RTSA RAILWAY FITOUT OF THE NEW SOUTHERN RAILWAY - SYDNEY Mark Harris B.E. (Hons),Project Manager New Southern Railway Fitout Contract, Rail Services A...
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RTSA RAILWAY FITOUT OF THE NEW SOUTHERN RAILWAY - SYDNEY Mark Harris B.E. (Hons),Project Manager New Southern Railway Fitout Contract, Rail Services Australia


The new Southern Railway is a significant addition to Sydney's railway infrastructure,and is the first of a number of planned extensions of the Sydney rail network. This project has been designed and built by the private sector. The prime contractor, Transfield Bouygues Joint Venture (TBJV), undertook much of the work with its own resources, but subcontracted the railway system fitout of the completed tunnel and stations. This major subcontract was won by Rail Services Australia in July 1997 and was completed at the end of January 2000 ahead of programme. This paper describes the significant contribution the fitout project has made in applying state-of-the-art systems engineering to the development of a fully integrated railway design that has had to satisfy strict performance criteria in a hard dollar contract. This project has set a new standard for railway design and construction in the Australian rail industry, and will be the benchmark for future major projects. NOTATION


New Southern Railway Airport Link Company State Rail Authority Rail Access Corporation System Control and Data Acquisition Train Information Control System Passenger Information Display System Technical Procedure General Purpose Outlet Standard Guidelines for Fire, Life, Safety Emergency Warning and Information System Light Emitting Diode Westinghouse Brake and Signal Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Closed Circuit Television Advanced Train Running Information Control System Fire Fan Control Panel Failure Modes,Effects and Criticality Analysis Overhead Wiring




The new Southern Railway, opening later this year, is a new underground railway with two tracks between Central Station and the East Hills line, under Redfern, the Sydney Central Industrial Area ("City South") and the domestic (eastern) and international (western) terminals of Sydney Airport. It joins the East Hills line near Turrella. The tunnel will be owned and operated by Rail Access Corporation (RAC) with SRA providing the train fleet. New underground stations that will be owned and operated by Airport Link Company Pty Ltd (ALC) are located in City South, one under Green Square in Beaconsfield and the other south of Gardeners Road in Mascot, and at the domestic and international airport terminals. Another station, at Wolli Creek, will be owned and operated by the State Rail Authority (SRA), providing an interchange between the New Southern Railway (NSR) and CityRaii services on the lIIawarra line to the southern suburbs and the Illawarra.

Conference on Railway Engineering Adelaide, 21-23 May 2000

Mark Harris Rail Services Australia

Rail Fitout of the New Southern Railway - Sydney

There will be an average of one train each way every 7 to 10 minutes during peak periods. The trip from the international airport terminal to Central Station will take 10 minutes, including stops, and the trip from the domestic terminal 8 minutes. Initial patronage is expected to be about 46,000 one-way trips per weekday to and from the four NSR stations. RSA won the principal subcontract for infrastructure works through a competitive international tendering process completed in July 1997. RSA's responsibilities under this subcontract (the largest single subcontract for the project, and valued at more than $70 million) included the design, development, construction and commissioning of: •

• • • • • • • •

Track and track support systems, including noise and vibration attenuation High voltage power Low voltage power Traction power including SCADA Signalling systems SCADA Communications Fire and Life Safety systems A Train Information Control System (TICS) and Passenger Information Display System (PIDS)

The subcontract included demanding performance requirements and targets for equipment reliability and the availability of the complete system. For example, the system may be "unavailable" (with a fault which would delay trains for more than three minutes) for not more than one minute, on average, during each 20 hours per day operating period. The subcontract also required the fitout to be designed as an integrated system, with significant consideration being given to the maintainability of the railway infrastructure.



The scope required taking outline concept designs through design to construction and commissioning. The integration process was for conventional track, overhead wiring, signalling and also communications, SCADA's and power supplies/reticulation. The integration involved not only RSA expertise but


required management and integration with three major subcontracts to RSA. The scope breakdown below briefly indicates the complexity of these integrated systems. 2.1

Track And Track Support Systems

This traditional discipline included not only standard items such as rail, sleepers and ballast,but also extended to ballast mat design and selection based on defined surface noise and vibration criteria. The design process was made more difficult because the final alignment was different to that originally proposed. This led to the selection of special vibration attenuating rail pads not previously used in Australia. The delivery of ballast into the tunnel also proved difficult, as large trucks could neither turn nor tip in the tunnel and full through-tunnel access was not available. This difficulty was overcome through the use of chutes via the tunnel boring machine's entry and exit shafts. RSA was required to demonstrate that the ballast quality would not be reduced by this delivery process. This investigation uncovered previously unrecognised errors in the ballast standard. Under the contract the finished track required grinding. RSA had to develop a suitable rail profile, based on the anticipated rolling stock and identify the effects on rail life. The track area alone required the development of 14 new Technical Procedures (TPs) for work in the tunnel. 2.2

