ROAD AND TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION STEERING COMMITTEE TRAFFIC CONTROL AND TRAFFIC SAFETY. Guidelines. for. Traffic Signals

ROAD AND TRANSPORT ATION RESEARCH ASSO CIATION STEERING COMMITTEE TRAFFIC CONTROL AND TRAFFIC SAFETY Guidelines for Traffic Signals RiLSA Edition ...
Author: Easter Hodge
5 downloads 0 Views 170KB Size
ROAD AND TRANSPORT ATION RESEARCH ASSO CIATION STEERING COMMITTEE TRAFFIC CONTROL AND TRAFFIC SAFETY

Guidelines for

Traffic Signals

RiLSA

Edition 1992 (with minor modifications) Translation 2003

FORSCHUNGSGESELLSCHAFT FÜR STRASSEN- UND VERKEHRSWESEN (ROAD AND TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION) ARBEITSGRUPPE VERKEHRSFÜHRUNG UND VERKEHRSSICHERHEIT (STEERING COMMITTEE TRAFFIC CONTROL AND TRAFFIC SAFETY)

Guidelines for

Traffic Signals

RiLSA English Version of Richtlinien für Lichtsignalanlagen RiLSA – Lichtzeichenanlagen für den Straßenverkehr –

Edition 1992 (with minor modifications) Translation 2003

Arbeitsgruppe Verkehrsführung und Verkehrssicherheit (Steering Committee Traffic Control and Traffic Safety) Arbeitsausschuss Verkehrsbeeinflussung innerorts (Working Group Urban Traffic Control) Members:

Ltd. BDir. Dr.-Ing. Rolf A n d r e e , Wiesbaden Dipl.-Ing. Jochen B o e s e f e l d t , Würselen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Manfred B o l t z e , Darmstadt (Chair) Dipl.-Ing. Alfred B r d l i k , Mannheim Dr.-Ing. Manfred B r e n n e r , Aalen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Lothar D u n k e r , Karlsruhe Ing. Klaus F r i c k e , Magdeburg Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bernhard F r i e d r i c h , Hannover Dr.-Ing. Stefan G r a h l , Berlin Dr.-Ing. Peter H ä c k e l m a n n , Saarbrücken Dr.-Ing. Jürgen H a r d e r s , Kaarst Dr.-Ing. Birgit H a r t z , Bergisch Gladbach Prof. Dr.-Ing. Günther H e i n z , Mainz Dipl.-Ing. Axel H o f f m a n n , Hamburg Dr.-Ing. Robert H o y e r , Barleben Dipl.-Ing. Horst H ü l s e n , Köln Dipl.-Ing. Michael J o n a s , München StBDir. a.D. Dipl.-Ing. Heribert K a e m m e r e r , Neuss Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rolf Heinz K a r a j a n , Stuttgart Dipl.-Geophys. Jörg L a n g e , Düsseldorf RBmstr. Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang L e g a t h , Nürnberg Dr.-Ing. Klaus L e i c h t e r , Falkensee Dipl.-Ing. Bernd R e i c h , München Dipl.-Ing. Matthias R i c h t e r , Hamburg OBDir. Dipl.-Ing. Wolf-Dieter S c h e u i n g , Esslingen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus S c h l a b b a c h , Hamburg Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Werner S c h n a b e l , Dresden Prof. Dr.-Ing. Robert S c h n ü l l . Hannover Dipl.-Ing. Ulrich S c h ö t t l e r , Frankfurt am Main Prof. Dr.-Ing. Herbert S t a a d t , Potsdam StBDir. Dipl.-Ing. Horst T h y e s , Stuttgart Dipl.-Ing. Uli V i e t o r , Darmstadt

