RAILWAY ENGINEERING 2009 ABSTRACTS & EXHIBITION SHOW GUIDE

RAILWAY ENGINEERING–2009 10th International Conference & Exhibition ABSTRACTS & EXHIBITION SHOW GUIDE www.railwayengineering.com Railway Engineeri...
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RAILWAY ENGINEERING–2009 10th International Conference & Exhibition

ABSTRACTS & EXHIBITION SHOW GUIDE

www.railwayengineering.com

Railway Engineering–2009 10th International Conference & Exhibition

ABSTRACTS & EXHIBITION SHOW GUIDE 24th – 25th June 2009

Venue: University of Westminster London, UK

Edited by: Professor M.C. Forde, PhD, FREng, FRSE, CEng, FICE, FIET Carillion Chair University of Edinburgh www.railwayengineering.com 

Railway Engineering–2009

First published in June 2009 by ENGINEERING TECHNICS PRESS 46 Cluny Gardens Edinburgh EH10 6BN, UK Tel: +44-(0)131-447 0447 Fax: +44-(0)131-452 8596 www.railwayengineering.com email: [email protected]

ISBN 0-947644-64-4 © The Contributors named in the List of Contents 2009

Printed in Scotland by Meigle Colour Printers Ltd Tweedbank Industrial Estate, Galashiels Tel: +44-(0)1896-753076

www.railwayengineering.com 

Railway Engineering–2009 Conference Advisory Board Dr EOA Awoleye, Trackground Limited, York, UK Dr AN Beard, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK R Becker, Plasser & Theurer, Vienna, Austria Dr MR Clark, Halcrow, Dubai Dr AP de Man, Edilon)( Sedra, Haarlem, The Netherlands Prof M Dhanasekar, QUT, Brisbane, Australia A Doherty, Network Rail, London, UK BM Ede, TTCI, Pueblo, CO, USA Prof MC Forde, University of Edinburgh, UK Dr A Giannopoulos, University of Edinburgh, UK A Green, Carillion plc, Wolverhampton, UK Dr DA Gunn, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, UK Dr K Hrubec, G Impuls, Prague, Czech Republic Dr J Hyslip, Hyground Engineering Inc, Williamsburg, MA, USA Prof E Hohnecker, University of Karlsruhe, Germany J Hugenschmidt, EMPA, Switzerland Dr G Hunt, Delta Rail, Derby, UK Dr T Ishikawa, East Japan Railway Company, Japan CMA Jackson, Railway Gazette International, Sutton, UK Dr J Jaiswal, Corus, Rotherham, UK Dr B Kufver, Ferroplan, Stockholm, Sweden J Lane, Rail Safety & Standards Board, London, UK A Lau, Mass Transit Corporation, Hong Kong, China Prof Q Leiper, Carillion plc, Wolverhampton, UK Dr A Massel, Railway Scientific & Technical Centre, Warsaw, Poland H McAnaw, Metronet Rail BCV, London, UK M Miwa, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan Dr A Reinschmidt, TTCI, Pueblo, CO, USA Dr I Robertson, Alstom, France Dr JG Rose, University of Kentucky, KY, USA A Savage, Rail Accident & Investigation Branch, London, UK Dr W Schoech, Speno International SA, Geneva, Switzerland Prof R Smith, Imperial College, London, UK Dr SD Smith, University of Edinburgh, UK Dr TR Sussman, US DOT, MA, USA MJ Taylor, FaberMaunsell, Beckenham, UK R Winfield, Network Rail, London, UK J Wood, Delta Rail, Derby, UK Dr PK Woodward, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK

www.railwayengineering.com 

CONTENTS Day 1 Theme 1:

Keynote Papers. ................................................................................5 Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance



Management Planning and Operation....................................................9



Increasing Railway Capacity and Costings..........................................17



Railway Design/Alignment/Standards.................................................23



Railway Inspection...............................................................................31



Rail Behaviour.....................................................................................35



Rail Grindinges....................................................................................39



Light Rail: Metros and Trams..............................................................43



Points, Switches, Turnouts...................................................................47



Wheel-Rail-Rolling Stock Interaction – Tilting Trains.......................53

Day 2

Theme 1:

Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed



Signalling.............................................................................................59



Communication Technology................................................................65



Electrification and Lighting.................................................................69



Railway Vehicle Technology and Maintenance..................................77



Sleepers and Ties.................................................................................81



Trackbed and Subgrade Inspection and Monitoring............................89



Ballasted Trackbed...............................................................................95



Ballastless Trackbed..........................................................................101



Geosynthetics in Trackbeds...............................................................107

Theme 2:

Railway Structures and Geotechnics



Masonry Arch Bridges.......................................................................113



Cioncrete Bridges...............................................................................117



Tunnels...............................................................................................121



Earthworks Investigation and Monitoring.........................................125



Earthworks Management...................................................................131



Earthworks Design and Stabilisation.................................................135



Railway Foundations and Drainage...................................................139

Exhibition Showguide.................................................................................................143



Keynote Papers





RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR THE 2030 RAILWAY Roderick A Smith

some pre-specified limit value. Such limits are by their very nature conservative and usually only consider the track in isolation. They do not take into account the dynamic interaction between the vehicle and track. The use of dynamic simulation tools provides the track engineer with the ability to target maintenance where it is most needed, by considering the complete interaction between vehicles and the track. It also allows identification of additional sites where, despite the track being within standard, there is a significant risk of derailment due to an interaction with the vehicle response. Such an approach has the potential to drive a step change in the way track maintenance standards are derived, resulting in: • Optimised track maintenance to minimise derailment risk, • Increased profit with a reduction in unnecessary maintenance, • An improvement in overall ride quality. This paper describes such an innovative approach, and provides an example of how analysis of vehicle track interaction can be used to set track geometry limits through the use of DeltaRail’s VAMPIRE® software. The work, undertaken by DeltaRail, was commissioned by HTM (HTM Personenvervoer NV, with HTM coming from the former name Haagsche Tramweg Maatschappij) who operate a tram system around Den Haag (The Hague) in the Netherlands. The project has involved the development of a tram model, validated against actual test results, and the use of measured track geometry data. This has allowed safety limits to be defined from which intervention and alert limits are derived.

Royal Academy of Engineering/Network Rail Research Professor, Future Rail Research Centre, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2BX, UK [email protected] Keywords: Railways, research, development, longterm.

The meaning of the term research is explored and the nature of research, particularly long-term research, in the railway industry is discussed. The value of research is explored. Trained people are indentified as one of its most important outputs. Some broad programmes of future research are identified, but a conclusion is reached that different countries have different starting points, different ambitions and different resouces for their railways, thus making a universal long-term research plan impossible to define. However, broad themes such as cost reduction, increased safety, improved environmental performance and better passenger interfaces have a clear common resonance. USING VEHICLE DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO CHALLENGE SET TRACK STANDARDS PJ Rogers, ND Sherratt

DeltaRail Group Limited, Hudson House,. 2 Hudson Way, Pride Park, Derby DE24 8HS, UK

PK Wiersma

DeltaRail bv, Postbox 8125, 3503 RC Utrecht, The Netherlands [email protected], [email protected] deltarail.com, [email protected] Keywords: Track geometry, standards, simulation.

The risk of derailment has traditionally been managed by identifying local track defects where the measured track geometry exceeds 



Day 1, Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Management Planning and Operation



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Improvement of Track Maintenance by Continuous Monitoring with Regularly Scheduled High-speed Trains F Erhard, KU Wolter, Dr M Zacher

installed in an ICE 2 high-speed train which is in regular service. In order to guarantee excellence performance of measuring systems in regular service trains, the measuring systems have to be robust during operation because in case of problems no maintenance is possible. Therefore optical measuring systems are not appropriate. The measuring system used by Deutsche Bahn AG is based on acceleration measurements and has been in service since 2004. So far the system has been in operation for more than 2.400.000 kilometre without any failure. Reliable measurement systems, special data processing and new maintenance procedure guarantee the overall business success. Special algorithms for data processing were developed to evaluate the changes of track geometry quality. This is prerequisite for efficient and economical planning of infrastructure maintenance. This approach developed at Deutsche Bahn also provides information regarding to the quality and durability of repair works. Assessment of repair works as well as assessment of the chosen maintenance approach is possible. The paper describes the technical measurement system, how to evaluate measured data and the approach how to enhance overall business performance of track maintenance.

Deutsche Bahn AG, Technik/Beschaffung, DB Systemtechnik, Vehicle-Track-Interaction, Voelckerstrasse 5, 80939 Muenchen, Germany [email protected], klaus-ulrich. [email protected], [email protected] deutschebahn.com Keywords: Tack, quality, maintenance, condition monitoring, infrastructure, RCM, inspection

Usually the majority of the railway companies uses special track recording cars exclusively for the inspection of geometrical track quality. Safety relevant geometrical parameters are measured in fixed time periods depending on speed and track loading. Measured track defects are classified in alert, intervention and immediate action limits. According to the classification different types of action has to be taken by the Infrastructure Manager. High costs and a great effort in planning and carrying out these track inspection with special track recording cars are only some disadvantages of this approach, even this strategy is state of the art. Tracing and predicting of track defects in size and wavelength is only possible if the inspection frequency is sufficiently high or track defects change very slowly. Continuous track monitoring with regularly scheduled trains provide information of track geometry quality as a by-product of train operation in short time intervals. This approach helps to improve track maintenance and to enhance overall business performance of modern railways. Within a research and development project DB Systemtechnik has build up a measuring system for track geometry quality in 2004. This measuring system is 11

THE APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES WITHIN RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS Alexander Finlayson, Andre Hefer

A Scientific Approach to Minimum Actions Dr LSmith

Corus Rail Technologies, Swinden Technology Centre, Moorgate, Rotherham, S60 3AR, UK [email protected]

Ove Arup & Partners International Ltd, The Arup Campus, Blythe Gate, Blythe Valley Park, Solihull, B90 8AE, UK [email protected], [email protected] arup.com

Keywords: Rail, defects, minimum action, safety.

The term ‘minimum action’ is used in the railway industry to define the action that must be taken upon discovery of rail defects in track. These minimum actions are primarily based on custom, practice and experience in the rail industry. Greater network demands due to increased traffic density, axle loads and changes in vehicle design require a more scientific approach to Minimum Actions. Corus Rail Technologies (CRT) has developed a method designed to provide a more scientific basis to Minimum Actions called the Critical Defect Size Model (CDSM). The CDSM is an analytical model that is capable of predicting the fatigue in rail under specified cyclic loading conditions for the evaluation of minimum action rules. The model can take a number of different variables into account such as changes in traffic patterns, rail metallurgy and track construction. A scientific approach to minimum actions will provide benefit through a reduction in risk and cost associated with management of track defects. A review of significant changes in track duty (i.e. higher axle loads) will allow a more predictive approach to infrastructure management and will permit a move from unplanned maintenance to planned maintenance. This paper presents a brief introduction to the CDSM method and the development work undertaken to introduce variability into the model as a method of giving a scientific basis to Minimum Actions.

Keywords: Systems, integration, assurance, infrastructure, multi-disciplinary.

The modern day dynamics of multi disciplinary projects requires an integrated design solution from the outset, where the designer may be working towards compliance with performance based standards and the requirement to deliver a safe and operational railway. The continued advancement of technologies and the need for a greater number of systems to work as an integrated unit, forces designers to take into account systems engineering to a level not required in the past. This type of thinking and behaviour has led to the adoption of systems engineering tools and techniques to be applied to railway projects, in order to demonstrate a level of rigour has been applied to the project via compliance with standards and legislation. This paper will explore the tools and techniques that Arup have deployed across a number of multi-disciplinary projects that we are currently engaged on. It will address the whole lifecycle of the project, from the initial conceptual stages and requirements management through to the decommissioning and disposal of life expired assets.

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A RISK-BASED MAINTENANCE DECISION MAKING SYSTEM FOR RAILWAY ASSET MANAGEMENT Dr Min An, Dr Sheng Huang, Professor Chris Baker

process. This paper presents a risk-based maintenance decision making model by using MCDM techniques which synthesizes the risk and cost models to produce the preference degree of each maintenance option. Once preference degrees of all maintenance options in hand are produced, the best option can be chosen. In this model, both the risk associated with a railway asset and the costs incurred in each maintenance option are mapped onto a utility space and assessed in accordance with the respective constraints. The proposed decision making model could be an effective tool to get a better understanding of risks associated with railway assets and to make better maintenance decisions at the right time for managing the risks under various conditions. An illustrative example is used to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

The University of Birmingham, Safety and Reliability Management Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Risk assessment, maintenance cost, railway asset management, multi-criteria decision making.

Railway risk analysis is a process that can be divided into four phases: problem definition phase, hazard identification phase, risk estimation phase and risk response phase. Any risk information produced from risk assessment may be used through the risk response to assist risk analysts, engineers and managers for making maintenance and future investment decision purposes. If risks are high, risk reduction measures must be applied or the maintenance work has to be considered to reduce the occurrence probabilities or to control the possible consequences. If risks are negligible, no actions are required but the information produced needs to be recorded for audit purpose. However, the acceptable and unacceptable regions are usually divided by a transition region. Risks that fall in this transition region need to be reduced to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). In other words, ‘cost-effective’ should be applied. In this case, a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach which usually involves optimisation techniques, may solve the problem when cost and safety are taken into account in the decision making process. The literature search indicates that traditional cost-benefit analysis based on simple comparisons cannot be applied to the above

ENHANCED DECISION SUPPORT FOR RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE Pietro Pace, Piero Cosoli

MER MEC Group, Advanced Services Business Unit, Via Oberdan, 70 Monopoli, 70043, Italy [email protected], [email protected] mermecgroup.com Keywords: Condition-based maintenance management, decision support, planning.

Effective and efficient decision support for Railway Infrastructure Maintenance requires a great amount of data and proper systems in place that would efficiently integrate all the data and processes, and make the right information available to all the involved users in the suitable manner. These data and processed involves several highly interrelated aspects such as Infrastructure Monitoring, Railroad Engineering and Information Systems. The availability of data (diagnostic, operational, economical, etc.) and 13

this is generally achieved in the planning phase by undertaking risk assessments and providing method statements. Method statements rely, in part, on subjective experiences and tacit knowledge of those involved in authoring and approving these, usually, paper documents. A model to enhance the hazard identification and risk mitigation aspects of method statements preparation is proposed, developed through collating and storing previous existing knowledge and then extracting the most appropriate solution for a new scenario. This model has been developed using Case Based Reasoning and incorporated into a Tool at the University of Edinburgh in collaboration with Carillion Transport. The ultimate aim will be the deployment of the Tool to those working on transportation construction and maintenance tasks ‘in the field’ to allow them to develop enhanced method statements that consider hazards appropriate to the tasks being undertaken. The main advantage of CBR is the transparency it offers to the Tool, along with the ability to continually learn and calibrate itself with user interactions. This is in direct contrast to Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology which is ‘black box’ and therefore not transparent to the end user. By using Case Based Reasoning methodology the Tool aims to reduce the time and effort of skilled resources ‘reinventing the wheel’. A case study using real method statements from a rail project is presented.

reasoning tools play a crucial role in this context. Nowadays more and more data are collected in automatic way from a wide range of diagnostic systems as well as data forms running on PDAs or laptops used on the field. When data are collected, they are used for planning and control purposes adopting several tools (ranging from simple spreadsheets to more comprehensive software applications). The paper will first discuss in general the issues involved in the introduction of an information system for maintenance decision support, then it will illustrate a rule-based method to assess asset conditions and identify the next maintenance actions as well as their priority. This and similar methods are adopted by many railways worldwide. Specific cases for maintenance of the track and overhead line will be presented and benefits of such method will be discussed. SAFETY HAZARD MANAGEMENT USING CASE BASED REASONING Jennifer M Campbell

Scott Wilson Railways Limited, Citypoint 2, 25 Tyndrum Street, Glasgow, G4 0JY, UK

Simon D Smith, Michael C Forde

University of Edinburgh, Institute for Infrastructure & Environment, School of Engineering, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK

Adam Green

Carillion plc, 24 Birch Street, Wolvrhampton, WV1 4HY, UK [email protected] [email protected] Keywords: Safety, hazard management, case based reasoning, maintenance, construction.

A transformative approach to railway engineering safety is outlined, using a new procedure called Case Based Reasoning. All employers in the UK have a legal and moral responsibility to provide a safe system of work for their workforce. In transportation maintenance and construction 14

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN RAILWAYS Dr Michael Burrow, Dr Gurmel Ghataora, Dr Clive Roberts, Narinder Bains

21st CENTURY: A CENTURY OF RAILWAYS RK Upadhyay Rail Wheel Factory, Bangalore, India

Manu Goel

University of Birmingham, Centre for Railway Research and Education, Birmingham, UK

Indian Railway Organistion for Alternate Fuels, New Delhi, India [email protected], [email protected] gmail.com

[email protected], [email protected] bham.ac.uk, [email protected], [email protected] bham.ac.uk, [email protected]

Keywords: Emission, CNG, bio-diesel, slag, railcum-road vehicle.

Mike Clarke Advantage West Midlands

If Autobahns and Motorways made twentieth century a century of ‘Roads’, low energy consumption, low emission, high speed and low space requirements can make twenty first century, a century of ‘Railways’. Railway Research should facilitate this by making High Speed cheaper and finding better solutions to door to door delivery of goods and passengers. Burgeoning population in Asia and Africa needs Metros and commuter train services urgently as Western car based solution is not suitable. Some of the air craft technologies can be gainfully used. High speed trams, lighter coaches, cheaper metros, use of fly ash and slag for construction of railways, could be other areas needing technical solutions.

Keywords: Technology transfer.

It is widely understood that the transfer of technology from the research base to industry plays an important role in stimulating economic growth. In recognition of this Advantage West Midlands, the West Midland’s regional development agency, has funded a project, known as Technology Transfer in Railways (TRAIL), to help promote technology transfer between the region’s research base and the railway industry. In just over two years, the TRAIL project has assisted nearly 50 companies by a variety of means including: providing technology support; developing and testing products; organising focused workshops and seminars, and; securing funding for companies to carry out research and development. This paper describes the project’s inception, the way in which it was delivered and its successes. Two case studies are given to illustrate the work carried out.

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Increasing Railway Capacity and Costings

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AGENT BASED CONTROL DELIVERS MORE BANG PER BUCK Derek Collins

VALIDATION OF A SIMULATION MODEL FOR MIXED TRAFFIC ON A SWEDISH DOUBLE-TRACK RAILWAY LINE O. Lindfeld, H. Sipilä

Ansaldo STS UK Ltd, Bravington House, Kings Cross, London, N1 9AF, UK [email protected]

Royal Institute of Technology, Transport and Economics, Teknikringen 72, 100 44 Stockholm,. Sweden [email protected], [email protected]

Keywords: Optimising planning control

While in a few cases new track is the only answer to capacity increase, gains of the order 20% from investment in more effective control systems can present compelling investment business case. Conventional control systems apply simple rule based approaches to prioritise train movement across a network. Even the best current control systems still leave significant train and infrastructure capability unexploited. This ‘unused capability’ is often seen as necessary to delivery of a robust timetable. This judgement needs to be re-examined in terms of the impact of new train scheduling tools that work in real time to improve control centre performance ‘on the fly’. Increased computational capability now permits concurrent calculation of multiple timetable optimisations – and selection of the best against complex performance criteria. Further advantage is gained from the ability to fully exploit infrastructure capabilities such as for bi-directional operation. Better use is made of timetable white space – with the outcome that less of it is needed in the base timetable. The result is more capacity / better on-time performance without spend on major asset upgrades. The paper includes preliminary results from specific US systems investment.

Keywords: Validation, mixed railway traffic, simulation, double-track, railway operation.

Simulation is an appropriate method of modelling complex railway operation systems. In a simulation tool it is possible to model interactions between trains and the delay propagation that follows on conflicts. This study describes a process for calibrating/validating a simulation model set up in the commercial simulation tool RailSys. Response Surface Methodology is applied for a simultaneously calibration of seven factors. Latin Hypercubes are used as the experimental design since they support complex response surface metamodels. The simulation model’s ability to react accurately to different operational conditions is tested. Two different traffic mixes are modelled and the validation is performed on a significantly different delay level (magnitude of disturbance). The results show that it is possible to calibrate the model merely by adjusting the chosen factors and that these factors can compensate for simplifications made when the model was being set up. Simulated responses (mean and standard deviation measures) were compared to the real outcome and the relative differences were 2-19%. The validation generally showed greater differences.

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COMPARING THE INCOMPARABLE COST STRUCTURES OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Reinhold Schröter

Under these premises, any given transportation system can be analyzed completely in its overall costs. THE ENGINEERING ISSUES OF TRAM-TRAINS Prof Lewis Lesley

Stuttgarter Strassenbahnen AG, Schockenriedstrasse 50, D-70565 Stuttgart, Germany [email protected]

Technical Director, TRAM Power Ltd, 99 Stanley Road, Liverpool L20 7DA, UK [email protected]

Keywords: Transportation system planning, cost structure, cost comparison, cost estimation, modelling of cost structures, light rail operation, bus system operation, LCC.

Keywords: Tram, train, tramways, railways, interoperation, interfaces, standards, DDA.

In a liberalized market, an impartial cost analysis is vital to operators and authorities alike. Yet there is no comprehensive method to provide a complete cost analysis of entire transportation systems. Various approaches towards cost analysis exist, such as accounting, costbenefit analyses, and public tenders. They are set up to provide a certain answer to a certain question. They do not allow a neutral, overall cost comparison between different transportation systems, despite fact that there is a growing demand for answers to questions such as: Is a bus service really cheaper than a tramway of equal performance? This essay will propose a systematic method to • analyze a given transport system • in all its components, • with respect to a given transport task, • within a given area and within a given period of time, • in terms of its cost structures, • by means of a comprehensive method. This requires • comparability, • equality in structure, • distinction between the ‘system’ and its ‘transport task’, • distinction between ‘cost’, ‘price’, and ‘revenue’.