Noise And Vibration Attenuation

Most of the new line is located in a tunnel below sensitive residential and commercial properties. The track design needed to consider vibrations generated by trains in the tunnel and consequent propagation of these vibrations to the surface, where they had the potential to result in audible ("groundborne") noise and/ or perceptible vibrations in buildings. Noise and vibration design goals were established in the project's Environmental Impact Statement and development approval. Key criteria included 0.14 mm (vibration) and 35 dB(A) (groundborne noise) limits for residential buildings.

Conference on Railway Engineering Adelaide, 21-23 May 2000

Rail Fftout of the New Southern Railway - Sydney

Mark Harris Rail Services Australia

The vibration response of ballasted track depends on the dynamic characteristics of the track components, particularly the ballast. Vibration measurements were carried out in several existing railway tunnels in Sydney, and the results were used, in conjunction with ballast inspection data obtained by RSA, to determine that the primary response frequency of the proposed ballasted track form would be in the region of 63 Hz. In locations where noise and vibration levels were predicted to exceed design goals at the surface, the vibration response of the track form was modified by incorporating mitigation measures. The primary measure adopted was under­ ballast mats. Mats of 22 mm and 30 mm thicknesses were used, with expected modified track response frequencies of 20 Hz and 25 Hz respectively. In certain locations where a marginal risk of exceeding the noise limits was identified, a modified rail pad (of -60 kN/mm stiffness) was used.

Suburbs Railway. This configuration has performed reliably for more than 20 years and hence is a proven design. It is a '�ixed anchor" . system (so the tension varies with temperature) with twin contact wires. The change to 12 trains per hour resulted in additional conductors, to cater for the increased loading of the system. The fixed anchor wiring from the tunnel interfaces with regulated tension wiring (for which the tension remains approximately constant irrespective of temperature) as close as possible to the tunnel portals. This minimised the amount of fixed anchor overhead wiring outside the tunnel, where it is subject to large temperature changes. Design integration of the overhead wiring was achieved by managing the following key interfaces: •

Figure 1 (shown at the end of the document) illustrates the powerful influence of track dynamics on the vibration output of the track. In the figure, track vibration levels for "standard ballasf' and "ballast maf' are compared. The resonance (or primary response) frequencies are clearly evident (63Hz and 20Hz respectively). Although the ballast mat actually amplifies vibration at certain low frequencies, it achieves a substantial reduction at audible frequencies. Similar effects occur with the modified rail pads, although the changes in track response are more subtle. Vibration measurements were carried out in the tunnel on completion of the project. The results verify that the design noise and vibration attenuation measures built into the track system are performing as designed. 2.3

Overhead Wiring

RSA's task was to design and construct a 1500 V dc traction overhead wiring system suitable for running 8 trains per hour in each direction. Part-way through the project, a variation changed this to 12 trains per hour.

The track geometry Feeding arrangement at Undercliffe substation and Mascot sectioning hut Signal positions (to ensure trains are not stopped at air gaps or overlap spans) The train pantograph for wire heights, staggers and ramp rates The position of steel reinforcement in the tunnel segments and station slabs for electrolysis mitigation (a detector was used to identify the position of the reinforcement bars), and The regulated tension overhead wiring system outside the tunnels.

The overhead wiring had to be segregated, so that problems on one track, caused by (say) a faulty train pantograph, would not impact on the overhead wiring of the adjacent track. This required drop verticals to be installed throughout the tunnel to register the contact wires. Drop verticals have been installed only at every second support point on the tangent portions of the track, to minimise the number required. This saving was made possible by the short bay leng1hs inherent in the tunnel's fixed anchor system and the absence of high cross winds inside the tunnel. 2.4

High-Voltage Power

Conductors were selected on the basis of in­ house computerised electric train timetable simulations and a computerised conductor loading simulation.

RSA's task was to design and construct the power supply system for the 1500 V dc overhead wiring, high-voltage reticulation to the stations and low-voltage systems for the stations and tunnels.