Preliminary Remarks The German “Richtlinien für Lichtsignalanlagen (RiLSA)” (Guidelines for Traffic Signals) reflect a specific and detailed knowledge, grown over many years of scientific research and practical experience. Frequent inquiries from foreign experts let the desire arise to make an English-language version of the Guidelines available to the international professional world. The on-hand English translation is to intensify and facilitate the discussion and co-operation with foreign colleagues. By its publication, the editors wish to contribute to a further improvement of the safety and the quality of traffic flow at traffic signals. Basically, this paper contains the complete translation of the valid German text (version 1992), including all appendices. But some adaption has been made to the version of 1992 to consider new developments in this translation: -

The section 7.5 was replaced by the revised version which is contained in the “Teilfortschreibung der RiLSA, Entwurf 2003” (Partial Revision of the RiLSA, draft 2003).

-

The section 10.3.2 was replaced by the revised version which has taken effect by circular decree of Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau- und Wohnungswesen (Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing) on May 5, 1999, and which was modified in minor aspects for the “Teilfortschreibung der RiLSA, Entwurf 2003” (Partial Revision of the RiLSA, draft 2003).

-

The appendices B and C were omitted, since they have been replaced by newer compilation methods, which are contained in the “Handbuch für die Bemessung von Strassenverkehrsanlagen (HBS)” (Manual for the Design of Road Infrastructure).

The Partial Revision of the RiLSA which has been drafted in 2003 could not be considered completely in this translation. It will be published as an additional paper to supplement RiLSA 1992 after having concerted in all relevant German legal bodies. This partial revision also includes new versions of chapter 7.3.7 on pedestrian crossing of separate railways and chapter 8.2 on the signalisation for cyclists. Further advice on advanced control algorithms and guidelines on co-ordinated traffic signal settings on arterials and networks are supplemented. New appendices address the quality management of traffic signals and the German “right-turn on red”-regulations. The elaboration of a complete new version of this guideline has just started, but it will take several years of work and concertation to finalise it. It is to be noted that the English-language version only serves the mentioned purposes. It must not be regarded as obligatory basis for the traffic signal control, as in any case the current German-language version must be consulted. The English translation was examined and authorized by the Working Group Urban Traffic Control of the German Road and Transportation Rersearch Association. This publication was prepared at Darmstadt University of Technology, Section Transport Planning and Traffic Engineering, under the guidance of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Manfred B o l t z e. The following persons contributed to this publication: Susanne G r o ß m a n n , M.A., Remseck (translation) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Hans-Georg R e t z k o , Darmstadt (review) Dipl.-Ing. Achim R e u s s w i g , Darmstadt (layout) This publication was supported by the following companies (in alphabetical order): Dr. Brenner + Münnich Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Aalen Obermeyer Planen und Beraten GmbH, München PTV AG, Karlsruhe Schlothauer & Wauer Ingenieurgesellschaft für Straßenverkehr mbH & Co., Berlin Siemens AG Industrial Solutions and Services, München Signalbau Huber GmbH, München ZIV – Zentrum für integrierte Verkehrssysteme GmbH, Darmstadt and

VIV – Verband der Ingenieurbüros für Verkehrstechnik e.V., Berlin.

Please consider the advertisements on the following pages.

ROAD AND TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION STEERING COMMITTEE TRAFFIC CONTROL AND TRAFFIC SAFETY

Guidelines for Traffic Signals RiLSA

Edition 1992 (with minor modifications) Translation 2003

Arbeitsgruppe Verkehrsführung und Verkehrssicherheit (Steering Committee Traffic Control and Traffic Safety) Arbeitsausschuss Lichtsignalanlagen (Working Group Traffic Signals) Members:

Dr.-Ing. A n d r e e , Wiesbaden Prof. Dr.-Ing. B e h r e n d t , Bonn Prof. Dr.-Ing. D u n k e r , Karlsruhe Dipl.-Ing. E v e r t s , Aachen Dr.-Ing. H ä c k e l m a n n , Saarbrücken Dr.-Ing. H a r d e r s , Kaarst Prof. Dr..-Ing. H o f f m a n n , Berlin (Chair) Dipl.-Ing. H ü l s e n , Köln Dipl.-Ing. H u h n , Essen Dipl.-Ing. J e s s e n , Hannover Dipl.-Ing. K a e m m e r e r , Düsseldorf Richter M e n k e n , Köln Dipl.-Ing. M i l o w s k i , Nürnberg Ing. (grad.) O b e r m a i e r , München Prof. Dr.-Ing. R e t z k o , Darmstadt Dipl.-Ing. R u h n k e , Hamburg Prof. Dr.-Ing. S c h n ü l l . Hannover Dipl.-Ing. S c h ö n l e i t n e r , Berlin Dipl.-Ing. S c h ü p p e n h a u e r , Fussgönheim Dr.-Ing. S i e g l o c h , Kassel Dr.-Ing. S t a a d t , Wiesbaden Dipl.-Ing. W o h l r a b e , München Prof. Dr.-Ing. Z a c k o r , Kassel

Withdrewed members:

Dipl.-Ing. E r n s t , Hannover Dipl.-Ing. H a b e r m a n n , Berlin Dipl.-Ing. S c h r ö d e r † , Köln

Members of sub-groups: Dr.-Ing. B o l t z e , Darmstadt Prof. Dipl.-Ing. H e i n r i c h , Frankfurt Dipl.-Ing. H o f f m a n n , Berlin Prof. Dr.-Ing. K a r a j a n , Stuttgart Dipl.-Ing. M a s a k , München Dipl.-Ing. M e i ß n e r , Berlin Dipl.-Ing. N e u b e r t , Essen Dipl.-Ing. R e i c h , Stuttgart Dipl.-Ing. R i c h t e r , Hamburg Dr.-Ing. S c h l a b b a c h , Darmstadt Dipl.-Ing. S c h ö t t l e r , Frankfurt Dr.-Ing. Z m e c k , Berlin Preliminary Remarks The new version of the “Richtlinien für Lichtsignalanlagen (RiLSA)” (Guidelines for Traffic Signals) is based on the fundamental knowledge of the valid version of 1977/1981. It considers the collected experiences and technical advancements of the past years, in particular in the area of the traffic-actuated control. The Guidelines deepen the aspects of the particular consideration of public transport, pedestrian traffic and cycle traffic in traffic signal control. The “Aktuelle Themen der Lichtsignalsteuerung” (Current Topics of Traffic Signal Control), published in 1985 as an interim report on the actual state of some selected questions, were integrated into the revised version of the RiLSA. The abundance of the material and the complexity of the relation between statements necessitated special descriptions, supplementing explanations, examples and special forms of traffic signal control to be addressed in separate appendices. This includes the former main text chapters “Signal Program Switching”, “Bottleneck Signalisation” and “Lane Signalisation”.

Contents 0.

Introduction .................................................................................................................................

1.

Basic Principles .......................................................................................................................... 10

9

1.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 10 1.2 Traffic Signals and Signal Sequences ................................................................................... 10 1.3 Criteria for the Use of Traffic Signal Systems and the Effects to Be Achieve d ........ 10 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.3.7

General Remarks ................................................................................................................. Traffic Safety ....................................................................................................................... Traffic Flow Quality ............................................................................................................ Fuel Consumption ................................................................................................................ Exhaust Emissions ............................................................................................................... Noise Emissions ................................................................................................................... Balancing of Conflicting Objectives ...................................................................................

10 11 11 12 12 12 12

1.4 Temporary Switching off of Traffic Signal Systems ......................................................... 12

2.

Signal Program Design .............................................................................................................. 14 2.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 14 2.2 Documents and Pre-studies ..................................................................................................... 15 2.3 Signal Program Structure ........................................................................................................ 16 2.3.1

2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

Signal Phasing ..................................................................................................................... 2.3.1.1 General Remarks ................................................................................................. 2.3.1.2 Left-turning Movements ...................................................................................... 2.3.1.3 Right-turning Movements .................................................................................... Number of Phases ................................................................................................................ Phase Sequence .................................................................................................................... Phase Transitions .................................................................................................................