The proposed tram-train trial in the UK is an opportunity to review the major (operating) differences between tramways and railways, each having developed over 150 years along different tracks. Some of the problems to be faced in the UK are different from those faced and resolved by over 20 years of successful operations in Germany, France, Holland, Canada and the USA. The paper will consider tracks, stations, power supply, vehicles and the DDA. RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE IN REPUBLIC OF SERBIA: ACCESSIBILITY FOR PERSONS WITH REDUCED MOBILITY Dr Zdenka Popovic, Leposava Puzavac

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia

Dr Darko Plamenac

Advanced School of Civil Engineering & Geodesy, Hajduk Stanka 2, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Railway infrastructure, interoperability, accessibility, people with reduced mobility.

The European Union has enacted various legislative measures aimed at achieving the opening up, integration and harmonization of national railways to form a European railway network. One of the essential preconditions 20

for the integration of the Serbian Railways with those of the European Union is to approximate Serbia’s railway regulations and standards to those of the EU. The Railway modernization project is a strategic project for the development of transport infrastructure in the Republic of Serbia and connecting it to the European network. The project covers the railway lines in the European Corridor X that runs through Republic of Serbia and interconnects the railway routes of Central and Easter Europe with the Middle East and the Adriatic Sea. Among other things harmonizing includes accessibility of railway infrastructure for persons with reduced mobility. The paper explores conditions for implementation of ‘Technical Specification for Interoperability – People with Reduced Mobility’ on Serbian Railways. This contribution reports on some of the experience acquired to date in undertaking measures and activities to bring about the technical standardization of the Serbian railway infrastructure and it also presents those measures that are consequently still needed to that end.

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Railway Design/Alignment/Standards

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CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE CEN STANDARD FOR PLAIN LINE ALIGNMENTS Dr Björn Kufver

reduction) system as a function integrated track system. It is shown that that an embedded rail system with sound absorbing plant-based track surface and an integrated LSB has definite acoustic advantages compared to a standard ballast and most slab track systems, both with respect to ground-borne vibration and airborne noise emission protection. The acoustic advantages of an ERS are particularly pronounced in the case of railway bridges. The continuous elastic rail support of an ERS does not lead to discrete support frequency excitations, which are the main cause of noise emissions from standard bridges. Finally, a railway network with integrated sensors may be useful for earthquake early warning and permanent infrastructure monitoring purposes. The different track components discussed here are not merely a collection of disjointed parts but all parts should be viewed as intricately connected both in structure and function.

Ferroplan, Fasangatan 32, 582 37 Linköping, Sweden

Ola Rydell

Vectura, Box 46, 171 11 Solna, Sweden [email protected], [email protected] vectura.se Keywords: Alignment, plain line, CEN, European standards, prEN 13803-1.

The work of European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Working Group TC256/SC1/WG15, concerns alignment standards. In 2006, prEN 13803-1 (Railway applications – Track alignment design parameters – Track gauges 1435 mm and wider – Part 1: Plain line) was sent for enquiry. From the CEN members, the national standardisation bodies of 28 countries, about 500 technical and editorial comments were received. WG15 then produced a revised draft standard, which was sent for a second enquiry. After further modifications, a final draft of prEN 13803-1 (2008) has been produced for formal vote. The present paper discusses certain parts of prEN 13803-1 (2008), such as line categories, traffic categories, cant deficiency, cant excess, tilting trains, etc.

Manifesto for a Model Railway Mark G Eaden

Mott MacDonald Railways, St Anne House, Wellesley Road, Croydon, CR9 2UL, UK [email protected]

FUNCTION INTEGRATED TRACK SYSTEM Professor Eberhard Hohnecker

Keywords: 3D modelling, 4D, visualisation, simulation.

This paper is a declaration of the principles for presentation of railway infrastructure designs. It describes the use of various design and modelling techniques applicable to railway design, from three dimensional modelling to the simulation of train and passenger movements. It will address the esoteric issues of schematic representation of design concepts and their relationship to the built environment.

University of Karlsruhe (TH), Department of Railway Systems, Institute for Road and Railway Engineering, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany [email protected] Keywords: Acoustic, vibrations, embedded track.

The paper reviews recent developments and designing the FiL-Rail (Funktionsintegrierte Lärmreduktion = function integrated noise 25

A NEW STANDARD FOR STATIC AND DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT OF RAILWAY TRACK SYSTEMS VIA NUMERICAL ANALYSES, LABORATORY TESTS AND INSITU MEASUREMENTS Marco Acquati

The paper discusses the difficulties associated with bringing change to existing systems and the need for robust control of source records and survey at the beginning of a project in order to provide strong foundations upon which a project may be developed. Rules for data management at various stages of the project will be key to managing requirements throughout the project lifecycle. The ability to model the railway accurately and efficiently will bring great dividends in terms of reduced risk and increased certainty, and along with this will come obvious financial rewards. The paper is based upon recent projects and developments by the Author and others working to improve the quality of design on UK railway projects. The paper looks to the past, present and future to lay down a framework for the application of such techniques as an engineering tool through design, implementation and operation of a railway project.

Metropolitana Milanese SpA, Via del Vecchio Politecnico, 8, 20121, Milano, Italy

Giancarlo Bono

Studio Tecnico ing. Bono, Via Provinciale, 6/A, 23843, Dolzago (LC), Italy

Aldo Castoldi

P&P Consulting Engineers, Via Pastrengo, 9, 24068 Seriate (BG), Italy

Paolo Pezzoli

INDAPRO srl, Via Luigi Einaudi, 3, 24066 Pedrengo (BG), Italy [email protected], [email protected] virgilio.it, [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Railway, tramway, metro, track, modelling, test, standard.

More and more frequently, the need of vibration mitigation induced by railways, tramways and metros demands for the use of complex trackforms, characterised by innovative materials, components and laying technologies. Whilst on the one hand, we have recently gained useful standardised tools for the test of track components (see the EN series 13230 and 13481), on the other hand, we still suffer from a shortage of standards to test and design the whole trackform. In UNI (Italian Standardisation Body) we have tried to fill this shortage, developing a fully-comprehensive standard for the assessment of the static and dynamic behaviour of railway/metro/tramway track systems. The standard covers the general criteria for the design, qualification and verification on service of a trackform. The standard is composed by 4 parts. Part 1 contains a description of the constitutional components of a trackform and defines the 26

modular system providing track geometry information capable of being sent direct to the desktop with the option of deriving further benefits by using TrackMaster™ and VAMPIRE® to optimise track maintenance management around fleet and environment conditions. This paper describes how TracklineTwo™ can be used on inservice fleets to produce an optimised track maintenance solution to drive down the cost of maintenance activities, whilst increasing effectiveness and longevity of the maintenance undertaken.

parameters to be considered. Part 2 provides the criteria for a mathematical modelling. Part 3 and Part 4 provide respectively the procedures for laboratory and in-situ testing. This paper summarises the main characteristics of this new standard, with part of the choices that have brought to the final result. TRACKLINETWO – A STEP CHANGE IN MEASUREMENT OF TRACK GEOMETRY Dr A Powell, S King, EMA Chillingworth

DeltaRail Group Ltd, Hudson House, 2 Hudson Way, Pride Park, Derby, DE24 8HS, UK [email protected], [email protected] deltarail.com, [email protected] com

MANAGEMENT OF LARGE LATERAL FORCE EXCITED IN SHARP CURVES USING LATERAL AXLE-BOX ACCELERATION and TRACK IRREGULARITY Hirofumi Tanaka, Dr Atsushi Furukawa

Keywords: Track geometry measurement

Compliance with track standards and control of maintenance costs is a critical aspect of the management of railway networks. The starting point for track management is an understanding of its existing geometry. Increases in the quality of this data and the frequency of its collection enable improved analysis and informed decision making on the part of the permanent way engineer. The unattended collection of track geometry data from in-service trains provides frequent data collection with real time alerts to support detailed analysis and enhance the information available. DeltaRail’s TracklineTwo™ track geometry measurement system has been developed to provide a cost-effective, unobtrusive acquisition system suitable for use on the broadest possible range of rail vehicles and networks, from a tram to a TGV. A step change in data acquisition through innovation and the latest technology has enabled DeltaRail to develop a

Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Lateral axle-box acceleration, large lateral force, track irregularity, rail joint, frequency response method.

Very large lateral forces are frequently generated by short-wavelength track irregularities at the rail joints in sharp curves that are referred to as lateral angular bent. They have a significant effect on the deterioration of the track material and necessitate additional track maintenance. However, it is difficult to measure shortwavelength track irregularities with the 10m-chord versine system which is installed in track geometry cars adopted to monitor track irregularities. Considering such a background, in this paper, we examined a technique to estimate the large lateral forces generated at the rail joints in sharp curves from the viewpoint of the management of lateral 27

a heavy haul line identified how the rate of deterioration of vertical track geometry increases in proportion to the roughness of the track, as does the magnitude of vertical wheel/rail forces. An analysis of the spectrum of wheel/rail forces and track geometry wavelengths showed no forcevibrations above about 30Hz and that these low frequencies were being driven directly by long wavelengths present in the track. A direct relationship is derived between the amplitude of vibration of the forces and the rate of deterioration of the geometry of the track. The paper shows how the rate of increase in track condition indices was directly proportional to magnitude of those indices at the test site.

force. A lateral force variation is estimated from lateral axle-box acceleration and track irregularity by using the frequency response method. A quasi-static lateral force is estimated from the estimation equations for Lateral-Force/Wheel-Load. We proposed a technique to presume the lateral force waveform and large lateral forces in the curve by superposing these two estimated waveforms. Finally, through the comparison with measurement results, we verified that the large lateral force could be estimated with high accuracy by the technique proposed in this paper. TRACK FORCES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO DEGRADATION OF TRACK GEOMETRY Dr Martin H Murray

ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY (PSD) OF TRACK IRREGULARITY ON THE EXISTING RAILWAY LINES Dr XB Liu, DS Chen, Dr WD Wang

Queensland University of Technology, School of Urban Development, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane,

Queensland, 4001, Australia Dr Haitham Hawari

Queensland Rail, Track and Civil Systems, QR Network, GPO Box 1429, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001, Australia [email protected], [email protected] qr.com.au

Infrastructure Inspection Center, China Academy of Railway Sciences, No.2, Daliushu Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China, PC 100081 [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] rails.com.cn

Keywords: Track, degradation, wheel-rail force, track geometry, track condition.

Keywords: PSD of track irregularity, outlier, zero mean normalization, median of power spectral density, chi-square contribution.

Rectification of roughness in track geometry is a major item in a track owner’s maintenance budget. The quality of the alignment of track degrades with every passing train and requires constant monitoring and regular intervention. There are environmental factors contributing to this degradation, but the main cause is the combination of static and dynamic wheel/ rail forces generated by passing trains. The relationship between these forces and track degradation is the focus of this paper. A study conducted by Queensland Rail and Queensland University of Technology on

To improve the calculation accuracy of PSD of track irregularities, an elimination method of outliers and a zero mean normalization method of track irregularities are given and used in the data preprocessing of track irregularities on the existing railway lines. The elimination method of outliers is based on the change rate of track irregularities and the method of linear interpolation, and the method of wavelet analysis is used for the zero mean normalization method of track irregularities. After the preprocessing of track irregularities, the PSD of track 28

for vehicle acceptance. The possibility of using such software for determining track geometry standards has also been investigated. The influence of track defects on the behaviour of a TGV, running at different speeds and in various conditions, has been analysed for different criteria of defects such as amplitude, wavelength and shape. The study shows that current track geometry standards appropriately cover the studied cases in spite of results close to the limit for very-short-length defects. Moreover, defect wavelength and shape both seem to be important factors in vehicle dynamics. This study has also helped to define a new method to update track geometry standards (V > 220kph) and to explore needs for a new very high-speed standard (V > 300kph).

irregularities of the existing railway lines is calculated by using the FFT method. The statistic and analysis result indicates that the PSD of track irregularities of the existing railway lines obeys a chi-square contribution with 2 degrees of freedom and can be described by using the median of PSD. The PSD of track irregularities of three different speed classes of the existing railway lines is calculated and compared. The PSD of track irregularities can characterize the track status, The PSD of track irregularities of the 250km/h speed lines is lower than The PSD of track irregularities of the 200km/h and 160km/h speed lines. EVALUATION OF TRACK GEOMETRY STANDARDS BY NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS PROPOSAL FOR EVOLUTIONS Dr V Bourgoin, F Coudert

SNCF – Engineering Division, Track Design Department (IGEV), 6 avenue François Mitterrand, 93574 La Plaine Saint-Denis Cedex, France [email protected], [email protected] sncf.fr Keywords: Simulation software, track geometry standards, railway vehicle dynamics, high speed.

Track geometry standards have been enforced for more than ten years in the French Railway Network. Limit values were derived from experience, and up to now they remain a good guarantee of train running safety. The very high speed intensive commercial circulation (V > 300kph) on long distance on high-speed lines as well as the advent of new types of vehicle could require determining limit values adapted to these new conditions. The study consists of using vehicle simulation software for evaluating the consistency between the current track geometry standards and the safety criteria 29

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Rail Inspection

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MONITORING RAIL CORRUGATION IN THE MILEAGEWAVELENGTH DOMAIN USING THE ARCAP METHOD Dr C Hory, Dr L Bouillaut, Dr P Aknin

of the corrugation pattern. Both the depth and frequency of each mode are accurately estimated along mileage. The ARCAP method outperforms the standard mileage or wavelength domain methods in localizing and characterizing corrugation.

Laboratoire des Technologies Nouvelles (LTN), Institut National de la Recherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité (INRETS), 2, rue de la Butte Verte, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex, France

MEASUREMENT and ANALYSIS OF MID WAVELENGTH RAIL IRREGULARITY Professor A Bracciali, Dr F Piccioli, T De Cicco

S Bondeux

VOIE-Equipemet des Systèmes de Transports, Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), 50, rue Roger Salengro, 94724 Fontenay-sous-Bois Cedex, France [email protected], [email protected]

Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Meccanica e Tecnologie Industriali, via Santa Marta 3,

50139 Firenze, Italy

Keywords: Rail, corrugation, monitoring.

[email protected], [email protected] it, [email protected]

Rail corrugation is an oscillatory wear of rail surface due to the interaction between rail and wheel. Standard signal processing approaches to corrugation monitoring, as devised in the European standards and in use in railway networks, are designed in the mileage or wavelength domain. Time-frequency analysis computes the energy distribution of the signal in the joint time and frequency domains. Such a representation highlights the time-evolving characteristics of the analysed signal. Timefrequency methods are thus particularly suited to the analysis of non-stationary signals. We propose here to perform a time-frequency based diagnosis of rail corrugation. Mileage is processed in lieu of time and spatial wavelength is processed in lieu of frequency. This approach provides an easy-to-read map of the corrugation modes evolution with mileage. We put a particular emphasis on the so-called ARCAP method. This method assumes a model of the corrugation data as a sum of sinusoids. Such a model is well fitted to the data. This assumption allows thus for a highly efficient modal analysis

Keywords: Railhead irregularity, groundborne vibrations, mid wavelength.

Groundborne vibrations are becoming more and more important as train speed increases. Longer wavelength rail and track defects are excited at such velocities and lead to potentially unacceptable annoyance also at long distances from the railway line. The paper critically compares European Standards currently in force on rail irregularity measurements and describes the results obtained extending the range of a trolley typically used only for short wavelengths assessment (related to noise). The practical possibility to measure comfortably wavelengths up to 3 m will be shown.

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NEW DEVELOPMENTS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE RAIL TESTING T Heckel, Dr H-M Thomas

BAM VIII.4, Federal Institute for Materials, Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin, Germany

S Rühe

PLR Prüftechnik Linke & Rühe, Altenhäuser Straße 6, 39126 Magdeburg, Germany [email protected], Hans-Martin. [email protected], [email protected] de Keywords: NDT, inspection, ultrasound, eddy current, signal processing .

To guarantee the safe operation of rail traffic non-destructive inspection techniques with ultrasound and eddy current testing methods are used to detect damages on rails. Today the rails face increased exposure to heavy loads, higher speeds and a very dense overall traffic. A continued development of testing methods for the rail inspection trains became necessary to match the modern needs for a fast detection and detailed classification of defects. One of the main actual challenges of automated rail testing is the high inspection speed up to more than 60 km/h. For ultrasonic testing methods this speed is very close to the physical limits. To overcome these limits digital signal processing algorithms have to be used which maintain resolution and detection quality independent of operation speed. This paper presents a recently developed state of the art rail inspection system which uses advanced and combined ultrasonic and eddy current testing techniques. Testing results are shown in a newly developed so called Glassy-Rail-Diagram which presents data with a fixed resolution independent of inspection speed.

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Rail Behaviour

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MAPS-SFT – A New Approach to the Management of Stress Free Temperature in CWR Alan Hayes, Geoff Eckold

WEAR AND RCF BEHAVIOUR OF CONVENTIONAL AND HARD RAILS IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS Professor A Bracciali, Dr F Piccioli, T De Cicco

Keywords: Stress free temperature, buckling, integrity management.

Keywords: Rail, wear.

MAPS Technology Ltd, 16 North Central 127, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4SA, UK [email protected], geoff. [email protected]

Dipartimento di Meccanica e Tecnologie Industriali, Università di Firenze, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Firenze [email protected], [email protected] it, [email protected]

Automated measurements made with specialized measuring cars allow to get a large number of reliable data at short intervals over long distances on many infrastructure parameters. The correlation of rail wear with traffic indicators (MGT or time) is shown in this paper, leading to important optimisation considerations that may dramatically reduce maintenance costs. The implications on data processing and trackworks organization are analysed in for two main lines. RCF defects are analysed as well.

Ensuring that the stress free temperature (SFT), and hence rail stress, in CWR is within required specification is a major challenge in the management of rail system integrity. Failure to maintain the correct levels of rail stress has a significant impact on system availability, especially in regions where there are large seasonal changes in ambient temperature. Current approaches to SFT measurement have inherent limitations. They are intrusive, and therefore require a track possession, and are constrained in terms of where and when measurements can be taken. The absence of an approach that allows SFT measurement on a routine basis places a severe restriction on the ability of a rail operator to manage this important aspect of system performance.

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Rail Grinding

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High Speed Grinding Preventative Rail Care Marcel Taubert, Dr Konstantin von Diest, Aiko Püschel

Stahlberg Roensch GmbH & Co. KG, Reller 28, 21079 Hamburg, Germany [email protected] Keywords: Rail grinding, high speed, rolling contact fatigue.

In the last two decades, railway network operators around the world have been experiencing growing problems with rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rails. Head checks, squats and other surface defects shorten rail life, increase noise emissions and lead to obstruction of rail traffic. All of this increases the need for rail maintenance, while at the same time the steadily growing traffic density reduces the amount of time available for it. As a solution to these challenges, Stahlberg Roensch GmbH & Co. KG from Seevetal, Germany, has developed a unique grinding method called High Speed Grinding (HSG). The patented technology allows for working speeds of up to 80 km/ h, making it possible to provide rail care without disrupting traffic. The machine is deployed within regular traffic, eliminating the need for a track closure. Periodic use of the system prevents RCF, keeps the rail’s profile in good condition and extends the rail’s life span due to the timely removal its fatigued surface layer. The HSG principle has been implemented in two machines, RC01 and HSG light. It has been in commercial use on various Deutsche Bahn tracks since the autumn of 2007, and results so far show that the machine stops RCF growths, removes or reduces corrugation and optimises the longitudinal profile of the rail.

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Light Rail: Metros and Trams

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TRACKWORK RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, MAINTAINABILITY AND SAFETY (RAMS) STUDY FOR A METRO PROJECT Dr M Acquati, G Garlone

INTEGRATING A MODERN TRAM INTO A HISTORIC CITY Scott M Ney

Parsons Brinckerhoff, 65 Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh EH12 5HD, UK [email protected]

Metropolitana Milanese SpA, Via del Vecchio Politecnico, 8, 20121, Milano, Italy

Keywords: Light rail, tram.

Modern trams are a ‘green’ alternative that can enhance transportation systems in the future to meet the demands of our growing urban areas. There are several technical challenges in implementing a new tram system into any existing city. In the case of Edinburgh, not only must the technical challenges be met but the modern tram system must also be integrated into the historic streetscape of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. St. Andrew Square, a key space in the historic City Centre of Edinburgh, has proven to be a unique challenge in balancing the technical and planning requirements, while maintaining and enhancing both the urban setting and transportation system in coordination with other local projects. This paper presents the design development of the space called St. Andrew Square. Highlighted will be the balance reached of meeting the technical requirements and geometric constraints, while at the same time meeting the challenges for place making, the wider transportation network, and minimizing the aesthetic impacts through this highly important and visible space at the heart of the World Heritage Site.

Dr C Venturino, G Bolla Pittaluga

D’Appolonia SpA, Via San Nazaro, 19, 16145, Genova, Italy [email protected], [email protected] metropolitanamilanese.it, [email protected] dappolonia.it, [email protected] Keywords: Trackwork, RAM, safety, failure, functionality, SIL.

Modern metro projects require for trackwork a thorough RAM analysis and Safety certification process in compliance with EN50126, EN50129. Any track component is specified, procured, and designed to its functional requirement – i.e. to guide the train safely through the designed alignment, as well as to reduce service disruptions through high reliability and adequate preventive maintenance and inspections. In fact, the unavailability of a track section, even for a short stretch of time, can have negative consequences on the whole service. This is in particular valid for a metro line, where, compared to railway, alternative train routes barely exist and the access to the track for repair is not easy. This paper describes for trackwork, the project organisation, the reliability and availability predictions, the maintenance analysis and the hazard analysis aimed to comply with tight RAM and Safety Integrity Level (SIL) requirements.