The overhead wiring configuration selected. for the tunnel is similar to that used in the Eastern

The power supply to the 1500 V dc overhead wiring is supplied from a traction substation at


Conference on Railway Engineering Adelaide. 21-23 May 2000

Mark Harris Rail Services Australia

Rail Fitout of the New Southern Railway - Sydney

Undercliffe adjacent to the new Wolli Creek Station and a sectioning hut at Mascot Station. At Undercliffe a 33 kV ac supply is transformed and rectified to a normal 1500 V dc. It is also transformed to 11 kV to supply power to the five stations via the tunnel using 11 kV ring main units. Wolli Creek, an above-ground station, has a back-up 415 V supply from Energy Australia for essential loads. The four underground ALC stations have two supplies in separate substations, each with the capacity to supply the full loads of the stations and tunnels. At Mascot and Green Square, the second supply is at 11 kV. At International and Domestic Terminals, the second supply, from the Federal Airports Corporation (FAC) , is at 10.25 kV, but the transformers at these stations have been designed so they are suitable for adjusting to 11 kV supply when the FAC supply is changed in the future. The substations transform the voltage to 415 V for the station and tunnel supplies. The tunnel supplies are fed from both of the main low-voltage switchboards at each station via automatic transfer switches located in the stations. Distribution boards along the tunnel, approximately 500 m apart, supply the tunnel lighting, general purpose outlets (GPOs), tunnel pumps and communication equipment. A design feature of the GPO circuit is that it allows adjacent distribution boards to be connected together in emergency situations (e.g. if a train derailment has severed the submain cable supplying a distribution board). There is also a facility to connect a generator to the GPO circuit at the northern portal of the tunnel near Central station. In the tunnel there are two lighting systems, normal and emergency, on opposite sides of the tunnel. The emergency lighting is a maintained system (the lights are permanently on) and the light fittings have battery packs and inverters to keep the lights on for 3 hours following a power failure. The emergency lights are monitored via the station SCADA. The normal lighting has one-third of its lights permanently on. The remaining normal lights are controlled via timed pushbuttons located at the start and middle of each tunnel section. These pushbuttons are electronic· devices, using the communications cable that runs from the station SCADA to the tunnel distribution boards for monitoring the emergency lights.


This was more economic than conventional hard wired controls. 2.5

Low-Voltage Power

RSA's low-voltage works at each station comprise two separate main switchboards linked via a bus-tie, which enables either supply to feed both main switchboards in the event of failure of any supply. 415 V submains reticulate from the main switchboards to plant and equipment within the stations and tunnel. Depending on the classification of the load being supplied ("normal", "essential" or "emergency"), either one or two sub-mains reticulate to the equipment supply panels. Typical loads within each station include lighting, general power, lifts, signalling, fire, escalators, hydraulics, communications, pumps and ventilation. Base design load parameters were established by RSA to enable suitable sizing of the transformers, consumer mains and submains. The most prominent requirement was compliance with AS3000 and the Standard Guidelines for Fire Life Safety (SGFLS), to ensure suitable railway requirements would be met. A major component of this was the requirement for most services to have a two­ hour fire rating in accordance with AS3013. For supplies designated as "essential" automatic transfer switches were installed at each panel. These automatically switch over in the event of a failure of the selected lead supply. This feature is critical for services affecting the running of trains, such as signalling, or the protection of passengers within the stations, such as fire and EWIS. Sophisticated monitoring of power supplies was required under the· contract. The low voltage system communicates system status and is controlled through a station SCADA system. Because of the complexity and different stages of design development of the various systems, an element of flexibility was essential in the low voltage design, to accommodate progressive system development. One of the ways this was achieved was by using a modular design main switchboard and

Conference on Railway Engineering Adelaide, 21-23 May 2000

Rail Fftout of the New Southern Railway - Sydney

Mark Harris Rail Services Australia

standardising on distribution boards, ensuring adequate spare capacity. The quality process played an important part in this, as constant monitoring of each of the system loads was required. As design development changes became available they were compared with the base design load parameters to ensure the capacity of the system and equipment would not be com prom ised and a reasonable spare capacity would be maintained. As all systems require power, close liaison and coordination with every service involved in the project was essential. 2.6

Signalling Systems

RSA's responsibilities included the design, installation and commissioning of a signalling system based on a 3-minute headway between trains with maximum speeds of 80 km/h between the stations. More specifically, the scope included: •

Provision of the signalling system Provision of inputs and outputs to the train identification and control system Supply and installation of all necessary signalling equipment Provision of cable routes and cabling Supply and installation of prewire cupboards and racks Production of all design, operation and maintenance documentation plans and diagrams, and Testing and commissioning.