16 16 17 18 19 19 19

2.4 Transition Times ........................................................................................................................ 20 2.5 Intergreen Times ........................................................................................................................ 20 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6

General Remarks ................................................................................................................. Determination of Clearing and Entering Distances ............................................................. Crossing and Clearance times .............................................................................................. Entering Times ..................................................................................................................... Intergreen Times Diagram ................................................................................................... Checking Intergreen Times ..................................................................................................

20 21 21 24 24 26

2.6 Boundary Conditions for Green and Red Times ............................................................... 26 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.6.7

Return to the Same Phase .................................................................................................... Minimum Green Times ........................................................................................................ Leading Green for Left-turning Vehicles ............................................................................ Minimum Red Times ........................................................................................................... Maximum Red Times .......................................................................................................... Time Lead at the Conflict Area ........................................................................................... Delayed Green Time Beginning ..........................................................................................

26 26 26 26 26 26 26

2.7 Development of the Signal Program ..................................................................................... 26

3.

Impacts of Traffic Signal Control on the Intersection Layout ........................................... 28 3.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 28 3.2 Lanes .............................................................................................................................................. 28 3.2.1

General Remarks ................................................................................................................. 28

3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4

Continuous Lanes ................................................................................................................. 28 Left-turning Lanes ................................................................................................................ 28 Right-turning Lanes ............................................................................................................. 29

3.3 U-turn Lanes ................................................................................................................................ 29 3.4 Traffic Islands .............................................................................................................................. 30 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3

General Remarks .................................................................................................................. 30 Separating Strips .................................................................................................................. 30 Triangular Islands ................................................................................................................ 30

3.5 Stop-lines and Kerb Radii ........................................................................................................ 31 3.6 Markings ....................................................................................................................................... 31 3.7 Signing ........................................................................................................................................... 32

4.

Control Strategies ....................................................................................................................... 33 4.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 33 4.1.1 4.1.2

Information Flow for Traffic Signal Control ....................................................................... 33 Regulative and Adaptive Traffic Control ............................................................................. 33

4.2 Control and Assessment Parameters ..................................................................................... 34 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9

General Remarks .................................................................................................................. 34 Number of Stops .................................................................................................................. 34 Waiting times ....................................................................................................................... 34 Travel Time .......................................................................................................................... 34 Queue Length ....................................................................................................................... 34 Traffic Volume ..................................................................................................................... 34 Travelling Speed .................................................................................................................. 34 Selection and Calculation of Target Values for Traffic Control .......................................... 34 Traffic Flow Parameters Used ............................................................................................. 35

4.3 Overview on the Control Strategies ....................................................................................... 35 4.3.1 4.3.2

General Remarks .................................................................................................................. 35 Instructions on Traffic-actuated Control .............................................................................. 36 4.3.2.1 Special Safety Requirements ............................................................................... 36 4.3.2.2 Application in Networks of Close Intersection Spacing ...................................... 36 4.3.2.3 Application During Peak Hours ........................................................................... 36

4.4 Details on the Control Strategies ............................................................................................ 37 4.4.1

4.4.2 4.4.3

4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6 4.4.7

Selection of Signal Programs ............................................................................................... 37 4.4.1.1 General Remarks .................................................................................................. 37 4.4.1.2 Time-dependent Selection of Signal Programs .................................................... 37 4.4.1.3 Traffic-actuated Selection of Signal Programs .................................................... 37 Fixed-time Signal Programs ................................................................................................. 38 Green Time Adjustment ....................................................................................................... 39 4.4.3.1 General Remarks .................................................................................................. 39 4.4.3.2 Green Time Adjustment by Means of Time Headway Measurement ................. 39 4.4.3.3 Green Time Adjustment by Measuring the Degree of Occupancy ...................... 41 4.4.3.4 Green Time Adjustment by Congestion Detection .............................................. 41 Phase Swapping ................................................................................................................... 42 Request of a Demand Phase ................................................................................................. 42 Signal Program Formation ................................................................................................... 43 Particular Forms of Application for Signal Program Formation ......................................... 43 4.4.7.1 All-red/Immediate-green ...................................................................................... 43 4.4.7.2 Main-direction-permanent-green ......................................................................... 43