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LIGHT RAIL OPERATION d’après BOSTRAB CHALLENGES FOR THE INFRASTRUCTURE Reinhold Schröter

ENGINEERING NEW LIGHT RAIL SCHEMES – SOME CASE STUDIES Professor Lewis Lesley

Technical Director, TRAM Power Ltd, 99 Stanley Road, Liverpool L20 7DA, UK [email protected]

Stuttgarter Strassenbahnen AG, Schockenriedstrasse 50, D-70565 Stuttgart, Germany [email protected]

Keywords: Trams, tracks, embedment, power supply, OHL.

Keywords: Light rail operation, BOStrab, infrastructure planning, infrastructure operating.

Delivering practical, affordable and environmentally friendly light rail schemes requires considerable engineering interfaces, to ensure that the vehicles get the best from the infrastructure, passengers are offered safe and comfortable services and the infrastructure with minimum maintenance at a low capital cost ? This paper looks at the interface challenges of bringing these together to make practical schemes. At previous Railway Engineering Conferences, papers have been presented on the City Class light rail vehicle, the LR55 track and a simplified OHL catenary. As importantly are the problems found in real towns and cities to insert new systems without significantly disrupting the urban economy. This paper develops the interface issues, with practical examples from real projects being developed in the UK and overseas. This includes the adaptation of abandoned or little used heavy railways.

BOStrab is the German Act on Building and Operating Light Rail Systems. Its first version was set up in 1937. Since then, BOStrab was rewritten several times and by now has matured to a thoroughly consistent and comprehensive set of regulations, comprising legal settings, technical rules, and operational recommendations alike. BOStrab focuses on the function of a system rather than on a particular design. Thus, it provides an utmost of flexibility without being lax. The current version of BOStrab (originating from 1987) has been applied in several European Light Rail projects as the set of regulating rules, thus making knowledge in the BOStrab way of thinking helpful for international planners and contractors alike. This lecture will give a brief outline of BOStrab as a set of rules. It will delineate its functioning and its prerequisites, both in administrative and operational terms. Key terms and requirements will be explained. Special attention will be given to the demands on infrastructure, particularly to • permanent way planning with respect to interdependencies, that is considering • mutual influences between vehicle and permanent way, especially • rail-wheel interaction (gauging), • standards of maintenance, • organisational requirements for planning, building, and operating LRT infrastructure to BOStrab standards.

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Points, Switches, Turnouts

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SWITCH AND TURNOUT DESIGN FOR A RELIABLE RAILWAY David Bateman

TMS - TURNOUT and TRACK MEASUREMENT SYSTEM Dr Janusz Madejski

Interfleet Technology, 9a Devonshire Square, London EC2M 4YN, UK [email protected]

GRAW, ul. Karola Miarki 12, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland; Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ul. Konarskiego 18a, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland [email protected]

Keywords: Flexing, toe opening, switch system, force, stretcher bar, friction, cross-section profile.

Keywords: Turnout geometry, track geometry, turnout diagnostics, GPS, condition assessment.

The interface between the rail and wheel tends to treated in the industry as an issue of minor importance which can be left to take care of itself. In instances where the wheel / rail interface has been left to individual groups to manage, the performance and reliability has been poor, especially at turnouts. The process of determining switch component and wheel/rail interaction is retained by a few knowledgeable engineers who know ‘the requirements’. Experience of how components fit and operate, together with wheel/rail behaviour is essential in designs and manufactured turnouts. It has also been recognised that non ideal installation of turnouts also introduces significant challenges to providing reliable operation over the long term. Recent development and improvements to switch drive mechanisms must be matched by improvements to permanent way elements of turnouts. Considerable research has provided detail knowledge of turnouts that requires to be translated into better performing installed turnouts delivering reliability and reduced safety risks. This paper considers how to bring together the experience gained by engineers over the generations, recent research, component and material selection as well as the installation methodologies to bear on the development of truly reliable turnout designs for the future.

The paper presents the non-contact turnout and track measurement system mounted on a self propelled vehicle capable of measuring and evaluating their geometry in real time. Moreover, the system accesses remotely the infrastructure database updating its contents on the fly. Each rail is scanned by vision systems using the light sectioning method. Some of them are used both in the turnout measurement mode and in the track measurement mode. Based on images acquired in this way, rail profile is calculated including its head and fragments of the foot and web. Images from the additional systems make it possible to acquire the profile as needed to calculate the required turnout parameters. Scanning is possible of turnouts every 30 mm at the speed of 20 km/h and track every 3 m at the speed of 60 km/h. Moreover, cameras supporting the real time image processing are used in the vision systems. Computers and the main server installed on the vehicle are connected to the network. This makes it possible to send and save the measured profiles in the database and also to send parameter and control the measurement system operation. Network connection and the additional dual state signals make it possible to synchronize scanning of both rails.

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TURNOUT SYSTEM VIBRATION SIMULATION DURING TILTING TRAIN IN OPERATION KY Eum

POLYPROPYLENE REINFORCED CONCRETE PLATE FOR TRAM TURNOUTS PAVING Dr Stjepan Lakusic, Dr Marijan Skazlic, Dr Visnja Tkalcevic Lakusic

Korea Railroad Research Institute, UiwangCity, Korea [email protected]

University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Kaciceva 26, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] hr

Keywords: Turnout system, crossing, tilting train, switch, acceleration .

Turnout is the device that functions to switch the train to other rail or cross with other trackbed and considerable portion of railroad accidents occurred is closely connected with the turnout, Thus the railroad authorities in many countries have concentrated their efforts on maintaining the turnouts safe, categorizing them into the vulnerable parts among the railroad facilities, and in an effort to reduce the accident, our railroad regulations also requires limiting the maximum speed at the turnout section. The turnout comprises the point, lead and crossing part. The turnout however is the only movable section among the peripheral device of the rail, which has a complicated structure and as rapid movement between the wheel and rail during operation is inevitable, the safety is always the major concern. This study thus was intended to measure, compare and evaluate the intensity of the vibration occurred at the crossing part when tilting train passes the turnout section and carry out the simulation to predict the intensity of impact vibration when tilting train accelerates.

Keywords: Tram track, polypropylene reinforced, concrete plate, tram turnouts.

Construction of tram track and its paving (closing), within the valuable city surfaces, where the tram circulation corridor is used also for traffic of road vehicles, should be approached with special attention. In the cities where the tram is the base of the urban public transport, as it is case in Zagreb, in the very centre the tram track should be incorporated as a longstanding solution, acceptable in ecological and aesthetic aspect. The tram tracks in the centre are paved with reinforced concrete plates with special architectonic shape of top view. One of the most important parts of every rail network are turnouts. To make vehicular traffic reasonably safe, a large number of entry turnouts that can be automatically controlled from the tram vehicle are equipped with security device to protective turnouts of unwished position of switch rails. This system operates on the principle of frequency circle oscillating at certain frequency in the zone of 10 m before turnout. However, if large quantities of steel masses (except rails) are located in the vicinity of the said zone, the function of such a security device is disrupted. In the case when the tram turnouts are not paved with plates, the turnouts work fully according to a standard procedure. To meet the two requirements, traffic safety requirements and also those set for an architectural appearance of the paved 50

PREDICTION OF THE INTENSITY OF VIBRATION AROUND THE CROSSING PART OF MANGANESE TURNOUT KY Eum

surface, the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, produced a technical innovation that was also based on track paved with concrete plate, but reinforced with polypropylene fibres. The results obtained from measurement of turnout parameters carried out after installation of such plates were more than satisfactory.

Korea Railroad Research Institute, UiwangCity, Korea [email protected] Keywords: Turnout system, vibration, acceleration, tilting train.

TURNOUTS AND WHAT MAKES THEM WEAR Dr Willem-Jan Zwanenburg

In railroad operation, turnout is the device providing very critical functions of moving train to the neighboring rail. It’s the only movable section among the peripheral device of the rail, which has a complicated structure and as rapid movement between the wheel and rail during operation is unavoidable, the safety and vibration generated by repeated impact load by passing trains become always the major concern. Response to rail vibration varies depending on physical properties of the rail, rail base and the ground, making it difficult to estimate the quantitative outcome through measurement. Thus, experimental or empirical approach, rather than analytic method, has been more commonly employed to deal with the ground vibration. Such approach is to take the fundamental procedures in analytic way, while adopting experimental and measures values  in parallel for the factors with high degree of uncertainty. This study hence was intended to compare and analyze the vibration values measured at the crossing part of manganese turnout by type of train and turnout and distance, as well as predict the intensity of vibration generated at the crossing part of manganese turnout when tilting train accelerates.

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Laboratory for Intermodality, Transport & Planning Station 18, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [email protected] Keywords: Railway, switches, crossings, wear, maintenance, renewal, asset management.

For switches and crossings, the developments on inspection methods, data collection and elaboration and maintenance planning have stayed rather rudimentary. One of the reasons for this is the non-digitized way in which the wear of switches and crossings is measured –mainly on foot by maintenance personnel– and registered – only in case a certain limit is exceeded a remark is made. This has lead to a complete underrepresentation of switches and crossings in current asset management tools, since these tools need the information in a digitized way to make proper forecasts for maintenance and renewal needs. This article presents the result of combining several databases of the Swiss Federal Railways to find out what makes switches and crossings actually wear. With as main goal to improve railway asset management systems and improve knowledge on these wear phenomena of switches and crossings.

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The analysis of dynamic behaviour of turnout structures Jaroslav Smutný, Luboš Pazdera, Ivan Vukušič, Richard Svoboda

Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veveri 95, Brno, Czech [email protected] Keywords: Jointed time frequency analysis, turnout structure, measurement, dynamic behaviour, vibration.

The subject of the paper is focused on the analysis of dynamic parameters of turnout structures. The paper also deals with the comparison of the parameters measured in the turnout provided with the spring movable frog and with their comparison with the fixed crossing frog. A part of the paper also includes the description of the methods of measurement and a suitable mathematical apparatus for the evaluation of the parameters measured. The conclusion of the paper will deal with the recommendations for further measuring and practice.

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Day 1: Theme 1: Permanent Way, Rail Maintenance Wheel-Rail–Rolling Stock Interaction-Tilting Trains

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ADHESION AT THE WHEEL RAIL INTERFACE Tim Armitage

USING GOTCHA TO OPTIMISE THE VEHICLE/TRACK INTERFACE AND REDUCE MAINTENANCE COSTS I Vermeij, D Venekamp

Ove Arup Advanced Technology + Research Practice, The Arup Campus, Blythe Gate, Blythe Valley Park, Solihull B90 4HW, UK

Lloyd’s Register Rail Europe, Catharijnesingel 33, 3511 GC Utrecht, The Netherlands [email protected], [email protected] lrrail.com

Tim Hilton

PricewaterhouseCoopers, Plumtree Court, London EC4A 4HT, UK [email protected], [email protected] uk.pwc.com

Keywords: Remote condition monitoring, maintenance, vehicle/track interface, asset management.

Keywords: Wheel rail interface, adhesion, contamination, hierarchy.

Remote condition monitoring is becoming increasingly important for today’s railway. Higher requirements are being set for safety and availability of both train and track; these can best be met by using sophisticated automatic monitoring techniques. Gotcha Monitoring Systems provides a trackside platform for remote condition monitoring using a range of sensors, including fibreoptic sensors for monitoring wheel loads and wheel quality. The output of Gotcha’s wheelset monitoring module can be used by a wide range of rail operator and infrastructure companies to plan wheelset maintenance, protect tracks and tunnels by checking against maximum allowable static and dynamic wheel loads, to monitor passenger loadings and as a basis for track access charging. Gotcha can also be used to plan track and switch maintenance by combining the system output with other information sources, giving insight into utilisation and real loading conditions. Information can be made accessible to all users through a dedicated web interface. Using Gotcha data as input for maintenance, whether it is for track or train, will significantly reduce maintenance costs and increase infrastructure and vehicle asset life and performance. Through better prediction of maintenance requirements, asset availability will increase due to a reduction of unplanned maintenance.

Adhesion at the wheel rail interface is a complex phenomenon. The level of adhesion available to a train for traction and braking is an emergent property from a large system of variables. The authors present an overview of the factors which influence wheel rail adhesion, based upon observations of conditions on the UK rail network over a number of years. A review of the body of adhesion knowledge is presented, drawing upon published papers from British Rail Research together with more recent industry and academic works. The authors show that the body of research knowledge is consistent and supportive of the type of low adhesion events that continue to be recorded throughout the year on the operational railway. The authors propose that there is a hierarchy of conditions at the wheel rail interface which govern adhesion. The authors also discuss the importance of the development of a continued understanding of wheel rail adhesion.

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trackforms along some sections in tunnels in Milan. The three trackforms were designed in order to have a significant vibration reduction even with a very limited space available between the top of the rail and the tunnel invert. This resulted in very resilient solutions with high rail deflections. The TUM were required to measure the deflections of rails (horizontal and vertical) and of other subcomponents. The Benkelmann beam was used for the definition of the differences in resiliency between support and support. A portal frame was made for the application of loads with hydraulic jacks. One of the main aims of this research was to define the contact forces between wheels and rails, horizontally and vertically. A deductive procedure, which starts from the measured data, was defined and reliable results were obtained.

Reducing the dynamic loads on the track by improving wheel quality will increase both bogie and track life, and will also contribute to safety by reducing the chances of broken rails, broken vehicle suspension and bearing damage leading to hot axle boxes. COMPARATIVE PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING WHEEL/RAIL CONTACT FORCES AMONG DIFFERENT SLAB TRACKFORMS IN A METRO TUNNEL Dr M Acquati, Dr B Cavagna

Metropolitana Milanese SpA, Via del Vecchio Politecnico, 8, 20121 Milano, Italy

Dr B Lechner, Dr W Stahl, J Liu

Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl und Prüfamt für Verkehrswegebau, Baumbachstraße 7, 81245 München, Germany [email protected]litanamilanese.it, [email protected], bernhard. [email protected], [email protected] bv.tum.de, [email protected]

TRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL FORCES EXERTED ON THE TRACK – PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Christos Pyrgidis

Keywords: Slab track, vibration, transducers, measurements, wheel/rail contact forces.

When a new kind of track is installed in a metro/railway line, it is quite common to perform some measurements in order to check its expected performances. The measurements are usually focussed to deflections and vibrations. On the contrary a measured parameter that is much more uncommon in this kind of surveys is the wheel/rail contact forces and their distribution upon the different fasteners. This paper gives an overall description of the results of a collaboration between Metropolitana Milanese S.p.A., the main system designer of metro lines in Italy, and the Chair and Institute for Road, Railway and Airfield Construction of Technische Universität München (TUM - Lehrstuhl und Prüfamt für Verkehrswegebau). Metropolitana Milanese S.p.A. installed some years ago three new kinds of slab

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece [email protected], [email protected] gmail.com Keywords: Rail-wheel interaction, guidance efforts, transversal track forces, longitudinal track forces.

The transversal forces exerted on the railway track are as much due to the interaction between the track and the rolling stock (e.g. the creep forces), as to factors external to the railway system (e.g. the wind). They are transferred via the vehicles’ wheels first to the rails and then to the other elements of the track. Their increase calls for additional measures to maintain the dynamic comfort of the passengers, to protect from derailment/track lateral displacement and, more generally, to ensure 56

Kalker’s model, with the FASTSIM algorithm, and the Shen-Hendrick-Elskins’ model for tangential contact. Different areas in the contact patch (adhesion and slip) can be drawn with different inputs (spin, lateral creepage, longitudinal creepage, coefficient of friction etc.). To estimate the wear, either frictionwork wear or Archard wear models can be used. A comparison between the two models can also be performed. The tool is also able to predict the initiation phase of rail corrugation. A linear model for the short-pitch corrugation is employed. Receptance curves are needed as inputs of the model. The main features of models used in this tool will be discussed and a brief review of existing works in the literature for wheelrail contact, rail wear and rail corrugation will be presented in this paper.

the transversal stability of the vehicles. The longitudinal forces appearance is linked to a variety of causes. There are longitudinal forces caused during the traction, the acceleration and the braking of trains and others due to external factors (e.g. to temperature changes). Their increase calls for more effective braking systems, rails more resistant to temperature changes and good track superstructure positioning. In this paper a) all transversal and longitudinal forces exerted on the track are defined and classified b) the causes provoking such forces are analysed and the mathematical formula expressing them quantitatively are given c) their negative impact on each component of the railway system is examined d) finally, solutions that can limit such negative impact are presented. NUMERICAL TOOL FOR STUDYING WHEEL-RAIL CONTACT AND WEAR Si Hai Mai, Frédéric Le-Corre

GENERALIZED ENERGY INDEX (GEI) FOR EVALUATING DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLE/TRACK SYSTEM WANG Weidong, LIU Jinzhao, LIANG Zhiming, LI Hongyan

ALSTOM Transport, R&D Railway Track, Transport Global Solution (TGS), 33 rue des Bateliers, 93400 Saint-Ouen, France

Boumediene Nedjar

UR NAVIER, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77455 MarneLa-Vallée, France [email protected], frederic. [email protected], [email protected] enpc.fr

China Academy of Railway Sciences, Infrastructure Inspection Center, Beijing, China, 100081 Keywords: Generalized energy index (GEI), track quality index (TQI), energy weight coefficients; rail wavy irregularity; Parseval equality; vehicle/track system.

Keywords: Railway system, wheel-rail contact, wear, corrugation, numerical simulation.

Track quality index (TQI) was used to evaluate the irregularity of track district, but it does not have the ability of reflecting the fact that different vehicle running on the same track has different dynamic characteristics. Generalized energy index (GEI) is presented to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of vehicle/track system by borrowing idea from the method of energy concentration ratio, and energy weight coefficients are introduced to characterize

A simple numerical tool, using MATLAB software, was developed for studying the wheel-rail contact and wear. In order to have a straightforward use, the interfaces were created and this tool, named CONUS (CONtact-USure), can be used like a standalone software. It is based on classical models: the Hertz’s model for normal contact; the 57

the inherent property that the irregularity with different wavelength has different effect on the dynamic response of the vehicle/track system. Under the condition that the energy weight coefficients are equal, Parseval theorem, which means the energy of track irregularity in time domain and that in frequency domain is equal, is applied to prove that GEI can be simplified to TQI. Numerical results obtained from field data of track irregularity are provided to verify that TQI is a special case of GEI. There are many ways to calculate the energy weight coefficients, and the amplitude curve of the transfer function between the track irregularity and the vehicle response is used to calculate the coefficients by adding the constraint on them that the sum of them is equal to 1. Generalized energy index (GEI) is applied to evaluate rail wavy irregularity, and the numerical results show that GEI is better than TQI in evaluation rail wavy irregularity. The rationality of evaluation result can be checked through whether the vehicle buffet or not.

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Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Signalling

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CARRIER Ethernet and its Application in Railway Signalling Systems Robert Gardner, John Dickson, Ian Findlay, Graham Smith, Grant Kilgour

the railway signalling communications landscape while investigating in some detail how lineside Ethernet and Carrier Ethernet connectivity can be provided to cater for both existing and emerging railway signalling systems. The paper explains how packet-based communications can provide exceptional levels of security, integrity, performance and value for money whilst maintaining the safe and deterministic operation of signalling systems.

Network Rail, Buchanan House, 58 Port Dundas Road, Glasgow, G4 0LQ, UK [email protected], John. [email protected], [email protected] networkrail.co.uk, [email protected] networkrail.co.uk, [email protected] co.uk

SIGNALLING POWER SUPPLIES DERIVED FROM HV-DC TRACTION NETWORKS Raymond J Leach

Keywords: Ethernet, Carrier ethernet, IP, railway, signalling, telecoms, network, data communications

Ethernet has emerged as the dominant global communications technology owing to its low cost and high performance and its ability to flexibly deliver unified communications: voice, video and data. Developed in the late Seventies as an inexpensive means of intercomputer communications, Ethernet now has applications ranging from high-speed backplane data transfer to global Carrier Ethernet networks. It is not surprising therefore that Ethernet is now becoming the protocol of choice for railway data and signalling communications. Signalling systems have for many years made use of twisted pair telecoms cables for long distance communications purposes and some systems were subsequently developed to use legacy PCM transmission channels. However, a number of barriers have existed preventing the widespread adoption of modern data communications networks for signalling purposes. The advent of modern Ethernet together with its companion, the Internet Protocol, has however opened up the possibility for a highly secure, robust, yet simplified architecture for signalling communications, in which the use of standardised interfaces can significantly lower equipment costs. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of

Parsons Brinckerhoff Rail Ltd, Westbrook Mills, Godalming GU7 2AZ, UK [email protected] Keywords: Signalling, power supply, distribution, earthing, touch potentials, EMC.

The purpose of this paper is to explain how some issues complex earthing and protection issues were overcome in practice during the design, development and installation of a compliant power supply scheme in relation to a new re-signalling project in the UK. Description unfolds of a typical area re-signalling project that required a modern power system replacement and renewals approach to meet compliance with today’s standards and safety requirements, whilst maintaining service performance for the Railway network. The virtues of obtaining an HV-DC Traction derived signalling power supply are outlined. A description of the HV Traction Supply/Substation Source, Auxiliary Power acquisition and the necessity for isolation transformers are discussed to highlight the reasons for segregation of the two power systems that incorporates a new Area Signalling Control Centre (ASC). The ASC was required to drive Solid State Interlocking (SSI) 61

interruption. As a result, Bombardier, working in close partnership with Metro Madrid, developed a ‘mixed-signalling’ approach that allowed full ‘shadow mode’ running of the CBTC prior to its taking over train operation. The result has been a system implemented without any loss of revenue service days; a major benefit both to Metro Madrid in terms of whole life cost and to the passengers who use the system. This paper will give an insight as to how this significant achievement was delivered. Other operators and cities can also reap these benefits in terms of cost and reduced disruption but the approach does require a partnership between client and supplier based on trust and a flexible, open minded, ‘can-do’ approach. Working practices and standards must be challenged to balance total system risks and benefits, and all involved and affected staff must be ‘brought on board’.

technology replacing a dated mechanical arrangement which had been in place for a number of years. LV Signalling Power Supply distribution methodology is discussed along with its associated ‘Trackside Distribution’ incorporating ‘Active Feeder’ technology which addresses first and second fault situations that may occur on the system. REDUCING WHOLE LIFE COST BY RE-SIGNALLING WITHOUT INTERRUPTION TO PASSENGER SERVICES: CASE STUDY WITH METRO MADRID Roderick I Muttram

Bombardier Transportation Rail Control Solutions, St Giles House, 10 Church Street, Reading RG1 2SD, UK

Dr Carlos Rodríguez Sánchez

CBTC Projects Leader, Metro de Madrid, SA, C/ Cavanilles 58, 28007 Madrid, Spain [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Metro railway signalling, CBTC, railway renewal techniques.

