flower. You know she means A) the sepals of the flower B) the petals of the flower C) the female structures of the flower D) the male structures of the flower E) all of the carpels located at the third layer of the gynoecium 59. Which of the following lists in correct order the size of gametophytes from largest to smallest? A) angiosperms, ferns, mosses B) ferns, mosses, angiosperms C) angiosperms, mosses, ferns D) mosses, ferns, angiosperms E) mosses, angiosperms, ferns