4.5 Development of the Control Algorithm ................................................................................ 44 4.5.1 4.5.2

General Remarks .................................................................................................................. 44 Phase Sequence Plan, Phase Transitions .............................................................................. 44

4.5.3

4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.6

5.

Flow Chart ........................................................................................................................... 4.5.3.1 General Remarks ................................................................................................. 4.5.3.2 Elements of the Flow Chart ................................................................................. Depiction in the Signal Timing Plan ................................................................................... Depiction in the Time-Distance Diagram ............................................................................ Test specifications ...............................................................................................................

44 44 45 45 45 45

Green Wave .................................................................................................................................. 46 5.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 46 5.2 Design Principles ........................................................................................................................ 46 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4

5.2.5

Progression Speed ................................................................................................................ Cycle Time and Green Band Point of Intersection Spacing ................................................ Preconditions and Boundary Conditions ............................................................................. Forms of Green Time Guidance .......................................................................................... 5.2.4.1 Continuous Green Time Guidance ...................................................................... 5.2.4.2 Non-continuous Green Time Guidance ............................................................... Types of the Green Wave .................................................................................................... 5.2.5.1 Progressive System .............................................................................................. 5.2.5.2 Simultaneous System ...........................................................................................

46 47 47 47 47 47 49 49 49

5.3 Speed Signals ............................................................................................................................... 49

6.

Particular Consideration of Public Transport ....................................................................... 51 6.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 51 6.2 Suitability of the Control Strategies ...................................................................................... 51 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4

Planning Principles and Application Conditions ................................................................. Possibilities of a Time-dependent Selection of Fixed-time Programs ................................. Possibilities of Signal Program Adaptation ......................................................................... Possibilities of Signal Program Formation ..........................................................................

51 51 52 52

6.3 Individual Measures .................................................................................................................. 52 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6

Location of Stops ................................................................................................................. Dynamic Stops ..................................................................................................................... Leaving Aids from Separate Bus Lanes and Bus Stops ...................................................... Warning and Information Signals ........................................................................................ Signalisation When Crossing Road Space ........................................................................... Permissive Signal for Trams ................................................................................................

52 53 53 56 56 56

6.4 Vehicle Detection ........................................................................................................................ 56

7.

Particular Consideration of Pedestrian Traffic .................................................................... 58 7.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 58 7.2 Restrictions of Use and Layout Instructions for Crossings and Traffic Islands ....... 58 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3

Pedestrian Crossings at Intersections ................................................................................... 58 Separating Strips .................................................................................................................. 58 Triangular Islands ................................................................................................................ 59

7.3 Signalisation Instructions ......................................................................................................... 59 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5

General Remarks ................................................................................................................. Abortion of Low-loaded Vehicle Green Times ................................................................... Pedestrian Requests ............................................................................................................. Pedestrians and Turning Vehicles ....................................................................................... Signalisation at Successive Crossings ................................................................................. 7.3.5.1 Simultaneous Signalisation at Successive Crossings .......................................... 7.3.5.2 Progressive Signalisation at Successive Crossings .............................................. 7.3.5.3 Separate Signalisation at Successive Crossings ..................................................