USE OF FULL-FIDELITY SIMULATORS FOR TRAINING SIGNALLERS Tim Salter, Peter Treble

Metro Madrid is the second longest Metro in Europe after London. Today’s 284 km system serves Greater Madrid’s population of circa 6 million people. In the seven years up to 2003 the number of passengers per year increased at an average rate of 5.2% with peaks of 9%. As part of its program to expand capacity, Metro Madrid decided to re-signal Lines 1 and 6 (the equivalent of London’s Northern and Circle lines) with a Communications Based Train Control (CBTC) system, selecting Bombardier’s true moving block CITYFLO 650 solution. Metro Madrid was adamant that the operation of the existing system should be maintained until the new system had been implemented as an overlay, tested and commissioned without significant service

The Railway Engineering Company, The Old Church, Church Road, Westbury BA13 4LP, UK [email protected], [email protected] theraileng.co.uk Keywords: Simulator, full-fidelity, signaller, training, perturbations, automation, assessment.

Full-fidelity Simulators that provide a near total replica of the real systems have been used for many years in aviation to train and assess pilots and air traffic controllers. So realistic have they become they are now even used as a method to convert pilots from one aircraft type to another, often with zero airborne time involved in the conversion. 62

introduction of the system with the purpose of showing how the systems architecture and equipment influences the life cycle system costs.

This paper discusses the technical aspects and application of similar technology for training and regularly assessing Signallers in operating complex VDU based electronic Signalling Centres. Over 60 replica simulations of each Signaller Workstation for the controlled areas have been supplied in the UK and incorporate accurate models of the interlocking, the exact Workstation screen layout and controls, current timetable, track topology and train performance. CBI AND COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE COSTS J Wenham

Siemens plc, 4 Highlands Court, Cranmore Avenue, Solihull B90 4LE, UK [email protected] Keywords: Signalling, efficiency gains.

The ORR and Network Rail, through the efficiency curve, are keen to reduce whole life scheme costs; similarly, the rail industry is keen to understand how reduction in life cycle cost can be affected. The experience of bringing CBI to the UK has provided Siemens with the opportunity to make a comparison between Mainland European practices and those adopted in the UK. Since the initial installation phase Siemens has gained further knowledge through the commissioning of SIMIS W on two signalling schemes in the UK. The first, a modest scheme, was commissioned in December 2003 on the Dorset Coast; the second, a much larger scheme, was commissioned in the Portsmouth Area four years later. Recently, Siemens has compared the maintenance regimes on the Siemens schemes where SIMIS W has been introduced into the UK with UK conventional operation to consider where further life cycle cost advantage can be gained. This paper charts the history of the 63

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Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Communication Technology

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HARNESSING COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE SYSTEMS AVAILABILITY Tom Hilleary

AnsaldoSTS US, 8700 Monrovia, Suite 310, Lenexa, Kansas 66215, USA

Ian McCullough

Ansaldo STS UK Limited, Bravington House, 2 Bravingtons Walk, London, N1 9AF, UK [email protected], [email protected] ansaldo-sts.co.uk Keywords: Wireless networks, remote monitoring.

Monitoring and event logging of railway assets is not new. Ansaldo has now installed 100+ of its new TransPortal Remote monitor at diverse sites in the USA. It differs from other market solutions particularly in terms of its extensive communication capabilities. Novel functionality on the device enables local area redundant network Wi-Fi communication with distributed I/O significantly reducing implementation cost. On board recording includes for analog, digital, and video signals. We describe and demonstrate capabilities of the device and the network, illustrate operational costs, characterize performance (latencies), and show how US users utilize the network. The device is supported by a web-accessed back office analysis suite that provides powerful instant-access data handling hosted by ASTS and optionally by the Infrastructure Manager. While the device is described particularly in terms of level crossing applications, the potential for other UK interfaces is also addressed.

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Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Electrification and Lighting

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ELECTRIFYING THE MOUND TUNNEL CENTRE BORE Mark Wilmot

UNDERSTANDING POWER SUPPLY FROM A RAILWAY OPERATING COMPANY’S PERSPECTIVE D Hetherington

Ove Arup & Partners Ltd, St James’s Buildings, Oxford Street, Manchester M1 6EL, UK [email protected]

Mott MacDonald Limited, St Anne House, 20– 26 Wellesley Road, Croydon CR9 2UL, UK

Keywords: Electrification, overhead line equipment, conductor beam, pantograph clearance.

G White

London Underground Ltd, Southside, 105 Victoria Street, London SW1E 6AD, UK [email protected], Graham. [email protected]

Mound Tunnel lies at the west end of Edinburgh Waverley Station and the centre bore was not electrified during the electrification the ECML whilst the two outer bores were. This was due to the limited clearances in the centre bore arising from there being two tracks and a crossover present within. Arup was commissioned to undertake the design for the infrastructure improvements for Waverley Station and were requested to investigate the feasibility of wiring the centre bore so as to allow the west end bay platforms to be wired for the reopening of the Airdrie to Bathgate Route. The investigations found that the constraint was inadequate mechanical and electrical clearances for the pantograph. Using a combination of a solid conductor support beam, civil works to the tunnel fabric and permanent way alterations the centre bore was successfully electrified over Christmas 2007 and opened to electric trains in April 2008. The paper will describe the constraints and the design work undertaken to achieve a successful conclusion.

Keywords: Power supply, optimisation, underground.

London Underground is replacing all the train system assets across the network as part of the Line Upgrades programme. This programme includes upgrading the company’s traction power infrastructure to support the introduction of new rolling stock that will operate faster and more frequently than the existing fleets. Clearly, London Underground wanted to ensure that a solution was found to maximise the extra traction capacity provided while minimising expenditure to give the best overall value-for-money solution. Following the results of market research, London Underground has determined that an important factor for its customers is the speed of their journey. Minimising customers’ journey time without dramatically increasing energy consumption is therefore the key driver when appraising infrastructure projects. Using economic parameters London Underground is able to put a monetary value on customers’ time, therefore allowing various options or solutions to be appraised against each other. This paper describes that process which allowed the optimisation of the provision of additional traction power infrastructure for the Victoria Line Upgrade. 71

Ceramic solves typical problems of insulation rail joints Jelte A Bos

The optimisation process had a number of key stages: 1. The development and validation of a simulation package to accurately model the traction performance on a line 2. The development of a cost model to allow various options to be costed 3. The development of a hierarchy of options to be appraised on the basis of the results of the simulation and costing exercise, and using London Underground’s business cases framework. This paper describes in detail the structure, assumptions, mode of operation and results of the simulation, as well as how the project team took the results of the simulator and used them to develop an optimised solution.

Movares, P.O. Box 2855, 3500 GW Utrecht, The Netherlands [email protected] Keywords: Insulation rail joint, ceramic, signalling, maintenance, noise and vibration.

Insulation joints are an indispensable part of modern railways. Reliability and availability of insulation joints are of utmost importance since many signalling problems relate to dysfunction of insulation joints. Furthermore, insulation joints demand for proper maintenance and are characterized by a limited lifetime. Another disadvantage of current insulation joints is the noise emission and induced vibration when trains pass over the joint. Movares and Corus Ceramics Research Institute have developed a Ceramic Insulation Joint that deals with all the disadvantages of current insulation joints resulting in less signalling problems, less maintenance, elimination of joint related noise and vibration and a longer lifetime. The most important innovation of the this joint is the use of a ceramic end post instead of a plastic one. This ceramic plate that is as hard and wear-resistant as steel and tough enough to withstand the impact of train wheels, is mounted pre-stressed within the insulation joint. This makes the joint not only more durable and reliable but at the same time gives it a stiffness equal to the stiffness of the rail profile itself. In fact it resolves the physical interruption that is typical of rail insulation joints.

A NEW GENERATION OF AWS INDUCTORS, ESTABLISHED VALUES, MODERN TECHNOLOGY Richard Bointon

Vortok International, Innovation House,. 3 Western Wood Way, Langage Science Park, Plymouth PL7 5BG, UK [email protected] Keywords: AWS, safety, signals .

The AWS system is the core of the UK railway safety regime where train drivers are warned of signals with a red aspect and as a last resort will apply the brakes if the driver has not acknowledged the warning. The range of inductors which reside in the track, are controlled by the signalling system and are based on permanent and electro magnets. The reason for using magnets is that in the event of a power failure the system fails to a safe condition and trains are still in control.

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Efficient Electrification Keith Orgill

counters, in place of track circuits, for train detection purposes. As a consequence, the overall impact on electrical impedance was unclear. The need arose to determine firstly whether existing protection settings for the track feeder circuit breakers remained safe in the light of these changes and secondly whether settings could be improved thereby offering the potential to increase services and/or run longer trains. This paper outlines the challenges that needed to be overcome in gathering, processing and validating input data to arrive at a complete, coherent and consistent set of data necessary for determining the maximum fault impedances seen by each of the circuit breakers. The paper goes on to present the development, implementation and application of the methodology for the calculation of the protection settings, including validation of results. The results from the calculations were surprising and contrary to original expectations.

Overhead Line Engineering Limited, 4 Spindle Lane, Dickens Heath, West Midlands B90 1RP, UK [email protected] Keywords: Electrification, efficient.

This paper will cover the factors that make the construction of new electrification projects financially viable by achieving minimum cost construction. With the ever-increasing awareness of the environmental impact of road transport and diesel hauled rail traffic, in conjunction with the ever-increasing cost of oil, the drive for electrification of new routes has not been higher for two decades. A significant barrier to authorisation of new electrification projects is the current projected costs of construction. The paper will address the prime factors that drive these costs and propose solutions in each case. DC PROTECTION CALCULATIONS – AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH Raymond J Leach, Marinna Berova, Dennis Tregay

THE SKY IS THE LIMIT FOR LED LIGHTING Adrian Rawlinson

Marl International Limited, Marl Business Park, Ulverston, Cumbria, LA12 0HB, UK [email protected]

Parsons Brinckerhoff, Westbrook Mills, Godalming, GU7 2AZ, UK [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

Keywords: Energy saving, LEDs, lighting, environment.

Keywords: Calculations, traction, power, DC, protection, relay, settings, spreadsheet, fault, impedance, overcurrent, overhang, tee, data, hand, modelling, schematic, equivalent and circuit.

This paper documents a case study for the design, manufacture, trial installation and successful in-service operation of an intelligent saloon ceiling lighting system, utilizing ultra efficient LED light sources. The primary driver was power saving which has been achieved by automatically reducing and increasing the amount of artificial lighting required to supplement the ambient light available at any given time. The case study relates to a project implemented during a short time period;

As part of a recent major re-signalling scheme for a DC electrified railway, substantial changes were made to the track layout and electrical feeding/switching arrangements. Also, as part of this scheme, the opportunity was taken to introduce a novel approach to the way negative bonding in the return circuit is configured, made possible by the introduction of axle 73

IMPROVEMENT IN DAMPING PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRICRAILWAY POLE EQUIPPED WITH DAMPING DEVICE USING VISCOELASTIC BODY M Tsunemoto, M Aoshi

Concept proposal in June 2008, order placement in July 2008, with equipment installed and approved for service in February 2009, followed by a period of on-going in-service operation. Since that time, in addition to meeting and exceeding preconceived expectations, it has come to light that there are many other tangible and intangible benefits which are both reinforcing the business case for adoption and increasing the interest level from the rail industry. Marl believes this innovation is the first of its type in the world, and suggests that this system could revolutionize the approach adopted for providing supplementary artificial illumination for railway passenger vehicles in the UK market and beyond. It is highly probable that during the next decade LED based products and systems will become the technology of choice for artificial lighting in new build and refurbishment transportation projects, and for new build commercial and retail architectural lighting schemes. Consequently, the potential is vast, dynamic and constantly expanding; the latest estimate predicts a global market of £60bn by 2020. Therefore, it is not unreasonable to claim that the sky is the limit for LED lighting.

Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo, 185-8540, Japan [email protected], [email protected] or.jp Keywords: Electric railway, current collection, pole, damping, viscoelastic body, loss factor.

A damping device for electric-railway pole has been invented in order to reduce the vibration caused by an earthquake or passing trains. The authors conducted theoretical analyses of pole response equipped with the damping device and vibration test of real scale pole. The result of theoretical analyses has been found to be almost identical to the result of vibration test. Moreover, as the result of vibration test, damping effect of the device has been verified. ACCURATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATION OF TRANSIENT DC FAULT CURRENT ON 12-PULSE RECTIFIER FOR DC SUBSTATION Dr S. Goh, K Larbi

Mott MacDonald Limited, 20-26 St Anne House, Wellesley Road, Croydon, CR9 2UL, UK [email protected], [email protected] mottmac.com Keywords: Rectifier, substation, fault.

In DC traction systems whether new builds or upgrades, it is essential to have information relating to the highest transient and steady state short circuit fault levels at the DC substation terminals and at remote locations, touch voltages along the track, loop impedance, harmonics on DC side and AC side of the rectifier. This information is essential for switchboard busbar 74

rating selection, DC protection settings calculations, DC track switches sizing, cable sizing, track circuit immunisation on DC railways, touch voltages calculations (on main line and in depot areas), and harmonic current and voltage calculations on the infeed High Voltage (HV) networks which are 11, 22 or 33kV 3-phase AC to ensure compliance with railway standards and to ensure public safety. This paper describes the modelling and practical applications of an accurate 12pulse rectifier for a DC Substation model suitable for applications on 750V LRT, 750V NR, 630V LUL and 750V DC Tram systems in the UK, using the Matlab™/ SimPower™ commercial package. The 12-pulse rectifier model has been used to predict the HV AC side harmonic currents, DC short circuit currents, rail-toearth touch voltages (under fault conditions) and accessible voltages (under normal operations) on DC railway projects in the UK. The simulation results compared well with measurements.

and CB manufacturers, the author has spent several years developing equipment and procedures that will provide an accurate calibration of the actual trip point and its likely variation. Combining this with a comprehensive performance database provides procedures that can minimise the uncertainty separating reliable current from overload. A railway can then feel confident that it has both maximum revenue capacity and properly protected supply equipment.

DC TRACTION PROTECTION: CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOUR and UNCERTAINTY PARAMETERS Christopher Langridge

The overhead rigid conductor system is sound and durable against wire breakage since the tension is unapplied to contact wire, and it does not a require high maintenance cost. Moreover, it is advantageous that its uplift by passing pantographs is very less, and feeder can be omitted by using mount, which has a high conductivity. Because the feeder is omissible and its uplift is less, the cross-section area of tunnels can be made small. Thus in Japan until present, it has been adapted to subway lines in order to reduce construction costs, or has been applicable to electrification of the lines with the small cross-section tunnels constructed during the time of steam locomotives. On the contrary, by the advantage of the least of wire breakage, the possibility

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SUPPORT EQUIPMENT FOR OVERHEAD RIGID CONDUCTOR SYSTEM Fumio Okimoto, Shunichi Kusumi, Masatoshi Shimizu, Takehiro Kobayashi

Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo, Japan [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Rigid conductor system, support equipment, sag, axial force, bending load, expansion and contraction, friction.

Riker Ltd, Beanacre Manor, Wiltshire SN12 7PT, UK [email protected] Keywords: DC traction, circuit breakers, uncertainty.

By design or by default, DC railways rely upon the accuracy of a direct acting circuit breaker to balance protection of its capital infrastructure against the revenue available from its traction power. This paper presents a new approach to quantifying the uncertainty in trip-out level that can otherwise restrict the availability of reliable traction current. Working with all major UK DC railways 75

view of tunnelling cost and its impact on overall cost. Normally, 25 kV ac requires a minimum concentric tunnel diameter of 5.8 m. During implementation stage of the project, the Tunnelling Contractor proposed a tunnel diameter of 5.7m ± 75mm (construction tolerance) without any extra civil cost, as per diameter of the Tunnel Boring Machine available with him. Adoption of 25 kV ac involved special design consideration meeting the safety requirements as per International Standards. The paper describes the design and development aspects leading to adoption of 25kV ac Rigid Overhead Catenary System (OCS). It highlights the design and construction challenges, which had to be met with during the implementation stages. It also involve in depth study and genesis of electrical clearances, contact wire height being specified in different standards, maintenance regime to ensure uninterrupted operation of 25 kV ac traction in the tunnels diameter of 5.55 m and connected passenger evacuation strategies. The system has now been working satisfactorily for the last 4 years. DMRC happens to be the first Metro System in the world to successfully build and operate 25 kV ac traction with coach height of 3.90 m and width of 3.2 m in a tunnel diameter of 5.55M..

of being applied to high speed railways will be increasing in new future. In order to expand the application to the railway sections other than tunnels, even in the sections where surrounding temperature change is large, the rigid conductor system must equip the enough performance which can maintain the height of contact wire uniformly. In that case, it is required by not preventing expansion and contraction of the mount according to temperature changes to suppress axial force in the mount and sag of the mount by an axial force as much as possible. However, with the existing support equipment, there is concern that expansion and contraction of the mount cannot fully be permitted. Then, the authors developed new support equipment with rollers for overhead rigid conductor system so that expansion and contraction of the mount does not almost be prevented. 25 KV RIGID OVERHEAD CATENARY SYSTEM IN 5.55m TUNNEL DIAMETER FOR 3.9X3.2 M COACHES IN DELHI MRTS: CHALLENGES Satish Kumar, Sharat Sharma Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, India

Keywords: Overhead catenary, 25KV, heavy metro.

Delhi MRTS Phase-I is designed as a heavy metro system to cater to 60,000 Phpdt (Peak Hour Passenger per Direction Trip), up gradable to 80,000 Phpdt. The detailed study indicated that either 1500 V dc or 25 kV ac is required to meet the above Phpdt, however, from energy efficiency, reliability, commonality of traction and Rolling Stock with elevated sections, and other managerial considerations, 25 kV ac traction is a better option. The initial cost economics favoured 25 kV ac design for 2 elevated lines. 1500 V dc with tunnel diameter of 5.4 m was chosen for ground line from point of 76

Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Railway Vehicle Technology and Maintenance

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IDENTIFICATION AND MONITORING OF OUT-OFROUNDNESS OF A METRO VEHICLE BY MEANS OF ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS Professor A Bracciali, Dr F Piccioli, T De Cicco

of rail vehicle systems. The increasing complexity and dynamics of systems by applying high-tech in the design of rail vehicles can increase the inherent reliability of the systems. But it has been recognized that it is difficult to improve the reliability of rail vehicle systems without the optimized maintenance policy. This emphasizes the importance of reliability-based maintenance and requires efforts to improve life cycle maintenance management of rail vehicle systems. Maintaining reliability of rail vehicles can be achieved throughout the technical and administrative maintenance activities which can be determined by the application of the concepts, methods, tools and techniques expressed as qualitative and quantitative indicators. This paper presents a methodology of applying RAMS techniques to maintenance policy decision to produce effective and efficient maintenance activities. The application of the proposed maintenance policy framework can help the industry to achieve life cyclebased maintenance analysis and to make a clear and flexible maintenance policy in accordance with managerial environment, and also to reduce the maintenance cost as well as to keep the durability of rail vehicles.

Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Meccanica e Tecnologie Industriali, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy [email protected], [email protected] it, [email protected] Keywords: Wheel defect, out-of-roundness, noise, diagnostics, monitoring.

Wheel wear and damage issues can be particularly serious in metro vehicles. Whatever their origin, Out-of-Roundness (OOR) wheel tread irregularities are responsible for high wheel-rail contact forces, originating abnormal levels of noise and vibration in most of the vehicle and track components. In this paper a methodology based on acoustic detection of abnormal noise level within the passenger compartment is shown. Results are discussed with advantages and limitations compared to a number of other techniques. A STUDY ON DECISION OF RAIL VEHICLE MAINTENANCE POLICY Mungyu Park, Min An, Felix Schmid

The University of Birmingham, Safety Risk and Reliability Management Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK [email protected] Keywords: Durability, maintenance, reliability, RAMS, maintenance policy.

With the expansion of privatisation, the railway industry now consists of separate companies, including infrastructure controllers, train and freight operators, rolling stock and contractor companies. Therefore, the interoperability of railway vehicle business requires the high durability 79

ADVANCED FEM ANALYSIS OF SUPPORT BEAM OF A MODERN TRAM Professor A Bracciali, Dr F Piccioli, T De Cicco

FAILURE ANALYSIS and REDESIGN OF A BRAKE CALLIPER SUPPORT Professor A Bracciali, Dr F Piccioli, T De Cicco

Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Meccanica e Tecnologie Industriali, via Santa Marta 3,

Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Meccanica e Tecnologie Industriali, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy [email protected], [email protected] it, [email protected]

50139 Firenze, Italy

[email protected], [email protected] it, [email protected]

Keywords: Tram, low floor, FEM, vibrations, brake calliper.

Keywords: Tram, low floor, FEM analysis .