RSA was required to provide a fail-safe signalling system with an availability of 99.80% during the first year of operation (99.90% in subsequent years) and a reliability of 98%. This was defined in terms of train arrivals within three minutes of their scheduled arrival times. Because the tunnel has no refuges, the design has been based on the operation of lineside signalling equipment in the tunnel from station Signalling Rooms. External equipment is based on operation from lineside cupboards. RSA's draft Signalling Plan and equipment layouts were produced after the track alignment and gradients had been resolved. As will be appreciated, the alignment and gradients affect braking distances and hence the position of signals, while the track 30.5

alignment affects the kinematic envelope, restricting the location of equipment and cable routes in the tunnel. Following the production of the draft Signalling Plan, the clearances of equipment in the most critical sections (with the tightest radii) were checked and equipment was relocated or modified where necessary to achieve the required clearance. The signalling design was again reviewed after any changes in the track alignment, and necessary changes were again made to the Signalling equipment positions. Integration of the signalling, communications and electrical equipment was achieved through the production of Integrated Service Drawings showing the position of all equipment in the tunnels. The automatic relay-based signalling system developed in this way reflects the stringent availability and reliability requirements of the contract. Key elements of this approach have been the minimisation of the amount of equipment used to achieve the required performance and the selection of highly reliable equipment. The major signalling equipment components selected for use include: •

LED signals CSEE UM71 Oointless) track circuits WBS & Co trainstops WBS & Co relays, and Low-smoke, halogen-free cables. Communications Systems


The communications systems designed and installed by RSA and its subcontractors to support the operation of the NSR include: •

A communication "backbone" comprising optical fibre cable, a transmission system and a data network Telephone systems for fire safety purposes, passenger "help points", train crews and general purposes, and Radio communications for train operations, emergency services and maintenance.


Communications backbone

The communication backbone comprises a high data rate synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) network connecting each station and the telecommunication centre at Central Station. The SDH network communicates via

Conference on Railway Engineering Adelaide, 21-23 May 2000

Mark Harris Rail Services Australia

Rail Fftout of the New Southern Railway - Sydney

optical fibre cable in the NSR tunnel and an alternate route along the lIIawarra line.

train indication/control system (train describer) and a station SCADA system.

Multiplexers for voice and low-speed data circuits and the data network are connected over the SDH network.

Subsystems for the stations include security, fire detection and alarms, emergency warning and intercommunication systems, closed circuit television and passenger information and displays.

The data network provides local area network facilities at stations and a wide area network throughout the NSR for its control systems.


The SDH and data networks have a high level of availability, with automatic reconfiguration to alternate routes and circuits should an equipment fault or cable break occur.

The TICS provides data on the location of trains throughout the NSR and allows signallers to control the departure of trains from stations if required.

The systems are fully managed from a network management computer at the Mascot operations room. Alarms are also sent to the station SCADA system.

The TICS forms one segment of the train describer system for the inner Sydney metropolitan area. This system uses the RSA's Advanced Train Running Information Control System (ATRICS).



The use of discrete telephone systems for specific purposes provides a level of redundancy. The "help points" and fire telephones use a network intercom exchange system at each station. Help points have been provided at each station and fire telephones at each station plant room and throughout the tunnel. Unique features of the system included: •

Interfacing to the station SCADA and CCTV systems, to log help point calls and allow operators to view the help point in use,and Voice recording using optical disk drives with a computer interface for search and playback.


Radio systems

The radio systems provide access to the Metronet train radio, Government radio and Police radio networks throughout the tunnels and stations. Features include: •

The use of graded "leaky" feeder cable in the tunnel to maintain relatively constant signal levels, and The use of radio-over-fibre transmission to interconnect segments of the antenna system.


Control systems

The principal control systems designed and installed by RSA and its subcontractors are a



Train information and control system

Station SCADAsystem

The station SCADA system provides the facilities for monitoring and controlling station and tunnel services, including power, lighting, ventilation, vertical transportation and hydraulics, from the stations and from an operations room at Mascot station. Operator workstations provide access to the station SCADA,TICS and PIDS systems. The station SCADA system is essentially an industrial control system using Australian­ designed Honeywell Planlscape software on networked personal computers and Allen Bradley programmable controllers interfaced to the railway's plant and systems. The station subsystems are interfaced to the station SCADA system to form an integrated station monitoring package, with information on all systems appearing on the station or Mascot operations room workstations. A unique function of the system is train monitoring reporting which captures details of trains delayed en route through the New Southern Railway. This highly integrated control system was designed and installed by Honeywell as an RSA subcontractor. The system design began with the positioning of individual control and monitoring devices throughout the stations, at locations strategically selected to provide maximum functionality while meeting the requirements of all relevant Australian Standards.

Conference on Railway Engineering Adelaide, 21-23 May 2000