59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60

7.3.6 7.3.7

All-GREEN for Pedestrians ................................................................................................. 61 Crossing of Separate Railways ............................................................................................ 62

7.4 Pedestrian Traffic Signal Systems ......................................................................................... 62 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3

General Remarks .................................................................................................................. 62 Crossing Aids Outside Intersections .................................................................................... 62 Crossing Aids Near Non-signalised Intersections ............................................................... 64

7.5 Additional Installations for Blind and Partially Sighted Persons (Revised Version, taken from Partially Revision of the RiLSA, draft 2003) ..................... 64 7.5.1 7.5.2

8.

Application Areas ................................................................................................................ 64 Technical Design .................................................................................................................. 65

Particular Consideration of Cycle Traffic ............................................................................... 66 8.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 66 8.2 Basic Types of Cycle Traffic Signalisation .......................................................................... 66 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3

Joint Signalisation with Motorised Traffic .......................................................................... 66 Joint Signalisation with Pedestrian Traffic .......................................................................... 66 Signalisation by Separate Cycle Signals before the Conflict Area ...................................... 66

8.3 Restrictions of Use and Layout Instructions for Crossings and Traffic Islands ....... 66 8.4 Cycle Traffic in Opposite Direction on Cycle Crossings ................................................. 67 8.5 Left-turning Cycle Traffic ........................................................................................................ 67 8.5.1 8.5.2

Direct Routing ...................................................................................................................... 67 Indirect Routing ................................................................................................................... 67

8.6 Cycle Traffic Using a Green Wave of Motorised Traffic ................................................ 67

9.

Design ............................................................................................................................................ 68 9.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 68 9.2 Lighting Design ........................................................................................................................... 68 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.2.5

Reference to Lighting Regulations ...................................................................................... 68 Visibility of the Signals ........................................................................................................ 68 Phantom Light ...................................................................................................................... 68 Size of the Optical Units ...................................................................................................... 68 Operating Voltage ................................................................................................................ 69

9.3 Design of the Optical Units ...................................................................................................... 69 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7

Vehicle Signal Heads ........................................................................................................... 69 Pedestrian Signal Heads ....................................................................................................... 69 Cycle Signal Heads .............................................................................................................. 69 Signal Heads for Trams and Buses ...................................................................................... 69 Auxiliary Signal Heads ........................................................................................................ 69 Lane Signal Heads ............................................................................................................... 70 Speed Signal Heads .............................................................................................................. 71

9.4 Number and Position of the Signal Heads ........................................................................... 71 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 9.4.5 9.4.6 9.4.7

Vehicle Signal Heads ........................................................................................................... 71 Pedestrian Signal Heads ....................................................................................................... 73 Cyclist Signal Heads ............................................................................................................ 73 Signal Heads for Trams and Buses ...................................................................................... 73 Auxiliary Signal Heads ........................................................................................................ 73 Lane Signal Heads ............................................................................................................... 73 Speed Signal Heads .............................................................................................................. 73

9.5 Traffic Signs on Traffic Signal Systems ............................................................................... 73 9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3

Preliminary Remarks ............................................................................................................ 73 Priority Signs ........................................................................................................................ 73 Mandatory Direction Signs .................................................................................................. 74

9.6 Electrical Installations .............................................................................................................. 74 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 9.6.5 9.6.6 9.6.7

General Remarks ................................................................................................................. Types of Control .................................................................................................................. Control Technologies ........................................................................................................... Types of Technical Devices ................................................................................................. Control Centres .................................................................................................................... Transmission Installations ................................................................................................... Detectors ..............................................................................................................................

74 74 74 74 75 75 75

10. Acceptance, Operation, Maintenance ............................................................................................. 76 10.1 General Remarks ........................................................................................................................ 76 10.2 Acceptance ................................................................................................................................... 76 10.3 Operation ...................................................................................................................................... 76 10.3.1 Activation, Deactivation ...................................................................................................... 10.3.2 Signal Safeguarding (Revised Version, taken from Partially Revision of the RiLSA, draft 2003) ...................... 10.3.2.1 General Remarks ................................................................................................. 10.3.2.2 Conflicting Signals .............................................................................................. 10.3.2.3 Signal Failure ....................................................................................................... 10.3.2.4 Signal Timing Violation ...................................................................................... 10.3.2.5 Inconsistent Signal Indication .............................................................................. 10.3.3 Operation Monitoring ..........................................................................................................