Aluminium carbody components are more sensible to fatigue than the corresponding steel components. Failures of such components can be very expensive, also in terms of fleet unavailability, and they can have safety implications. FEM analysis can be an useful tool in both designing carbody components and investigating their failures in order to find the right countermeasures. In this paper a structural finite element model, built in order to investigate the failure in the support of a ‘suspended’ carbody of a modern low floor tram, is presented.. Due to the characteristics of the vehicle and the peculiar geometry of the component, a complex approach was followed in order to find the right loads and in order to achieve the desired precision in the stress field.

In full or partially low floor trams with independent wheels, brake disks are often coaxial and external to wheels. Brake pads are operated by brakes callipers, similarly to what happens in automotive rather than railway practice, and are often directly connected to the bogie frame. This leads to a risk of potential vibrational damage much higher than in traditional systems; in the absence of a primary suspension, poor reliability of brake calliper can result. Such a case is the object of this paper, in which failures are analysed via experimental and numerical procedures, while a redesign of the brake calliper support including elastic element is compared to the initial solution.

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High Attenuation Sleeper Frédéric Le Corre, Dr Ian Robertson

Detection of Rail Seat Abrasion in Concrete Ties Using Aurora Automated Inspection Technology Christopher Villar, Dr Wilson T Wamani

ALSTOM Transport, Transport Global Solutions, 48 rue Albert Dhalenne, 93482 Saint-Ouen Cedex, France

Charles Petit

SATEBA, 31, Place Ronde, 92986 Paris La Défense Cedex, France [email protected], ian. [email protected], [email protected] sateba.com

Georgetown Rail Equipment, 111 Cooperative Way, Georgetown, Texas 78626, USA [email protected], [email protected] georgetownrail.com Keywords: Concrete tie, rail seat abrasion, inspection.

Keywords: Vibration mitigation, booted sleeper.

The environmental impact consideration have become a crucial subject for people living alongside or above underground railway lines. The main concern is related to noise and vibrations disturbance. The present article details the development of a high attenuation sleeper which, with an adapted resilient layer, will provide a significant vibration mitigation close the highest achieved track ground borne noise attenuation, as known floating track slab. The main objective is to provide a cost effective alternative to this ultimate solution. Besides the vibration mitigation performance, subsequent objective is also to provide a more compact and easy to install track system. Compared with a conventional floating slab track, the result is a high track laying ratio and a reduction of the tunnel section required to install such a track system.

Despite the measures taken to firmly mount a rail upon a concrete tie, rail-seat abrasion remains a problem in North American railroad industry. Georgetown Rail Equipment Company (GREX), has recently implemented in US and Canada, Aurora, as an alternative automated rail crosstie inspection solution, for detecting rail-seat abrasion in concrete ties. This paper presents the key differences between Aurora rail-seat abrasion detection approach and other manual/automated inspection practices currently in use, the level of repeatability and reproducibility of Aurora as a measurement system both from extensive investigation of Aurora application to precise detection of rail seat abrasion in concrete ties during test runs at TTCI and on customer tracks at night and day time, opposite direction and across operation vehicles. Additionally, the currently recommended rail seat abrasion threshold values to evaluate criticality of concrete tie wear as basis for maintenance and replacement policies, utilization of tilt correction factor in data analytics to improve precision and accuracy of measurements, and the optimal speed of the vehicle to ensure precision and safety during operation are discussed. The paper concludes by outlining the current customer-base utilizing Aurora rail-seat abrasion detection technology, 83

importance. The paper then develops this process into a methodology of limit states design which allows for the dynamic nature of the interaction between the train and the track elements.

and those contemplating to incorporate the technology in their future inspection and maintenance activities. LIMIT STATES DESIGN and RATING OF CONCRETE SLEEPERS Dr Martin H Murray

Aurora Automated Railroad Tie Condition Assessment System: The Quest for Accuracy Wilson T Wamani, Christopher Villar

Queensland University of Technology, School of Urban Development, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001, Australia

Jeff Leong

Docklands Light Rail, Capacity Enhancement Project, PO Box 154, Poplar, London, E14 0DX, UK [email protected], [email protected] gov.uk

Quality Assurance Director, Georgetown Rail Equipment, 111 Cooperative Way, Georgetown, Texas 78626 [email protected], [email protected] georgetownrail.com

Keywords: Railway track, impact force, limit state, failure, fatigue, design.

Keywords: Concrete tie, assessment, accuracy.

Georgetown Rail Equipment (GREX), a US company, has recently implemented in North America, Aurora technology, an automated railroad track inspection solution. One of the most important criteria to ensure efficient market penetration, correct application and utilization of the Aurora is to accurately assess the crosstie condition and demonstrate high repeatability in its measurement system. Although, Aurora as a solution, has made significant in-road into the railroad industry, and continue, to positively impact the railroad crosstie inspection and maintenance practices, across the customer-base, the quest for accuracy remains a priority. Thus, as a continual technology improvement initiative, in May, 2008, the GREX management funded a major test project at the Transportation Technology Center (TTCI) in Pueblo, Colorado, where various repeatability and reproducibility tests were performed, to establish the robustness of Aurora measurement system. This paper presents results from an extensive test investigation project carried at TTCI to establish the levels of

The railway industry has been slow to adopt limit states principles in the design of prestressed concrete sleepers, despite the global take up of this form of design for other structural elements. Sleeper design based on limiting stresses is generally perceived by track engineers to lead to untapped reserves of strength. There should be significant economic benefits in designing new sleepers or re-rating existing sleepers using a more rational approach based on the ultimate dynamic strength of sleepers. Furthermore, traditional methods of calculating the forces applied to sleepers are based on the idea that a single dynamic impact factor can be applied to the static wheel force to give the peak dynamic force. However, there have been many reports showing that the actual peak forces in track are much more variable than this method suggests. This is indirectly reflected in the many different values of dynamic impact factor in use around the world. The paper presents a process of determining wheel/rail impact forces that is probabilistically based and accounts for designer-chosen return periods and track 84

repeatability and reproducibility of Aurora as a measurement system based on type of railroad tie (wood/concrete); time of day (day/night); speed of vehicle; across operation vehicles; and the direction of tie scanning (East/West). The predicted TTCI findings and the data previously attained during customer acceptance investigations are compared and discussed, and the relevant recommendations for further improvement identified.)

The author describe 1) the feature of lateral force of new boggy, 2) the evaluation for the necessity of preventative maintenance of track components and 3) the inspection result of the performance of the fastening having the resistance to lateral force. Trial Track Section with Under Sleeper Pads in the Czech Republic M Hruzíková, Dr O Plášek, Dr J Smutný, Svoboda

LIFE INVESTIGATION OF RAIL FASTENINGS UNDER HIGH LATERAL FORCE CONDITION Tomoaki Wada

Brno University of Technology, Fakulty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Railway Structures and Constructions, Veveří 331/95, Brno, Czech Republic

East Japan Railway Company, Research & Development Center of JR East Group Technical Center, 2-0 Nisshin-cho, Kita-ku, Saitamashi,Saitama, Japan to-[email protected]

Dr Vlastislav Salajka

Brno University of Technology, Fakulty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Structural Mechanics, Veveří 331/95, Brno, Czech Republic [email protected], [email protected] cz, [email protected], [email protected] vutbr.cz, [email protected]

Keywords: PQ measurement, lateral load, SN diagram, e-plus.

East JR operates its Shinkansen network in 5 directions linking urban cities. The two Shinkansens bound for Akita and Yamagata were constructed by upgrading the conventional tracks for Shinkansen operations. The feature of these two tracks is that they have many tight curves because it links urban cities among the mountains. This is known as ‘mini’ Shinkansen. On the other hand, East JR is intending to speed up the Shinkansen. East JR has developed the new train and carried out the running tests. The stiffness of bogies of the new train is high in order for high speed operation. East JR carried out the tests of the property of new boggy. As a result of running test in mini Shinkansen section, it was found that the lateral force of the new boggy would be higher than that of the conventional express train.

Keywords: Railway superstructure, under sleeper pads, trial track section, rail deflection, sleeper deflection, vibration acceleration.

Under sleeper pads are installed into railway tracks of European railway companies more than 15 years. Under sleeper pads bring into a railway superstructure elasticity on the underneath surface of a sleeper. A decrease of ballast and sub-ballast layers’ stresses, a homogenization of vertical stiffness of a railway track, a decrease of a rail corrugation development in narrow curves and a reduction of vibration transmission to a track bed are expected contributions of this elastic layer. Two trial track sections with under sleeper pads were built in the Czech Republic. The first trial section was built in the Havlíčkův Brod – Okrouhlice railway line in a narrow curve with the radius 288 m at the beginning of 2008. A contribution of under sleeper pads for a deceleration of a 85

plates transmit impact force to the main body through multi-contact loading, which prevents breakage of the sensor itself from a running train’s impact loads. The sleeper sensory performance was tested in a fullscale field experiment performed on a railway line. The results confirmed that the newly developed techniques are beneficial for measuring dynamic interaction within the boundary layer between a sleeper and an assemblage of ballast grains.

rail corrugation development is monitored in this trial section. The second trial section in the Planá nad Lužnicí railway station was built at the end of 2007. The aim is a monitoring of an influence of under sleeper pads to a settlement of bearers in the turnout and to a quality of track geometric parameters. Two trial track sections with under sleeper pads (USP), monitored parameters and results of measurements in the trial track sections are described in the article.

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR BALLAST COMPACTION ESTIMATION Kazem Jadidi, Jabbar Ali Zakeri

SENSING SLEEPER FOR DYNAMIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENT ON A SLEEPER BOTTOM INDUCED BY RUNNING TRAINS Dr A Aikawa, F Urakawa, A Kono, Dr A. Namura

Iran University of Science & Technology, School of Railway Engineering, Tehran, Iran [email protected], [email protected]

Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8540, Japan [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] rtri.or.jp, [email protected]

Keywords: Ballast, compaction, intelligent.

In order to identify the railway track defects on time, and achieve an optimum track maintenance condition, various tools are used to measure the probable defects and monitor the railway track. One of these tools is Canne-a-Baule, a simple portable tool, which is used for estimating ballast compaction. In this article, field investigation of Canne-a-Baule in different parts of Iranian Railway and design and manufacturing of a system for intelligent estimation of ballast compaction is studied. The mentioned system is designed based on the waves generated due to repercussion of the Canne-a-Baule impact sound with the sleeper, and displays the compaction magnitude in numerical format (a number between 0 and 99).

Keywords: Ballasted track, track deterioration, pressure on sleeper bottom, impact force sensor, piezoelectric film, sleeper and ballast grain interaction.

This paper describes a newly developed measurement technique of the dynamic pressure distribution on a sleeper bottom induced by running trains with high frequency of up to several thousand Hertz using a special sensing sleeper equipped with ultra-thin-type impact force sensors. The sensing unit comprises a PC3-type mono-block concrete sleeper fitted with a large number of sensors. Attached to the sleeper’s whole undersurface is a solid mass made up of 75 thin impact force sensors (80 mm × 80 mm × 20 mm). Each impact force sensor has a main body and cover members. The main body, made from piezoelectric film (PVDF) and silicone rubber, has solid cover plates on both surfaces of the main body. The cover 86

under sleeper pads standardization tests in the Czech Republic R Svoboda, Dr O Plášek, M Hruzíková

modulus is changed according the changing flatness.

Brno University of Technology, Fakulty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Railway Structures and Constructions, Veveří 331/95, Brno, Czech Republic [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Railway superstructure, under sleeper pads, static bedding modulus, dynamic bedding modulus, test plate.

These days sleepers with under sleeper pads (USP) are tested in Czech Republic with the aim to reduce compression stress in ballast bed and to homogenize vertical stiffness of railway track. Testing and certifying of under sleeper pads quality is necessary for these sleepers for specific application. The static and dynamic bedding modulus are tested for verifying quality these materials. There are two possibilities for measurement bedding modulus: • test according BN 918 145-01, • Vibrogir test using especially in France. The tests according to BN 918 1451 (tests of static and dynamic bedding modulus) are most suitable in term of form of testing. The special ballast test plate is necessary for these tests. This ballast test plate simulates pieces of gravel in ballast bed. But there are two main problems with this test plate: • It is difficult to put the testing sample on the ballast test plate the same way. Testing samples dimensions are 300 × 300 mm, test plate 500 × 500 mm. Contact area (and bedding modulus too) is changing by shifting tested sample along the test plate surface. • It is difficult keep the flatness of tested sample and it means that bedding 87

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Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Trackbed and Subgrade Inspection and Monitoring

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TRACK SUBSTRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION USING 500 MHZ and 2 GHZ GROUND PENETRATING RADAR: RESULTS FROM TRACK IN COLORADO, WYOMING, and ALASKA, USA Roger Roberts, Andreas Kathage

collection configuration. The subsequent data collection efforts were on active railroads with different track substructures. The maintenance concerns associated with the Alaska Railroad track were focused on frost susceptible sections. Whereas ballast fouling associated with coal dust was the major maintenance priority of the track in Wyoming. These two structurally different railroads, exhibiting different substructure maintenance requirements, were effectively characterized using one GPR setup. Good correlation was also observed between the processed GPR data and available ground truth.

Geophysical Survey Systems Inc, 12 Industrial Way, Salem, NH 03079, USA

Imad Al-Qadi, Erol Tutumluer

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, MC-250, 205 N. Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA [email protected], [email protected] geophysical.com, [email protected], [email protected]

Trackbed GPR Investigations corrected for ballast topography W Throssel

Keywords: Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR, ballast fouling, track condition assessment, frost heaves, coal dust fouling.

In June, July and August, 2007, a configuration of ground penetrating radar (GPR) antennas mounted on a hi-rail vehicle was used to assess the ballast condition and characterize the subballast and subgrade along over 252 mi (406 km) of track in Colorado, Wyoming and Alaska, USA. The GPR setup utilized 2 GHz horn antennas mounted over the shoulders and a 500 MHz horn antenna mounted between the rails. The 2 GHz data were processed to assess the ballast fouling condition on the shoulders. The 500 MHz data were obtained with the intent of mapping the subballast/ subgrade interface and anomalous features typically associated with perched water or the water table. Ground truth holes were dug at each location and samples were extracted typically at 6 in. (15 cm) depth increments through the ballast layer and in most instances into the subballast and subgrade. The data from Colorado were obtained on the High-Tonnage Loop (HTL) at the Transportation Technology Center Inc (TTCI). The TTCI data collection trip was made to establish and test the data

Fugro Aperio Ltd, Focal Point, Newmarket Road, Bottisham, Cambridge, CB25 9BD, UK [email protected] Keywords: Trackbed, GPR.

There have been recent improvements in the speed at which trackbed GPR data can be collected and processed, however there has been comparatively little work in improving the accuracy and relevance of the results. Variation in ballast topography is not necessarily of engineering significance and can produce misleading results regarding the thickness of ballast between the base of the sleeper and the subgrade. This paper proposes a method of recording ballast topography relative to the top of rail height. An ultrasonic distance ranging system monitors undulation of the GPR antennae as they move over the ballast surface. Ultrasonic data are recorded using the same chainage system as GPR data to allow easy integration and once processed and interpreted can output true base of ballast depth relative to rail head. The system has successfully been used 91

loading cycles and the loading conditions. The predicted results from the permanent strain equation showed a broad match with the experimental results.

to remove the effects of variable ballast height in the cess and six foot relative to the four foot. Resulting trackbed construction information allows engineers to stipulate maximum and minimum ballast below the base of sleeper with accuracy and confidence.

ASPECTS OF GPR TESTING OF A MIXED RAILWAY TRACKBED R De Bold, G O’Connor, JP Morrissey, Professor MC Forde

A LABORATORY STUDY OF RAILWAY BALLAST DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR X Shi, NH Thom

University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering, AGB Building, The Kings Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK [email protected], [email protected]

University of Nottingham, Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK

Keywords: GPR, ballast, testing, spent, analysis.

The continuous demand for rail travel has resulted in increased traffic and a demand for fewer track possessions. Thus there is a need for faster and more efficient investigation of railway trackbed ballast. The overall aim of this project was to relate Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to ballast fouling. The 10-year old University of Edinburgh trackbed was re-visited and the fouling of the ballast was re-calibrated following environmental changes, using the Ionescu fouling index. A series of GPR experiments were undertaken on the trackbed using a range of bowtie antennas from 500 MHz to 2.6 GHz. Scatter analyses of the GPR waveforms included area analyses, axis crossing analyses and inflexion point analyses. When predicting the Ballast Fouling Index, a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9 was obtained by using a 500 MHz bowtie antenna in the parallel orientation - from undertaking a scan area analysis. This paper will outline the recent work of other researchers and the detailed experimental programme at the University of Edinburgh.

[email protected], [email protected] nottingham.ac.uk Keywords: Ballast, triaxial test, permanent deformation.

Railways are designed to provide an economical and safe transportation system for passengers and freight traffic. This requires the track to be maintained with a stable alignment both horizontally and vertically under all anticipated speeds and axle loading conditions. Although slab track has become popular on newly built railway, ballasted track still remains the most common track form on existing railways. In this research, large scale triaxial tests were conducted to study ballast deformation and particle breakage under different confining pressures and loading conditions. The triaxial test is one of the most versatile and useful laboratory tests for characterisation of granular material properties. Triaxial test data is considered as the basis for developing a relationship between the stress, strain and particle breakage. A series of monotonic, cyclic and multi-stage loading triaxial tests were carried out under different confining pressures to obtain an empirical equation, which describes the permanent strain in ballast as a function of the number of 92

ASSESSMENT OF RAILWAY TRACK DYNAMIC PARAMETERS Otto Plasek, Jaroslav Smutny, Richard Svoboda, Miroslava Hruzikova, Vlastislav Salajka

undesirable effects of a dynamic load due to an advanced evaluation method.

University of Technology Brno, Institute of Railway Structures and Constructions, Institute of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veveri 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic [email protected], [email protected] cz, [email protected], [email protected] vutbr.cz, [email protected] Keywords: Permanent way, track stiffness, under sleeper pads.

The paper is focused on an analysis of railway track bed parameters at dynamic loading. The measurement of track elements vibration and rail deflection is proposed as a tool for the explanation of dynamic behaviour of ballasted track. The analysis of the rail deflection curve includes a theoretical and an experimental part. The theoretical analysis discusses the application of the theory for the beam on an elastic foundation for moving axles and bogies. The influence of dynamic parameters on the shape of a rail deflection curve for a typical bogie is studied. The records of vertical displacements of track elements were analysed either qualitatively or quantitatively for the assessment of a track vertical stiffness, a damping ratio and a critical velocity or for the assessment for gaps under concrete sleepers and bearers. This method has been used for the evaluation of trail track sections for a rail fastening with high elasticity and for sleepers with under sleeper pads and for the comparison with the common structure of a permanent way. The experiments aimed in the dynamic behaviour of railway structures provide a possibility to effectively asses either track elements in trial track sections or 93

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Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Ballasted Trackbed

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OPTIMISATION OF BALLAST COMPACTION BY CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF GROUND STIFFNESS Dr Phil Sharpe

TREATED CAPPING LAYERS IN RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE Alain Robinet

SNCF Engineering Department, 6 avenue François Mitterrand, 93574 La Plaine St Denis Cedex, France [email protected]

Phil Sharpe Limited, 17 Moor End, Spondon, Derby DE21 7ED, UK

Paul Strange

Keywords: Capping layer, improvement, modelling.

Bechtel Ltd, Bechtel House, PO Box 739, 245 Hammersmith Road, London W6 8DP, UK [email protected], [email protected] networkrail.co.uk

The SNCF (French railways operator) and RFF (French railways owner) have launched a research program in order to validate the feasibility and the design of capping layers made of treated soil with the aim of allowing the use of the soil of the site in the construction of railway infrastructure. The objective of the research was to define the complementary specifications to bring to the capping layer of treated soil to take into account the particularities associated with railways lines: • Humid environment, • Vibratory stresses, • Impact on the ageing of the track. The program is comprised of 4 parts: • Analyze behaviour in maintenance of a zone of 17 km on the high speed line Atlantique (LGV A) where an experimental section of capping layer made of treated sand was implemented in 1990; • Taking away of samples on the LGVA and analyzing visual, mechanical and chemical characteristics of the treated soil after 18 years under exploited track; • Realization and cycling of boards of tests to the CER (Road Studies Centre) of Rouen allowing a comparison to be made between the traditional granular behaviour of structure and structures treated with road hydraulic binders. • Modelling the fatigue of the railway structures integrating of the capping layers made of treated soil.

Keywords: Ballast, compaction, stiffness.

In the past year Network Rail has been using the Bomag Variomatic BW213DH4 BVC/ P (BOMAG) roller to provide optimum compaction to ballast (and formation where possible) during track renewals. The BOMAG’s inbuilt instrumentation and control systems permit continuous monitoring of ground stiffness and delivery of an optimum amount of compactive effort to achieve a given level of stiffness. While this has shown considerable benefits, in terms of reduced compaction times and better initial track quality it is considered that the full potential of the system has not been realised. In all of the evaluation trials the BOMAG was used as part of an ongoing construction programme, much of it under track possessions. While many site measurements were taken to determine the stiffness of ballast, and sometimes formation, it was not possible with the limited time and resources available to undertake a rigorous assessment at each location. As a result it has only been possible to analyse the data at a superficial level.

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ASPECTS OF FREQUENCY RESPONSE FUNCTION TESTING OF A RAILWAY TRACKBED R De Bold, D Connolly, S Patience, Professor MC Forde

The conception of conducting a research of the lateral resistance in the track structure during the tamping process Professor W Koc, P Chrostowski, Dr S Grulkowski

University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering, AGB Building, The Kings Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK [email protected] [email protected]

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL 80-233 Gdansk, Poland

Keywords: GPR, ballast, testing, spent, analysis.

Dr. A. Wilk

The increased demand for more rail travel has driven the demand for more efficient and more rapid investigation of railway trackbed ballast. The current industry approach to evaluating the stiffness of railway ballast is to use a Falling Weight Deflectometer. Whilst this is very effective, it requires the rails to be unclipped from the ties – thus it is very intrusive and expensive. This paper explores the option of using a frequency response function (FRF) generated by using a 12lb instrumented hammer to excite the railway trackbed. Finally the FRF is correlated with the ballast fouling.