76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80

10.4 Maintenance ................................................................................................................................. 81 10.5 Alternative Measures in Case of Interruption ................................................................... 81 10.5.1 Traffic Control by the Police ............................................................................................... 81 10.5.2 Traffic Control by Traffic Signs and Installations ............................................................... 81 10.5.3 Alternative Signal Control ................................................................................................... 81

Annex Annex A: Examples of Signal Phasing ..................................................................................................... 83 Annex B: Design Load and Load Factor of Motorised Traffic (Cross Reference to HBS 2001) ................................................................................................ 86

Annex C: Determination of Cycle Time and Green Times (Cross Reference to HBS 2001) ............................................................................................... 87

Annex D: Examples of Traffic-responsive Control ................................................................................. 88 D.1 Setting of Logical, Time and Other Conditions ................................................................. 88 D.1.1 D.1.2 D.1.3 D.1.4 D.1.5 D.1.6

Examples of Logical Conditions ......................................................................................... 88 Examples of Time Conditions ............................................................................................. 88 Examples of Other Conditions ............................................................................................. 88 Examples of Action Elements ............................................................................................. 89 Example of the Connection of Decision and Action Elements ........................................... 89 Example of the Different Types of Flow Charts ..................................................................89

D.2 Collection of Examples .............................................................................................................. 90 D.2.1 Example 1 – Signal Program Adaptation at a Green-Wave Intersection ............................ 90 D.2.2 Example 2 – Traffic-responsive Signalised Bus Sluice ....................................................... 94 D.2.3 Example 3 – All-red/Immediate-green at an Intersection .................................................... 97

D.2.4 Example 4 – Green Time Adjustment in Favour of the Tram within a Green Wave ........ 99 D.2.5 Example 5 – Queuing Space Monitoring on a Motorway Exit .......................................... 101 D.2.6 Example 6 – Green Time Abortion in Favour of Pedestrians at a Pedestrian Signal System ............................................................................................. 103 D.2.7 Example 7 – Clearing of Railway from Left-turning Vehicles if Tram is Approaching ... 104 D.2.8 Example 8 – Traffic-responsive Signal Program Selection in an Area ............................. 106

Annex E: Notes on the Time-Distance Planning for Green Waves .................................................... 109 E.1 Graphical Methods ................................................................................................................... 109 E.2 Numerical Methods .................................................................................................................. 110 E.3 Examples of Green Waves ...................................................................................................... 110 E.4 Example of a Signal Funnel ................................................................................................... 111

Annex F: Procedures of Signal Program Switching ............................................................................. 112 F.1 General Remarks ...................................................................................................................... 112 F.2 Procedural Principles .............................................................................................................. 112 F.2.1 F.2.2 F.2.3 F.2.4

Direct Switching ................................................................................................................ 112 Switching Including Idle Period ........................................................................................ 112 Switching Without any Defined Switching Point .............................................................. 113 Switching by Switching Signal Program ........................................................................... 113

F.3 Application Conditions ........................................................................................................... 113 F.4 Applications in Green Waves ................................................................................................ 113

Annex G: Bottleneck Signalisation ........................................................................................................ 117 G.1 General Remarks ...................................................................................................................... 117 G.2 Application Criteria ................................................................................................................. 117 G.3 Determination of the Signal Times ...................................................................................... 117 G.3.1 Transition Times ................................................................................................................ 117 G.3.2 Intergreen times .................................................................................................................. 117 G.3.3 Cycle Time and Green Times ............................................................................................ 118

G.4 Control Strategies ..................................................................................................................... 118 G.4.1 Fixed Green Time Control ................................................................................................. 118 G.4.2 Variable Green Time Control ............................................................................................ 118