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL 80-233 Gdansk, Poland [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Continuous welded rail, diagnostic system of railway structure, lateral resistance, displacement of track structure, tamping machine, measuring apparatus, track grate.

This paper is devoted to the continuation of the research on how to apply a tamping machine in the CWR (Continues Welded Rail) track diagnostic system. The aim of this study is to determine the lateral resistance in the track structure.  Lateral resistance exemplifies a fundamental parameter related to the safety issues in railway transport. The danger results from a possibility of loosing stability of the CWR structure, which could be caused by axial (thermal) forces in rails. What is more, the level of lateral resistance has a significant influence on the development of geometrical imperfections process in the track structure. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop effective diagnostic methods that could determine the lateral resistance in exploited railroads.  This paper presents the concept of conducting this kind of research during geometrical regulation process in the track structure using a tamping machine. The discussed method aims at recording continuously the track dislocation value as well as the external force which the tamping 98

machine tends to dislocate the structure with. Acquired time-signals enable the estimation of phenomenon based on the lateral resistance distribution in the length of studied routes.  The results of conducted experiments have confirmed the thesis about the possibility to use a tamping machine in order to diagnose the lateral resistance in the track structure. Further directions of the research have been formulated in that field around specifying a required set of measurement equipment, along with a method to archive and interpret measured time signals.

was developed based on the triaxial test results, as a function of the number of loading cycles, the magnitude of load and the formation stiffness, to predict the resultant vertical strain in a constant confining pressure condition. The full scale cyclic loading CET, simulating a railway trackbed, was carried out to validate the model. Based on the ballast deformation model, a better understanding of railway track life performance could be obtained.

PREDICTION OF PERMANENT DEFORMATION IN RAILWAY TRACK X Shi, NH Thom

Heriot-Watt University & XiTRACK Limited, School of Built Environment, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK [email protected]

XiTRACK REINFORCEMENT OF HIGH SPEED RAILWAY TRACK OVER PEAT FORMATIONS PK Woodward, J Kennedy, G Medero

Keywords: XiTRACK reinforcement, track reinforcement, testing, geosynthetics.

University of Nottingham, Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK [email protected], [email protected] nottingham.ac.uk

Due to long standing track quality issues on the Down Line between 47 miles 0 chains to 48 miles 40 chains on the East Coast Main Line, UK at the geocell reinforced track at Newham Bog the decision was taken to significantly increase the track reinforcement in parts of this area by removing sections of the geocells and replacing them with the XiTRACK polyurethane track reinforcement system. These track quality issues arise from the poor formation, the subgrade properties and the type of reinforcement used. Examination of the track recording vehicle data clearly indicates that the geocells in this area are unable to retain the track geometry. This paper details the on-site application of the XiTRACK technique to significantly strengthen the formation and hence help reduce future track settlement. This was achieved by removing the geocells and applying the XiTRACK technique to both increase track stability and provide a

Keywords: Ballast, permanent deformation, Finite Element Method (FEM).

This research has investigated the deformation behaviour of railway ballast, particularly the vertical settlements under repeated traffic loading. Experiments, using a large scale triaxial test and a Composite Element Test (CET), were conducted to study ballast deformation under different confining pressures and loading conditions. Computational analysis was deployed to calculate the stress levels within ballast layers. An extended Drucker-Prager model with hardening, which simulates the elastoplastic behaviour of granular materials under relatively large loads, was adopted in a Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis in order to account for the inelastic stress-strain behaviour of railway ballast. A ballast permanent strain equation 99

EVALUATION BETWEEN TWO BRAZILIAN RAILWAY TRACKS Professor Dr CE Lima de Paiva, Professor C de Franco Peixoto, LF de Melo Correia

transition onto those geocells still being retained (the possession time was very limited, which restricted the total area of the geocells that could be removed). In addition work on the drainage system was performed in order to further try and improve track performance. The paper also presents the results of full scale testing of the XiTRACK system to illustrate its ability to reduce track settlement and hence reduce track geometry problems (by achieving a high fixity condition in the test specimen). A general review of geogrid and geocell performance is also included as is dynamic stiffness measurement using the FWD.

UNICAMP Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Geotechnical & Transportation Department, Brazil

PR Aguiar

Erelys Assessoria e Consultoria Ltd, Brazil [email protected], [email protected] com, [email protected], [email protected] com.br Keywords: Permanent way, deformation field survey.

Most of Brazilian railways were built more than 100 years ago. Some of them were submitted to rebuilding processes while others were just overloaded by additional layers of ballast. Nowadays, Brazil is going through a new railway transport impulse in relation to the increase of load despite of the necessary supply capacity. For this reason, there were developed evaluations from some Brazilian railways in order to determine their operational conditions. This work shows a comparative analysis of results from two parts of studied old railway, aiming to determine minimum features to enable them to higher load axis. One of these studied old railway parts did not have a sub-ballast layer in contrast to the other one. The stresses and strains of these old railway track parts were generated by the same locomotive.

Applications and Technology of Chinese Track Irregularity Management Tian Xinyu, Li Guoqing, Wang Weidong, Chen Dongsheng

Infrastructure Inspection Center, Ministry of Railway P.R China, IIC, No.2 Daliushu Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China 100081 [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] rails.com.cn, [email protected] Keywords: Track irregularity, management, maintenance.

Chinese railway operating speed with non-ballasted track reached 350km/h. The maximum operating speed with ballast track is 250km/h. This article focuses on the present situation of Chinese track irregularity management, recent related scientific research result, as well as the development of Chinese track irregularity management.

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Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Ballastless Trackbed

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TRACK RENEWALS BENEFIT FROM THE EMBEDDED RAIL SYSTEM Dr AP de Man

SOLVING HIGH FREQUENCY VIBRATION ON HIGH SPEED SLAB TRACK Fusayoshi Aoki

System Development Manager, edilon)(sedra bv, P.O. Box 1000, 2003 RZ Haarlem, The Netherlands [email protected]

East Japan Railway Company, Research & Development Center of JR East Group Technical Center, 2-0 Nisshin-cho, Kita-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama, Japan [email protected]

Keywords: Railway track, design, renewal, tunnels, bridges.

Keywords: Slab track, comparatively high frequency vibration, 5m cord vertical alignment.

Railway tracks form the physical infrastructure, which is necessary for the support and guidance of railway vehicles. Technical developments in railway track systems have delivered a multitude of rail fastening systems, both for general use and for very specific applications. Every railway track system approaches – at a moment – the end of its lifetime. Track indicators show that reliable and/or safe use of the track is no longer possible within a limited time. Where maintenance and partial renewal extend the lifetime, full scale renewal sets the counter back at zero. Whereas technical issues are the initiator of renewals, operational issues often bring in a multitude of restrictions and requirements. And so do the substructures on which the railway track superstructure is constructed. In the Netherlands the EDILON Corkelast® Embedded Rail System (Fig. 1), installed since the early 1970s in many level-crossings, steel and concrete bridges and in tunnels, is now a well-known and preferred system by the railway authorities and the main contractors. Installation, maintenance, and renewal of the Embedded Rail System are day-to-day works. And conversion from other ballastless track systems into Embedded Rail is performed more and more.

Comparatively high frequency train vibration often occurs at fixed points on some specific vehicles for Shinkansen lines in JR East. The purpose of study is to solve this vibration problem.We carried out some measurements to find out causes. At first, we measured the frequency of the train vibration. The peak frequency is 13Hz.We compared the vertical vibration frequency of various vehicles. Only one type has the peak of 13Hz. Next we analyzed track irregularity of this vibration section. We found that the dominant wave length of track irregularity is 5m. In this section this car type runs at speed of 245km/h. So the feature vibration frequency of 13Hz corresponds to the wave length of 5m. This length is equal to the slab length. So we investigate condition of slab in the section. Some of these slabs are deteriorated. We repaired some deteriorated slab and improved 5m cord track irregularity. After that we measured the vibration of this type car and confirmed the reduction of the vibration.

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STATE-OF-THE-ART OF EMBEDDED RAIL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES R Insa

finish, drainage etc. The paper assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each generation and aims to offer the reader a framework to distinguish and to understand the particularities and typical characteristics of each of the different ERS on the market in 2008.

Universidad Poli de Madrid, Dept de Ingeniería Civil, Spain

J González

Metro de Madrid, Spain

J Real, J Sánchez, M Bueno, I Reig

DISCRETIZATION METHOD APPROACH TO OPTIMAL CHOICE OF TYPES OF SLAB TRACK SYSTEMS Dr Darko Plamenac

Universidad Poli de Valencia, Dept de Transportes, Spain [email protected], [email protected] mailmetromadrid.es, [email protected], [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

Advanced School of Civil Engineering & Geodesy, Hajduk Stanka 2, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia

Keywords: Embedded rail system, jacketed rail system.

This paper tracks the history of trams over the last two centuries, and reviews the engineering evolution and technical innovations of Embedded Rail Systems (ERS) technology from cradle (late 19th century) to present date (2008). The starting point was horse drawn tramway in the 19th century and trams became the most popular means of transportation in cities until the invention of the car in the early 20th century. Since the late eighties trams have seen a resurgence in popularity as congestion clogs the roads of our cities. For trams that run along our roads the rail needs to be embedded to allow both tram and road vehicle passage. This paper splits the evolution of ERS since the 80’s into 5 generations: • 1st generation ERS – discrete supported track with fasteners • 2 nd generation ERS – continuously supported track with fasteners • 3rd generation ERS – fastener-less poured solution with bottom-up construction • 4th generation ERS – fastener-less preclad rails with top-down construction • 5th generation ERS – pre-manufactured panels including rails, embedment, road

Dr Zdenka Popovic, Leposava Puzavac

Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia [email protected], [email protected] yu, [email protected] Keywords: Slab track, rough sets theory, discretization method, genetic algorithm, hyperplane, decision rules.

Slab track systems are in use for more than a hundred years, first as metro and tunnel systems, and today as a standard solution for track systems in urban surroundings and a solution for high-speed lines. The paper discusses optimal choice of types of slab track systems by the application of discretization method which is a hybrid method of rough sets theory and Boolean reasoning. Six types of construction are considered, two out of the each following three systems of slab track construction: systems with punctual fastening of the rail on sleepers incorporated in structure, systems with punctual fastening of the rail on sleepers laid and anchored on a supporting structure, and systems with punctual fastening of the rail without sleepers. Each of six considered types is described by two condition attributes: 104

the construction cost and the construction speed. The optimal hyperplane, on the basis of which the decision rules are generated, is defined by the application of genetic algorithm. LATERAL STABILITY IN LIGHT RAIL R Kelly, A Bergiers, V Brasseur, P Charles, P Carels

CDM-UK, PO Box 7035, Melton Mowbray LE13 1WG, UK [email protected] Keywords: Light rail, stability, embedded, continuously supported embedded rail systems (CERS)

The lateral stability of rails is important to limit the risk of derailment and excessive rail wear in curves. In the UK many tram systems have suffered from excessive rail wear due to poor lateral stability and the Office of Rail Regulation (ORR) issued a Technical Tramway Guidance report that indicates that rails should be mechanically fixed down to avoid problems with lateral stability. In the rest of Europe operators have successfully been using Continuously supported Embedded Rail Systems (CERS) with no problems in lateral stability. This paper first tracks the evolution of embedded rail systems to current ‘state-ofthe-art’. It then looks at current standards available for heavy rail regarding lateral stability and proposes methods of adapting these specifications and measurement methods for light rail. Comparisons are then made between measurements made on rails with mechanical fixings, then on CDM-PREFARAIL CERS and other CERS. Finally actual deflections on light rail systems are assessed.

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Day 2, Theme 1: Signalling, Electrification and Railway Trackbed Geosynthetics in Trackbeds

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EARLY PERFORMANCE AUDITS OF GEOSAND IN THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT Edwin Barker

The post construction audits are a vital part of the development process providing awareness of long-term behaviour and therefore give greater confidence in future designs.

Scott Wilson Ltd, 11/12 Regan Way, Chetwynd Business Park, Chilwell, Nottingham NG9 6RZ, UK

ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF COMPOSITES AT THE BALLAST/ SUBGRADE INTERFACE IN RAILWAY TRACK FOUNDATIONS Dr Gurmel Ghataora

Paul Sharley

WTB Geotechnics Ltd Earl, Russell Way, Lawrence Hill, Bristol BS5 0WT, UK [email protected], [email protected] wtbgroup.com

University of Birmingham, School of Civil Engineering, Birmingham, UK

Keywords: Trackbed, sand blanket, subgrade erosion, pumping, geocomposite

Dr Michael Burrow

Erosion of cohesive subgrades beneath the ballast layer is a common problem in the railway environment. Traditional remedial methods involve the placement of a sand blanket beneath the ballast layer. The installation of such sand blankets in the railway environment can be costly due to additional materials and construction time required. An alternative to sand blanket, Geosand, contains a layer of sand between two permeable geotextiles which allows a consistent layer thickness to be installed resulting in a much thinner layer of sand to be applied than conventional methods, thereby reducing material costs. It also gives rise for the potential for quicker, more efficient installation. Geosand has been has been developed over the past five years by WTB geotechnics in collaboration with Network Rail and the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham. Initial development involved extensive laboratory testing and product refinement, before field trials on site with concurrent monitoring during operation. The paper describes recent post construction audits undertaken at railway renewal sites that have incorporated the use of Geosand.

University of Birmingham , School of Civil Engineering, Birmingham, UK [email protected], [email protected] bham.ac.uk Keywords: Fines migration, railway track foundation.

In the UK the accepted method of preventing the migration of fines from the subgrade soil into the ballast is to place a 100 mm thick layer of sand overlain by a geotextile at the interface of the ballast and subgrade. However, the placement of sand in significant thickness is resource hungry. Thus a number of geotextile manufacturers have proposed products that will replace the sand layer with thinner and easy to place composites. In order to prove that these composites are likely to work in situ a test has been developed in conjunction with Network Rail, the owner and operator of Britain’s railway network. The test is reported here, together with results of some of the investigations carried out to develop a thinner composite that is easier to place and is as at least as effective as the thicker sand/textile layer that is used currently used.

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LAB MEASUREMENTS OF BALLASTED TRACK MODELS REINFORCED BY GEOSYNTHETICS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS Dr Leos Hornicek, Dr Martin Lidmila, Professor Petr Tyc

using a light falling weight deflectometer. In all, eight different model constructions were monitored, including a construction without any reinforcement. The paper summarizes the results of measurements and a mutual comparison of individual model constructions.

Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Railway Structures, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6, Czech Republic [email protected], [email protected] fsv.cvut.cz

FULL-SCALE CYCLIC GEOPAVEMENT and RAILWAY ACCELERATED FATIGUE TESTING JH Kennedy, PK Woodward, G Medero, J McKinney

Keywords: Geosynthetic, geotextile, geogrid, geocomposite, reinforcement.

Heriot-Watt University, School of the Built Environment, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

One of the targets of the international INNOTRACK project of the 6th Framework Programme consists in finding innovative procedures ensuring an economical improvement of qualitative parameters of existing European tracks with velocities of up to 160 km/h. A perspective method of increasing the load-bearing capacity of the track bed proves to be inserting reinforcing geosynthetics between the ballast bed and the structural layer. Inserting reinforcing geosynthetics at this level is much easier, allowing the use of mechanized machinery, and economically superior to their classic inserting under the structural layer. This paper presents a series of lab measurements where different geosynthetics (woven geotextile, nonwoven geotextile, geogrid, geocomposite) were inserted into model track bed constructions at different height levels. Models in a 1:1 scale with dimensions of 2x1x0.8 m were exposed to short-term consolidation loading corresponding to the axle load of 22.5 t. The settlement of the simulated subgrade, the structural layer and the half-sleeper were monitored while the rail was loaded. The load-bearing capacity of the surface of layers was determined by the plate load test under DIN 18 134 and the impact load test

Keyword: Laboratory railway testing, geosynthetics, XiTRACK reinforcement.

The new full-scale cyclic GRAFT (Geopavement and Railway Accelerated Fatigue Testing) facility has been developed at Heriot-Watt University to enable a realistic environment for accelerated testing of railway trackbeds under various conditions. This paper describes the operation, validation and initial results of the GRAFT facility. The GRAFT facility consists of a trackbed constructed within a steel tank 1.072m wide x 3.0m long x 1.15m high. The track includes sleeper sections that replicate one half of a twin block sleeper used in the field, overlain by an I-section with the same properties as a BS 113 A rail section. Cyclic loading is applied to the centre sleeper of the track at a range of typical track frequencies from a hydraulic actuator. The applied loads generate realistic stress levels in the ballast and subgrade layers. Track settlement and ballast layer stress levels can be monitored during each test through load cells placed within the substructure and LVDT’s placed on the middle sleeper. The validation and 110

initial XiTRACK reinforcement results of the GRAFT facility show that GRAFT can be used to simulate a range of track problems and that it has the ability to test the performance of different railway products in realistic railway conditions.

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Day 2, Theme 2: Railway Structures and Geotechnics Masonry Arch Bridges

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Calder Viaduct FRP ReDecking Lee Canning, Nick Speight, Rob Stephens, Yvonne Dobson

GPR TESTING OF BRICK MASONRY ARCH BRIDGES Dr N Diamanti

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Dept of Geophysics, School of Geology, 352-1, Thessaloniki, Greece

Mouchel, Ground Floor, Square One, 4 Travis Street, Manchester, UK [email protected]

J Cameron

Scott Wilson Limited, Edinburgh

Keywords: FRB, bridge deck, railway.

C Demoulin

This paper describes the world’s first application of FRP (fibre reinforced polymer) composites for structural redecking of a railway bridge for full railway and derailment load. Calder Viaduct crosses the River Calder near Sellafield in Cumbria. The original bridge comprised three spans of half-through type steel girders with timber decking and ballasted rail, constructed in 1922. Due to the coastal location of the viaduct, significant corrosion of the steelwork and deterioration of the timber decking had occurred. The structure was chosen by Network Rail for a pilot project for re-decking with FRP composite materials. The chosen FRP decking solution comprised standard pultruded GFRP (glass fibre reinforced polymer) deck with bonded and bolted GFRP top plate for ballast retention. Other types of FRP deck were considered, such as bonded FRP pultruded sections and bespoke vacuum-cured FRP decks. The choice of FRP decking system was driven by a number of factors; ease of installation, adaptability, minimum depth/weight, compliance testing, durability/design life and cost. The installation method, design challenges such as achieving compliance for derailment loading, and procurement issues such as developing generic specification to enable competition, are discussed.

Skanska Limited, London, UK

Dr A Giannopoulos, Professor MC Forde

The University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, Scotland, UK [email protected], [email protected] ed.ac.uk, [email protected] Keywords: Brick masonry arch bridges, nondestructive testing, ground penetrating radar, clay capping layer.

In the UK alone, there are 40,000 masonry arch bridges which are currently used for modern railway and road use, carrying loads significantly greater than originally designed for. Experience has indicated that a 15cm clay capping layer above the masonry arch ring is likely to protect the brickwork from water ingress, thus increasing the durability and load carrying capacity of the bridge. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was investigated to see if the clay capping layer in brick masonry arches, in a nondestructive manner, could be identified. A brick masonry wall, with a clay layer compacted behind it, was built to represent part of a masonry arch bridge. A number of tests, changing the masonry unit thickness but keeping the clay layer thickness stable and equal to 15 cm, were conducted using GPR. These tests revealed that despite the method’s limitation to penetrate adequately conductive materials, such as clay, GPR proved to be a good candidate for detecting the presence and measuring the thickness of a clay layer behind the masonry unit. 115

DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF RAILWAY BRIDGES - A PERSPECTIVE FROM FIELD DYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS L Mao, Y Lu

The University of Edinburgh, & JRI of UoE and Heriot-Watt, School of Engineering, The Kings Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK

PK Woodward

Heriot-Watt University & JRI of UoE and Heriot-Watt, School of Built Environment, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK [email protected], [email protected] uk Keywords: Railway bridge, dynamic effect, dynamic measurement, frequency response.

The dynamic behaviour of a railway bridge affects the dynamic loading (amplification) and response of the bridge structure under a passing train. Such an effect also has implications on the long term performance of the bridge due to vibration induced fatigue and other degradations, such as ballast fluidisation. As the dynamic behaviour of a railway bridge may be significantly altered under a passing train, it is important to conduct in-situ dynamic measurement when the bridge is loaded by the traffic. However, the analysis and interpretation of such measurements are complicated due to the interactions between the moving train and the bridge structure, as well as the strong presence of the trainload excitation components in the measured dynamic signals. This paper presents a study on the analysis of the dynamic response measured from a typical small-size railway bridge. Emphasis is placed on the observation of the influences of the trainload frequency components in the bridge responses and the extraction of the resonant frequencies.

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Day 2, Theme 2: Railway Structures and Geotechnics Concrete Bridges

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THE U-SHAPED VIADUCT AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE DUBAI METRO Daniel Dutoit, Serge Montens

150 KM OF U SHAPE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DECKS FOR LRT VIADUCTS Serge Montens, P Moine

Keywords: Viaduct, concrete, Dubai.

Keywords: LRT, U shape, viaduct, prefabrication, prestressed concrete.

Systra, 5 Avenue du Coq, Paris 75009, France [email protected] [email protected]

Systra, 5 Avenue du Coq, Paris 75009, France [email protected] [email protected]

There are 62km of viaducts along the 74km of red and green lines that make up the Metro of Dubai. This project is a major undertaking which incorporates a viaduct design - the U-shaped viaduct developed specially by SYSTRA for this type of project. We are therefore going firstly to describe this concept, chronicle its development and see how it has been applied in Dubai.

SYSTRA has developed a system of U shape prestressed concrete decks for LRT viaducts. The many advantages of this system are presented, along with the design concept: system integration and deck design, architectural design, deck computation. Examples of applications throughout the world are described.

EVALUATION OF A TIED-ARCH REINFORCED CONCRETE RAILWAY BRIDGE Dr K Ozakgul, Dr O Caglayan, Dr E Uzgider, Dr M Aydogan, O Tezer

Istanbul Technical University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Bridge rating, rating factor, safety index.

This study presents investigations regarding visual inspection, dynamic testing and finite element modeling of an approximately eighty year old reinforced concrete tiedarch railway bridge that is still in service in Turkey. The bridge is subject to heavy freight trains with increasing axle loads. Field tests such as material tests and dynamic tests were conducted on the bridge to calibrate the finite element model of the bridge. Based on the results of these tests, computer model was refined. Calibrated model of the bridge structure was then used for structural assessment and evaluation. 119

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Day 2, Theme 2: Railway Structures and Geotechnics Tunnels

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STRUCTURAL FIRE PROTECTION OF RAILWAY TUNNELS F Tarada, M King

to risk assessment and decision-making. The report was published in 2008 and was presented in an address to the European Parliament Transport Committee in December of that year. This article gives a very brief account of some of the issues raised, focussing on rail tunnels. For full details, the report is available on the web-site of the European Parliament under the rubric of ‘Science and Technology Options Assessment’ (STOA); see reference [Beard, A.N. & Cope, D., 2008].

Halcrow Group Ltd, Vineyard House, 44 Brook Green, London W6 7BY, UK [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Fire, structure, railway, tunnel, passive, protection.

The recent fire in the Channel Tunnel has served to heighten interest on the issue of structural fire protection of rail tunnels. Opinions on the requirement and merit of passive fire protection in rail tunnels vary significantly, and there is as yet little harmonisation of the relevant international standards. The current paper provides a review of the criteria that are normally employed in assessing the risk and consequences of fires in rail tunnels, and the selection of suitable time-temperature curves that describe the evolution of ‘worstcase’ fires. The advantages and drawbacks of alternative fire protection methods, including sprayed-on fire protection materials, cementitious linings and the addition of polypropylene fibres, are briefly outlined. In addition, the issue of fixed fire fighting systems, and whether these can be viewed as a possible alternative or addition to passive fire protection measures, is discussed. RAIL TUNNEL SAFETY Alan N Beard

Civil Engineering Section, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK [email protected] Keywords: Tunnel, rail, safety.

The author recently completed a research project, at the request of the European Parliament, on the Assessment of the Safety of Tunnels. It covered both road and rail tunnels and the intention was to make recommendations to the European Parliament on future policy with regard 123

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Day 2, Theme 2: Railway Structures and Geotechnics Earthworks Investigation and Monitoring

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AERIAL SURVEY TO ENABLE GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF RAILWAY SLOPES, EMBANKMENTS AND STRUCTURES Hamish Grierson

of the use of specialised Finite Element analysis in these assessments. MOISTURE MEASUREMENTS IN AN END-TIPPED EMBANKMENT: APPLICATION FOR STUDYING LONG TERM STABILITY AND AGEING DA Gunn, E Haslam, M Kirkham, JE Chambers, A Lacinska, A Milodowski, H Reeves

Blom Aerofilms Ltd, The Astrolabe, Cheddar BS27 3EB, UK

Andrew Verity

WYG Engineering, Aqua House, 20 Lionel Street, Birmingham B3 1AQ, UK [email protected], [email protected] wyg.com

British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK

G Ghataora, M Burrow, P Weston, A Thomas

Keywords: Aerial survey, assessment, earthworks.

The safe operation of the UK’s railway system relies on the continual assessment of the geotechnical structures associated with it. To assess the stability and condition of these structures, data can be captured from the air safely, efficiently and, most importantly, with minimal access to the track. This data can then be utilised by engineers in order to study a geotechnical asset’s condition, assess options for any immediate work required and plan implementation of the optimal solution. The authors will show how aerial data is being utilised to ensure the best overall strategy for geotechnical structures. In particular they will demonstrate the use of how LiDAR or photogrammetric data was captured. Then a case study will illustrate how it is used for a geomorphological study to assess the changing loads to a buried tunnel in an active landslip area, through heavy vegetation cover and over steeply wooded slopes - which ruled out conventional survey techniques. In addition, and using a range of examples, they will stress the importance of including adjacent areas in the survey to allow wider geo-morphological assessment to be made from drainage, vegetation, slope features, and changes of level, and the importance

School of Engineering, Birmingham University, Pritchatts Road, Birmingham, UK

N Dixon, R Sellers, T Dijkstra

Dept. Civil and Building Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Loughborough University, Leics, LE11 3TU, UK [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: subgrade, embankment, geotechnical, geophysical

Climate change forecasts indicate that embankments will be subjected to increased stresses due to more sustained, higher temperatures and increased intensity of rainfall. This will lead to fluctuating moisture levels and geotechnical property changes related to cyclic processes of drying, shrinkage and cracking and, wetting, swelling and softening. These processes will be more pronounced in the near surface, and thus, compromise the stability of the slopecrest and toe. However, cyclical moisture changes also drive other, more progressive ‘ageing-related’ processes such as leaching and remineralisation of soluble minerals causing collapse and crystal heave that disrupts the fabric of the fill materials. Simple, inexpensive sensors are used to monitor the long term moisture changes within the core of a Victorian, end tipped embankment. Moisture level increases are 127

the frequency of the shot source together with ways of improving the signal to noise ratio. The results from a field trail in East Lothian, Scotland are compared with the output from the numerical model and good agreement was identified.

related to rain events and the rates of change are interpreted as the embankment being freely draining even though it comprises clay that has degraded from the original mudstone fill. Site investigation has revealed voiding at various scales providing preferential flow pathways and increased potential for shrinkage cracking. Secondary mineralisation within the fabric of the fill that has occurred within the lifetime of the embankment provides insight into the role of moisture movement in the long term deterioration of ageing earthworks infrastructure.

Monitoring of transition zones in railways Dr B Coelho

Delft University of Technology The Netherlands

Dr J Priest, Professor W Powrie University of Southampton, UK

Dr P Hölscher

Deltares, The Netherlands [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

ASPECTS OF 3-D MODELS TO DETECT ABANDONED MINESHAFTS FH Drossaert, MC Forde, A Giannopoulos

Keywords: Railways, transition zones, embankment.

Transitions between railway track on embankments or natural ground and fixed structures such as bridges and culverts often require substantial additional maintenance to preserve line, level and ride quality. This extra maintenance not only increases costs but also causes delays. Despite its importance for railway infrastructure owners, the fundamental cause of the poor performance of transition zones is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into the physical mechanisms involved, an extensive field investigation has commenced on a transition zone in The Netherlands. The transition zone consists of two reinforced concrete slabs which span between the normal track and a concrete culvert – a form of structure common on Dutch Railways. At the study location, the track is generally on a 4 m high embankment, initially built of sand, on top of a peat/clay layer 7 m thick. At a depth of 11 m below the track there is a natural sand layer, in which the piles that support the culvert are founded. The transition zone

University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering, Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, The Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, UK [email protected] Keywords: Abandoned mineshafts, detection, geophysics, seismic, broadside shot gathers.

Abandoned mineshafts are more difficult to detect than abandoned underground mine workings. The practical challenges of mineshaft detection under highway and railway embankments are discussed, together with typical mineshaft properties over the centuries. The paper focuses on the broadside shot seismic transmission method to detect abandoned mineshafts, with the potential to be used in the vicinity of embankments. A numerical model was developed, using a new type of absorbing boundary condition, which is referred to as the Recursive Integration Perfectly Matched Layer. From a series of simulations using this model, a series of practical outcomes were identified regarding the feasibility of the broadside seismic transmission method. These include the layout of the geophones, 128

requires substantial additional maintenance. This paper presents data on the dynamic behaviour of the transition zone in response to scheduled passenger trains. Accelerations and velocities of the track, soil and approach slabs were measured, from which displacements were calculated. The dynamic track stiffness and the motion of the embankment and approach slab are also discussed.

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Day 2, Theme 2: Railway Structures and Geotechnics Earthworks Management

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SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF KOREAN RAILWAY SLOPES BY INFILTRATION OF RAINFALL USING RELIABILITY ANALYSIS Hyun Ki Kim, Min Ho Shin, Ji Soo Shin

Korea Railroad Research Institute, UiwangCity, Korea [email protected] Keywords: Railway, slopes, infiltration, safety, management.

Slope stability is affected by various factors. For safety management of slopes, monitoring systems have been widely constructed along railway lines. The representative data from the systems are variations of ground profile such like ground water level and pore water pressure etc. and direct displacement measured by ground clinometer and tension wire sensor. Slopes are mainly effected by rainfall and rainfall causes the decrease of safety factor(FOS). Because FOS varies linearly by the variation of rainfall condition and pore pressure, it has a weak point that could not define the time and proper warning sign to secure the safety of the train. In this study, alternatives of FOS such as reliability index, probability of failure and velocity of probability of failure are applied to slope stability analysis introducing the reliability concept. FOS, reliability index, probability of failure and velocity of probability of failure of the slopes by infiltration of rainfall are investigated for setting up the specification of safety management of slopes. By executing case study of several slopes, it is shown to be applicable to specification of safety management.

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Day 2, Theme 2: Railway Structures and Geotechnics Earthworks Design and Stabilisation

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WELSH HIGHLAND RAILWAY RESTORATION PROJECT PHASE 4: BEDDGELERT – PORTHMADOG EARTHWORKS DESIGN AND STABILISTION Robert Arthur Evans

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR NEW FREIGHT ROUTES ON OLD VICTORIAN EMBANKMENTS Dr M Burrow, Dr G Ghataora, Dr H Evdorides

Centre for Railway Research and Education, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Arup, Nyquist House, Ellice Way, Wrexham, LL13 7YT, UK [email protected]

Dr H Reeves, Dr D Gunn, J Pearson

British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK [email protected] [email protected] bham.ac.uk, [email protected]

Keywords: Welsh Highland Railway, heritage railway, restoration, Snowdonia.

The Welsh Highland Railway restoration project is virtually complete and when fully open in the summer of 2009, will link Caernarfon to Porthmadog. Combined with the Ffestiniog Railway, the two related railways will form 62km of restored heritage railway, the longest in the UK (Sreeves, 2008). This paper describes the author’s involvement in the restoration project between Beddgelert and Porthmadog. This section of the railway is mostly within the sensitive environment of Snowdonia National Park and includes the Aberglaslyn Pass; one of the most scenic, popular and visible parts of Snowdonia National Park and indeed the UK (McSmith, 2008). Civil engineering challenges faced on this section included making the trackbed safe from the risk of rock fall, rebuilding failing embankments, widening and stabilising existing embankments and creating new trackbed where re-alignment was required for future operational purposes.

Keywords: Old embankments, freight.

In the UK there is increasing political, environmental and economic pressure for more freight to be carried by rail. As a result a number of initiatives are underway which are considering amongst others, re-commissioning, redundant and under utilized existing infrastructure. There are a number of technical issues which must be addressed in order to reuse such lines. One of these concerns designing a suitable substructure which can carry safely the proposed freight traffic whilst protecting the underlying subgrade material from premature failure. This paper describes a rational process which can be adopted to this end, using a lightly trafficked heritage railway line, the Great Central Railway near Loughborough, as a case study. The paper discusses how the findings from field work carried out at the site may be utilized in a rational manner to effect a suitable design of the railway substructure. For this purpose, data obtained from the field is used in a simple numerical model to provide a pragmatic approach.

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Day 2, Theme 2: Railway Structures and Geotechnics Railway Foundations and Drainage

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Results Of Large Scale Tests On A Lightweight Composite Manhole Chamber For Use Adjacent To Railway Lines Dr Gurmel Ghataora, Dr Michael Burrow

GEOTECHNICAL WORKS TO ENABLE TRACK-BED UPGRADE BELOW ‘CHORLEY FLYING ARCHES’ Dr EL Chin, Dr MJ Raybould, IM Shelley

Keywords: Manhole chamber, railway track, cyclic loading.

Keywords: Chorley Flying Arches, replacement prop, ground anchor, trench sheeting, track-bed excavation, geocell, geotextile, 6-foot drain, masonry retaining wall, sensitive structures.

Scott Wilson Ground Engineering, Royal Court, Basil Close, Chesterfield S41 7SL, UK [email protected], [email protected] scottwilson.com, [email protected] com

School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK [email protected], [email protected] bham.ac.uk

For railway track side drainage the current practice is to use concrete manhole chambers. Although these chambers consist of modular sections of various heights, they are too heavy to be manhandled and require lifting equipment both to transport the units and position them. Therefore there is a need to develop lighter units that can fulfil the same functional and structural requirements as the heavier concrete units. This study reports on a laboratory investigation conducted on such a chamber unit. The investigation consisted of subjecting the chamber unit to full-scale loading in a test pit in which a section of railway track was constructed comprising of three half sleepers. The chamber was located 80 mm from the end of the sleepers and 125 kN was applied to the rail on the central sleeper. Deformation of the chamber wall nearest to the sleepers was measured at four positions along its depth and pressure at the base of the ballast was recorded. Results showed that pressures at the base of ballast were consistent with those determined using numerical models of the track and that there was minimal movement of the chamber wall nearest to the loaded sleeper.

The site comprised a 25 m deep cutting formed through a mixed matrix of Glacial Sand and Till. The toe of the cutting was retained by a near-vertical masonry retaining wall (‘wall’) up to 6 m in height with the highest sections propped at the top by 16 masonry arches known as ‘Chorley Flying Arches’ (‘arches’) which were English Heritage Grade 2 listed structures. The site had a history of ‘very difficult ground conditions’ and in recent years severe formation failure beneath the sleepers lead to a temporary speed restriction. The repair strategy comprised: (a) replacing the arches temporarily with steel props; (b) installation of ground anchors to stabilise the wall during track-bed excavation and to improve long term stability; (c) installation of trench sheeting to facilitate track-bed excavation in a ‘dry’ environment; (d) replacement of deep 6-foot drain to control groundwater level below the track; (e) installation of weep-holes through the wall to control water pressures behind the wall and; (f) track-bed treatment using geotextiles and geocells to stabilise the track formation whilst minimising excavation and thus reduced import and export of materials. Main site remedial works commenced on the 26/07/2008, the start of a 6 weeks 141

blockade. Site supervision enabled designs to be modified, as required by the variable conditions and constraints encountered on site, and allowed the line to be re-opened on time.

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Railway Engineering – 2009 10th International Conference

EXHIBITION SHOWGUIDE

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Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd Concept House 8, The Townsend Centre Blackburn Road Dunstable Bedfordshire LU5 5BQ UK Tel: +44 (0) 1582 606 999 Fax: +44 (0) 1582 606 991 www.allied-associates.co.uk

Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd is an equipment supply company in the Geophysical and NDT sectors. Whilst our product expertise is diverse our involvement in Railway Engineering 2009 will be to promote Ground Probing Radar equipment manufactured by Geophysical Survey Services Inc (GSSI) with particular emphasis to rail infrastructure. Applications for GPR on railways will include both trackside infrastructure and buildings with applications such as Ballast Fouling, Track bed condition surveys, Cavity detection, Utility detection, and building inspection being just a few. With extensive knowledge of this sector Allied Associates are well placed to assist companies exploit current technology to enhance repair and remediation works, which in turn saves time and money. Working smart also means working safe. GPR offers information of the subsurface without the need to dig or excavate thus reducing the risk to operators from utility strikes. Being none invasive GPR reduces the need for destructive or invasive testing of structures.

Aqua Group Ltd

Belmont House Garnett Place Skelmersdale, Lancs WN8 9UB UK Tel: 01695 51933 Fax: 01695 51891 Email: [email protected] Contact: Stuart Smith

The Aqua Group is a dedicated manufacturer and supplier of QUALITY rail drainage and signalling materials. Our emphasis is on customer needs and our highly professional team’s mandate is to deliver materials to our customers regardless of any encumberments. Whether its pipe work, catch-pits, geotextiles, or UTX chambers Aqua offer a vast range to suit any project needs. These excellent products coupled with 145

our experienced logistic support mean Aqua can effectively optimise time and labour to the benefit of our customers. Recent projects include East London Line, Tinsley Yard and Gretna to Annan line. Aqua is also committed to bringing new and cost effective methods into the rail environment and work closely with Network Rail and universities to achieve these goals. Aqua’s unparalleled service guarantees customer satisfaction, with fast effective solutions to any problem.

Arup Rail

Blythe Gate Blythe Valley Park Solihull, West Midlands, B90 8AE UK Tel: 0121 213 3412 Fax: 0121 213 3799 Email: [email protected] www.arup.com/rail Contact: Rob Ennis

Arup is one of the world’s foremost firms of designers, engineers, planners and business consultants, providing a diverse range of professional services to clients around the world. Our fundamental aim is to bring together the best professionals in the world to meet our clients’ needs. We aim to provide services that add real value to our clients’ businesses, and we frequently challenge convention to achieve this aim. Our innovative and integrated approach brings our full complement of skills and knowledge to bear on any given problem. Our firm has almost 10,000 staff working in 92 offices in more than 37 countries. The Arup Rail team is a multi-disciplinary group of professionals skilled in all modes of guided land transport, carrying out a wide range of projects and providing expert support and advice to our broad and expanding customer base. We have been involved in the rail industry for over 20 years, working on: • High Speed Rail • Heavy Rail • Metros • Light Rail • Monorail/PRT • Guided Bus and • Heavy Haul Freight

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Balfour Beatty Rail Technologies Limited Room A108 Midland House Nelson Street Derby, DE12SA UK Tel: 01332 262424 Fax: 01332 262027 [email protected]

Contacts: Neil Andrew, MD Tel: 01332 262424, [email protected]

Stephen Cox, Head of Signalling Systems Tel: 01332 263863, [email protected]



Stephen Ingleton, Director Laser Rail Technologies Tel: 01629 761461, [email protected]



Andy Curzon, Technical Services Director Tel: 01332 262 394, [email protected]



Head office: Tel: 01332 262424, Fax: 01332 262027, [email protected]

Balfour Beatty Rail Technologies specialises in decision support of railway maintenance and renewal operations, and in the creation of new technology to perform those operations in a cost-effective manner. Technologies, part of the worldwide Balfour Beatty Rail group, operates on the areas of track, structures and signalling where it not only develops new technology and software, but also provides consultancy services in support of these. The company is organised into three divisions, Signalling Systems, Laser Rail Technologies and Technical Services. • Signalling Systems develop technology which enhances the performance of conventional railway signalling, through “intelligent infrastructure” – systems and software which monitor the performance of signalling, points and interlocking and advises of incipient problems. • Laser Rail Technologies develops measuring systems and analytical software which can be used to monitor track geometry and infrastructure gauge – maximising capacity and durability. • Technical Services provide a host of support consultancy covering use of its own systems and emerging new technology such as new trackforms, track stabilisation, novel techniques and production methods.

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Blom Aerofilms Ltd,

The Astrolabe Cheddar Business Park Wedmore Road Cheddar, Somerset BS27 3EB UK Tel: +44 (0) 1934 745820 Fax: +44 (0) 1934 745825 Email: [email protected]

www.blomaerofilms.com Contact: Michael Cotchin

Blom Aerofilms is one of the largest providers of airborne data capture and modeling solutions in Europe. We deliver aerial photography along with topographical and bathymetric laser scanning from both aircraft and helicopters and we use these technologies to create sophisticated spatial data modelling products. Over a number of years we have worked extensively across the transport and infrastructure industry providing geospatial products for asset management, route feasibility and planning, noise mapping and geotechnical assessment. Blom Aerofilms has built up an extensive portfolio of clients including central government and local authorities, utility services, navigation and location based services, commercial property development, civil engineering design, flood management, renewable energy and the forestry inventory. We hold a number of framework agreements with clients such as Ordnance Survey, the Highways Agency and the Environment Agency, through which we provide aerial data capture and processing to produce a wide range of detailed mapping and models. Blom Aerofilms has a unique library of comprehensive and detailed oblique and orthographic aerial imagery of nearly 1,000 cities, covering approximately 80% of the population of Europe. The oblique imagery can be delivered by BlomURBEX web services directly to your desktop complete with a suite of measuring tools which enable you to determine the heights of station buildings and structures, the width of tracks and the area of any section within each image. BlomURBEX is already being used by a wide range of governmental and commercial organisations for asset management, site assessments and urban planning.

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DeltaRail Group Limited Hudson House 2 Hudson Way Pride Park Derby, DE24 8HS UK Tel: 0870 190 1443 www.deltarail.com

Contact: Chris Rogers, [email protected]

DeltaRail combines railway domain knowledge, excellence with software and technology to deliver value for our customers throughout the world.  Our innovative, cost-effective solutions answer the challenge of maximising availability, reliability and capacity on operations, on track and on train. On Operations: We address the competing pressures and demands of the railway network, providing innovative software tools for signalling control, timetabling, staff rostering, economic planning and business performance. On Track: Our skills, captured in DeltaRail software and technology, focus on vehicle rail interaction, life cycle analysis and optimising the design of infrastructure.  We help clients be proactive with maintenance decisions to reduce risk, improve availability and cut costs. On Train: We deliver a first-class range of products and services designed to optimise rolling stock maintenance, extend fleet life and ensure regulatory compliance. DeltaRail’s integrated track management solution incorporating VAMPIRE®, TracklineTwoTM and TrackMaster® provides a strategic approach to track management. DeltaRail will be presenting papers on it’s new TracklineTwoTM track geometry measurement equipment and the application of it’s VAMPIRE® vehicle dynamics software in the management of track quality. At DeltaRail we are committed to optimising long term performance for our clients in terms of reliability, safety and profitability.