G.5 Activation Programs ................................................................................................................ 119 G.6 Particularities of Traffic Layout at Bottlenecks ............................................................... 119 G.7 Notes on Technical Devices .................................................................................................... 120 G.7.1 G.7.2 G.7.3 G.7.4

General Remarks ................................................................................................................ 120 Transmission of the Control Commands ........................................................................... 120 Operating Voltage .............................................................................................................. 120 Signal Safeguarding ........................................................................................................... 120

G.8 Marking and Signing ............................................................................................................... 120 G.9 Example ....................................................................................................................................... 120

Annex H: Lane Signalisation .................................................................................................................... 122 H.1 Application ................................................................................................................................. 122 H.1.1 H.1.2 H.1.3 H.1.4

General Remarks .................................................................................................................122 Tidal Flow Systems ............................................................................................................ 122 Safegu arding of Lanes ....................................................................................................... 122 Further Applications .......................................................................................................... 122

H.2 Documents and Pre-Studies ................................................................................................... 122

H.3 Constructional and Operational Principles ...................................................................... 123 H.3.1 H.3.2 H.3.3 H.3.4 H.3.5

General Aspects ................................................................................................................. Section ............................................................................................................................... Intersections ....................................................................................................................... Consideration of Public Transport ..................................................................................... Accompanying Measures ...................................................................................................

123 123 123 125 125

H.4 Determination of Display Points .......................................................................................... 125 H.5 Control Strategies for Tidal Flow Systems ........................................................................ 126 H.5.1 Selection of the Control Strategy ....................................................................................... 126 H.5.2 Acquisition of Traffic Parameters ..................................................................................... 126

H.6 Operating Principles ................................................................................................................ 126 H.6.1 H.6.2 H.6.3 H.6.4

General Remarks ............................................................................................................... Change of the Operating Stages ........................................................................................ Protocols ............................................................................................................................ Operation ...........................................................................................................................

126 126 127 127

H.7 Technical Installations ............................................................................................................ 127 H.7.1 Lane Signal Heads ............................................................................................................. 127 H.7.2 Distinction of Lane and Intersection Signal Heads ........................................................... 129 H.7.3 Switching and Control Devices ......................................................................................... 129

H.8 Plans ............................................................................................................................................. 129 H.8.1 Layout Plan ........................................................................................................................ 129 H.8.2 Operating Plan ................................................................................................................... 129 H.8.3 Traffic Management Plan .................................................................................................. 130

Annex I: Signal Heads and Symbols ....................................................................................................... 131 I.1 Symbols ....................................................................................................................................... 131 I.1.1 I.1.2 I.1.3 I.1.4 I.1.5 I.1.6 I.1.7 I.1.8

Standardised Design .......................................................................................................... Arrows in Vehicle Signals (Variable Light Signs) ............................................................ Pedestrian Signals .............................................................................................................. Cycle Signals ..................................................................................................................... Signals for Trams and Buses ............................................................................................. Symbols in Yellow Flashing Light .................................................................................... Lane Signals (Permanent Light Signs) .............................................................................. Speed Signals .....................................................................................................................

131 131 132 132 133 133 134 134

I.2 Additional Equipment for Signal Heads ............................................................................ 135 I.3 Mounting of Signal Heads and Touch Buttons for Requests ....................................... 135

Annex J: Diagrams to Determine the Distance of Placed Back Stop-lines .................................... 137 Annex K: Directives and Sets of Technical Rules and Regulations

................................................. 138

FGSV 321/S

Published by: FGSV Verlag GmbH D-50999 Cologne/Germany x Wesselinger Straße 17 Phone: +49 / 22 36 / 38 46 30 x Fax: +49 / 22 36 / 38 46 40 E-Mail: [email protected] x Internet: www.fgsv-verlag.de Dezember 2003

Suggest Documents