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Dow Hyperlast

Station Road Birch Vale High Peak, Derbyshire SK22 1BR UK Tel +44 (0)1663 746518 Fax +44 (0)1663 746605 Email [email protected] Dow Hyperlast, a division of Dow Polyurethane Systems, is a leading polyurethane systems house with more 30 years experience in the development of custom materials, products and solutions for customers worldwide.   Dow Hyperlast products are used in a multitude of applications including anti-slip coatings, ballistics protection, electrical insulation, furniture edging, materials handling, rapid prototyping, security protection, shock, noise and vibration reduction, and concrete protection. The May 2007 acquisition of Hyperlast expanded Dow’s ability to produce innovative spray cast elastomers for the rail, marine, engineering resin, oil and gas pipeline and automotive industries. Dow Hyperlast benefits from the manufacturing capabilities and technical support of Dow Polyurethane Systems, a division of Dow Polyurethanes and a global leader in the development and formulation of fully formulated polyurethane systems. For more information visit www.dowhyperlast.com. Dow Hyperlast is a partner with 2Ei Ltd in a joint venture known as XiTRACK Limited. This company operates in the rail industry providing computer designed polymer solutions to rectify many long standing engineering track problems. Dow Hyperlast benefits from the global reach, manufacturing capabilities and technical support of Dow Polyurethane (PU) Systems, a global leader in the development and formulation of fully formulated polyurethane systems for a broad range of applications with various facilities strategically located across Europe, Asia, Middle East, Africa, North and Latin America. Headquartered in the UK, Dow Hyperlast’s manufacturing and technical facilities are supported by a network of international sales and support partners providing a truly global service to customers.

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edilon)(sedra

32 Lydiard Way Trowbridge BA14 0UJ UK Tel: 01225 763416 Fax: 01225 763616 email: [email protected] www.edilonsedra.com Contact: Bob Vennell

edilon)(sedra now incorporating the Tiflex, Trackelast product range, offers one of the widest product and systems range for noise and vibration suppression of any supplier to the rail industry – the ultimate ‘one stop shop’ Technical innovation is based on a well established range of products and systems, continuous development and an extensive knowledge of the rail industries’ requirements based on many decades of both practical experience and product testing. edilon)(sedra is active worldwide in the field of products for railway infrastructure projects. This includes both ballasted and ballastless track systems. edilon)(sedra develops, manufactures and markets innovative, highly durable rail fastening systems for train, tram, metro and crane tracks. Plus, all systems are capable of being fine tuned to suit the particular application or requirement. edilon)(sedra offers complete technical back up for all of the product range and works closely with clients, consultants, contractors to ensure the most suitable, cost effective product is used for the required application. With all of our products and systems we can demonstrate these being used in real applications. On site supervision is insisted upon and site training or a full installation service (excluding rail handling/installing) can be offered by edilon)(sedra Contracting.

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Fugro Aperio

Focal Point Newmarket Road Bottisham Cambridge CB25 9BD UK Tel: 0870 600 80 50 [email protected] www.fugro-aperio.com Contact: Simon Brightwell

Fugro Aperio are international specialists in non-destructive investigation and geophysical surveying bringing expertise and advanced technology to a wide range of railway projects. Talk to Fugro Aperio when you need to determine subsurface structure and condition with minimal damage to the infrastructure or disruption to users. Experts in a wide range of geophysical techniques including ground penetrating radar, remote visual inspection, ultrasonics, ground conductivity, resistivity and microgravity. Fugro Aperio hold Achilles Link Up certification and can provide an experienced and well-qualified team with permits for London Underground and Network Rail. Experience of working in demanding rail environments gained in more than 100 rail projects including:  trackbed  utility detection  tunnels and bridges  stations and other buildings  geotechnical and environmental surveys. As part of the Fugro Group of companies with 13,000 staff worldwide Fugro Aperio can provide an integrated package of services including remote sensing, materials sampling and insitu and laboratory testing.

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GEOfabrics Limited Skelton Grange Road Stourton Leeds LS10 1RZ UK Tel: 0113 202 5678 Fax: 0113 202 5655 [email protected] www.geofabrics.com Contact: Sabrina Moore

UK manufacturer of geotextiles & geocomposites for permanent way & civils’ applications. Protexia RK1 (also known as GHP3RT) - a thick, robust geotextile that is deployed between ballast & subgrade as a filter/separator to prevent upward pumping of fines resulting in an extension to the maintenance interval for the track. Geocomposites manufactured using RK1 gain additional functions. Protexia RK2 - a geonet core between two layers of RK1, not only provides filtration/separation but an additional drainage function. This stiff geocomposite reduces the ingress of water into the subgrade by channelling water laterally from beneath the track. Protexia RK4 - a laminate of RK1 and a geogrid which provides both separation & reinforcement for construction over weak, poorly-draining subgrades Other applications for the Company’s products include slope stabilisation, bridge decking protection & erosion control.

GERB Schwingungsisolierungen GmbH & Co.KG Ruhrallee 311 45136 Essen Germany Tel: +44 201 2660421 Email: [email protected] Contact: Hans-Georg Wagner

GERB Vibration Control Systems (www.gerb.com) are specialists in the design of state-of-the-art Floating Slab Track Solutions and a perfect partner to operators, consultants, and contractors. Numerous applications in tunnels, on ground, or on viaducts prove the high effectiveness and reliability in transit, LRT, and even high-speed lines, worldwide. GERB engineers offer a complete service including slab design (optional), as well as layout, manufacture, delivery, installation, commissioning of the elastic FST components, assisted by local 153

branch offices in many countries. More than 120,000 m of GERB Floating Track Slabs are currently in operation, under construction, or in the planning stage.

GGR-UNIC

Presentation House Broadgate Broadway Business Park Oldham OL9 0JA UK direct:   +44 (0) 161 683 2582 phone:   +44 (0) 161 683 2580 mobile:  +44 (0) 7707 323 173 fax:          +44 (0) 161 683 4444 web:       www.ggrglass.co.uk www.unic-cranes.co.uk Contact:Jason D’Cruz

The GGR Group, pioneers of lifting solutions, is the parent company to GGR UNIC, GGR Galizia, GGR AirLift and UNIC Cranes Europe.  From our origins as the UK’s leading provider of vacuum lifting equipment for glass; UNIC Cranes Europe, hire division was established in 2001.  UNIC Cranes now operates a fleet of more than 90 spider cranes in the UK alone and is the most widely used crane in Europe  The Group recently launched GGR Galizia pick and carry cranes, offering customers an all round restricted access solution; in places where a forklift cannot give the capacity or reach required.  The GGR Group continues to be at the forefront of technological developments in lifting solutions with the innovative AirLift series.  The AirLift, exclusively developed by GGR, is the world’s first air powered mini crane.  The crane has been specifically adapted for use in hazardous offshore and petrochemical environments as well as underground controlled sectors. The GGR Group provides lifting solutions to a wide range of industries, from construction to waterways and petrochemical to railways.  Our industry accredited technical advisers can provide the necessary expertise to ensure you have to right lifting solution for the job.  We offer no obligation site surveys, technical assistance and industry accredited training.  For more information please visit www.unic-cranes.co.uk or call 01844 202071.

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GREX - Georgetown Rail Equipment Co 111 Cooperative Way, Suite 100 Georgetown TX 78628 USA Phone: +1 512 869 1542 FAX: +1 512 863 0405 www.georgetownrail.com www.auroratrackinspection.com Aurora – A Division of GREX

Contacts: Chris Villar, VP Engineering Mobile: +1 512 818 1013; Email: [email protected]

David Hunsucker, Director, Aurora Integration Mobile: +1 512 818 1455; Email: [email protected]

Georgetown Rail Equipment Company is a privately held Texas Corporation that creates cutting-edge equipment in the railroad industry, providing innovative tools to railroads throughout North America. From our Dump Train delivery system to our innovative track inspection system, Aurora, our products stand out among the rest as technologically advanced, safer, more efficient, and more productive. Aurora track inspections can be used as the foundation of annual track component maintenance and repair programs. Aurora enables the creation of maintenance plans that addresses all of your serious track deficiencies with the knowledge that the underlying inspections were done consistently and objectively. Aurora uses a proprietary, sophisticated grading method that is uniformly applied to each and every tie. Aurora’s shape recognitions technology can be sent on a mission to identify missing and damaged fasteners. Detailed, customized reports are downloaded from the internet. Review results conveniently at your computer. We give you more than you expect, every day.

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Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc

12 Industrial Way Salem, NH 03079-4843 USA Tel: +1 603 893 1109 Email; [email protected] www.geophysical.com Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI) is the world leader in the development, and manufacture of subsurface imaging products. Our equipment and technology is used to explore the subsurface of the earth and to nondestructively inspect our infrastructure systems, such as; road and railway applications, NDT of concrete, utility locating, bridge inspection, geophysics, archaeology and forensics. GSSI created the first commercial Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system nearly 40 years ago and continues to provide the highest quality GPR and EM equipment available today.

IDS Ingegneria Dei Sistemi (UK) Ltd

3 Gloster Court Whittle Avenue Segensworth West Fareham, Hampshire PO15 5SH UK www.idsuk-ltd.co.uk [email protected] Tel: 01489 567526 Fax: 01489584454 IDS Ingegneria Dei Sistemi is a world leading manufacturer of radar equipment for geotechnical and structural testing. IDS (UK) is based near Southampton in the UK. IDS manufacture a comprehensive range of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) products and software enabling us to provide the complete solution to all types of GPR applications including; utility detection and mapping, civil, railway and road engineering, archaeology, cultural heritage, forensics, security and geophysics. Our Safe Rail System for ballast investigations is the fastest multi channel system on the market, IDS equipment is currently installed on Network Rail trains for ballast investigation and all our utility detection and ballast investigation GPR are approved for use on Network Rail infrastructure. In addition to GPR IDS manufacture IBIS - a ground based interferometer designed to perform static and dynamic monitoring of terrain (landslides and subsidence) and structures (such as bridges, towers, and buildings etc). IBIS 156

provides remote, continuous, real time measurement of vibrations and sub millimeter displacements over large areas.

Olympus Industrial

Keymed House Stock Road Southend on Sea, Essex, SS2 5QH UK Tel: 01702 616333 Fax: 01702 465677 Email: [email protected] Contact: John Crooks

Olympus is renowned as the leading supplier of equipment for engineering and maintenance applications throughout the world. Olympus provides an industry-leading portfolio of testing technologies including ultrasound phased-array, eddy current, eddy current array, as well as the extensive range of IPLEX videoscopes, fiberscopes, borescopes, and the world class i-SPEED High Speed Video Camera. We will be demonstrating the full range of equipment, including the latest range of IPLEX FX videoscopes, with internal working channel, for foreign object retrieval. In addition the recently launched EPOCH 1000i Ultrasonic Flaw Detector with Phased Array imaging will also be on display alongside the existing range of Epoch 4 and 4B flaw detectors, suitable for the rail industry. The Olympus portfolio also includes a full range of digital cameras including the latest ‘Tough’, as well as Microscopes and voice recorders. Olympus also offers full after sales service and support, including on-site user training and application support from a team of specialists. For more details, please visit our website www.olympus-ims.co , or contact our customer services team on 44 (0) 1702 616333.

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Railway Gazette International D V V Media UK Ltd NINE Sutton Court Road Sutton SM1 4SZ UK Tel: + 44 208 652 5200 Fax: + 44 208 652 5210 Email:[email protected] Website: www.railwaygazette.com Contact: Sheena Rennie

Railway Gazette International is the leading international management and technical publication for the rail industry worldwide. Read and respected by operators and railway suppliers in 138 countries, Railway Gazette International provides news and analysis of the latest events and developments in the rail industry. Other publications include: Rail Business Intelligence, Metro Report International, Rail Transit Online, Railway Directory (www.railwaydirectory.net) To subscribe or for more information, please go to our website www. railwaygazette.com or call us on Tel + 44 208 652 5200.

Strainstall UK Ltd

Unit 1, Charlton Lane Westfield Industrial Estate Midsomer Norton, Bath BA3 4BE UK Tel: 01761 414939 Fax: 01761 416655 Email: [email protected] Website: www.strainstall.com Contact: Matthew Anderson

Strainstall are specialists in structural and geotechnical monitoring and testing. We provide various instrumentation systems and services to help engineers better understand the performance and condition of structures. Typically we use a variety of sensor technologies and are involved in the measurement and presentation of data related to strain, displacement, inclination (tilt), temperature, environmental conditions, acceleration (vibration). Recent applications include: • Bridge monitoring systems • Bridge load testing • Ground movement, tunnel and track monitoring associated with major station reconstruction 158

• Embankment movement warning system • Rockfall warning system • Flood level monitoring systems • Wheel Impact Load Detection (WILD) systems Our monitoring systems are often automated for long-term unattended monitoring of structural behaviour. These can have with their own power supplies (solar panels, fuel cells) and are generally fitted with remote communication capability. The data can be downloaded from site automatically and presented in the form of regular reports or displayed on our secure website. We are a UK representative of Geokon Inc, the world-leading manufacturer of geotechnical sensors. In support of our work in the bridge engineering sector, we have recently launched CrackFirst™ to the market. This device is suitable for steel structures, and monitors fatigue life usage. Usually working through consulting engineers or main contractors, we have undertaken many projects on behalf of Network Rail, London Underground and overseas LRT authorities. Also on our stand will be our sister company, TRE Ltd, who are a specialist provider of complex, advanced control systems and services to the rail industry.

Strand7 UK Limited

The Studio Office Church walk St Neots, Cambridge PE19 1JH UK Tel: 01480 211011 Fax: 01480 211020 Web: www.strand7.com Email: [email protected] (Australia) Email: [email protected] (UK) Contact: Tracey Missenden

Strand7 Pty Ltd is the Australian based company responsible for the research and Development of the Strand7 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software. The company’s head office is located in Sydney, and its UK office is in Cambridgeshire. The Strand7 software is a general-purpose FEA system designed specifically for Windows® and comprises pre-processing, post-processing and solver functionality in a single application. Strand7 is used for linear and nonlinear analysis of structures and components (static, dynamic and heat transfer), and is well suited to companies of all sizes in aeronautical, civil, structural, mechanical, rail, geotechnical, marine, materials handling and heavy industries. 159

Strand7 is seamlessly integrated to the Windows desktop and offers strong connectivity to other Windows applications via the Windows clipboard and through support for a number of industry standard file format such as IGES, STEP, SAT and DXF. Strand7 has gained widespread acceptance as an advanced analysis tool in several thousand engineering offices around the world. It has also proved to be very popular in undergraduate teaching of structural mechanics and is presently installed at several hundred universities wordwide. Strand7 Pty Ltd offers ongoing technical support and software maintenance to Strand7 users. In addition, Strand7 Pty Ltd conducts formal training courses in the use of Strand7 and the applications of FEA to real engineering problems. Courses are held worldwide. Strand7 Pty Ltd has also been offering FEA consulting services for over twenty years with experience covering mechanical, aeronautical, rail, marine and civil/structural applications.

SYSTRA UK

1st Floor Dukes Court Duke Street Woking, Guildford GU21 5BH UK Tel: + 00 1483 742 934 website: www.systra.com Contact: Andrew Boagey

SYSTRA, international consulting engineers for rail and urban transport operating in major engineering markets worldwide. SYSTRA’s activities encompass all the skills and expertise in the fields of urban and rail transport, from high speed trains to buses, including intermodal transport, freight and passenger railway, suburban and inter-city rail, lightrail services, metro, tramway, automatic guided systems, road guided systems and people movers. SYSTRA offers a designer-operator approach for its whole range of transport services which include: • transport planning and organization, from master plan development to system feasibility analysis, • design engineering in the field of rail infrastructure and systems, • construction management, equipment manufacture supervision, • operation and maintenance organization • training, • testing and commissioning • start-up and pre-revenue service operations 160

• transport planning software SYSTRA was formed from the resulting merger of two engineering subsidiaries : one founded by SNCF in 1957 (SOFRERAIL, Société d’Etudes de Réalisation Ferroviaires) and the other by RATP in 1961 (SOFRETU, Société d’Etudes et de Réalisations de Transports Urbains). Since 1957 SYSTRA has conducted projects in more than 150 countries and 350 cities. We have offices located in Africa, the Middle-East, America, Asia and Europe. Our head quarters are based in central Paris and our UK branch office located at the following address in the UK:

Tam International UK Ltd Godina Place, Coventry CV1 5PN UK Tel: 02476 253098 Fax: 02476 253097 email: [email protected] Contact: Lawrence Halls

TAM International Limited has over 25 years experience in the manufacture and supply of specialist construction products for the civil engineering and building industry. Today we are recognised as the specialist market leaders in our products, systems and applications and provide a range of chemical products and equipment for waterproofing, leak sealing, stabilization, repair and protection. TAM International has sales, distribution and manufacturing offices worldwide, which makes us well positioned to serve the construction industry on a global level. We currently operate directly in the UK, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore and indirectly through our distributors in Europe, Middle East and China.

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University of Edinburgh

School of Engineering and Electronics The Kings Buildings Edinburgh EH9 3JN UK Tel: 0131-650 5721 Fax: 0131-452 8596 www.gprmax.org [email protected] [email protected] Contact names: Mike Forde or Antonis Giannopoulos

We specialize in NDT using radar (GPR), sonics and ultrasonics, impact-echo and infrared thermography. We also specialize in Expert Witness work www.GprMax.org is the world’s most widely used “free to download” GPR simulation software – contact Antonis Giannopoulos.

Vortok International Innovation House 3 Western Wood Way Langage Science Park Plymouth PL7 5BG UK Tel: 01752 349200 Fax: 01752 338855 Contact: John Petitt

Vortok International, part of the Pandrol Group and an internationally recognised company, has innovation, design and manufacture as its core business. Collaboration with our customers from the whole railway engineering spectrum is a key part of the process used to provide innovative designs that can help reduce possession times, improve quality and safety standards, and also deliver significant cost reductions. Our range of products, some of which are ground breaking award winning developments, cover areas of infrastructure renewals and maintenance, track condition monitoring, signaling, OLE and tools and equipment. We strive to offer the best value return on investment designs such as: • Verse Stress Free Temperature Measurement • SFT Pro Stress Free Temperature Monitoring • Vortok Stressing Roller Systems • ERTMS/ETCS Balise Mounting Systems • Vortok Rigid Safety Barrier System 162

• Vortok Automatic Pantograph Control Magnets • Vortok AWS Suppressor Magnets • TPWS Mounting Systems Vortok are not restricted to just working within the United Kingdom either. As our name suggests we are active in over twenty other countries spread over all continents and this number is set to increase as our expansion continues year on year. Working together, Vortok aims to help us all enjoy a safer, more efficient railway.

WTB Geotechnics

Earl Russell Way Lawrence Hill Bristol, BS5 0WT UK Tel 0845 6005505 Fax 0845 6092525 Email: [email protected] Web: www.geotechnics-uk.com Contact: Paul Sharley

WTB Geotechnics have been leading innovators and suppliers of railway geosynthetics for many years. Our developments in conjunction with Network Rail have been demonstrated to date by the current PW product range that cover many problematic ground conditions across the UK. The successful introduction of Geosand in recent years has further expanded our portfolio of specialist rail geosynthetics. The new edition of the A-Z of Geotechnical products published in April features these items along with embankment stabilisation, permeable paving and a range of geotextiles and geogrids for all applications. We also have facilities for the bespoke manufacture of laminated and composite products. WTB Geotechnics ranges are distributed by the 45 Burdens depots across the UK and Ireland, along with permanent way catchpits, pipework, and maintenance items.

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XiTRACK Limited

Station Road Birch Vale High Peak, Derbyshire SK22 1BR UK Tel +44 (0)1663 746518 Fax +44 (0)1663 746605 Email [email protected] XiTRACK Limited is a joint venture company formed with partners 2Ei Ltd and Dow Hyperlast. This company operates in the rail industry providing computer aided designs for solutions to rectify many long standing engineering track problems. In the UK the application of the XiTRACK Process is carried out by the Project Partners Balfour Beatty Rail Technologies. The XiTRACK™ Process uses state of the art computer software specifically devised and developed to simulate and predict railway track behaviour before and after polymer treatment. These programs are based on enhanced 3Dimensional finite element techniques featuring advanced mathematical models of material behaviour. XiTRACK Limited, as a Joint Venture partner with Dow Hyperlast, can benefit from the global reach, manufacturing capabilities and technical support of Dow Polyurethane (PU) Systems, a global leader in the development and formulation of fully formulated polyurethane systems for a broad range of applications with various facilities strategically located across Europe, Asia, Middle East, Africa, North and Latin America. The Process has been successfully used on projects for over 9 years. Examples of these projects can be found on the website by visiting www.xitrack. com.

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Zetica Ltd

Units 15/16 Hanborough Business Park Long Hanborough, Oxfordshire, OX29 8LH UK Tel: 01993 886652 Fax: 01993 886653 Email: [email protected] Contact: Asger Eriksen

Zetica’s Advanced Rail Radar (ZARR) Zetica Ltd has been established since 1991 and is the world’s leader in rail radar services along with complimentary services relating to the investigation of sites. The rail radar system developed by Zetica (ZARR) is a uniquely powerful desk study tool to continuously monitor changes in the thickness and quality of the ballast layer across a network. This offers railroad companies a tool to accurately delimit the extent of trackbed problem areas requiring attention, and a holistic view of the possible causes of these problems. A regularly monitored and efficiently maintained trackbed is key to uninterrupted delivery of services. The impact of ZARR is wide ranging and includes impressive cost savings which can be achieved through: • Improved targeting of intrusive investigations, maximising the value of time on site and reducing the number of trial holes required • More accurate delineation of the extent of remedial works required • Improved quality control of contractors’ work packages • A reduction in the number of interventions during the planned life of the ballast In addition a number of safety benefits can also be achieved such as reduced exposure of staff to the hazards of working trackside, less risk of striking buried services or other hazards during intrusive site works and reduced risk of rough ride or derailment by focused repairs to discrete faults early in their evolution. Zetica offers solutions ranging from a full service to full ownership giving customers complete options to implement the most cost effective solution.

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