RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY [IJIERT] ISSN: 2394-3696 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY-2015...
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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY [IJIERT] ISSN: 2394-3696 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY-2015

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT Miss.Ashwini Thakur Department of Technology,Shivaji University, Kolhapur (MS) India-416 004. Miss.Mayuri Jadhav Depatment Of Technology,Shivaji University, Kolhapur (MS) India-416 004. Miss.Nita Chavan Department Of Technology,Shivaji University, Kolhapur (MS) India-416 004. Mr. Anil Ranveer Assistant Professor, Department of Technology, Shivaji University,Kolhapur (MS)India-416 004.

ABSTRACT Today one of the major challenges facing by mankind is to provide proper management for radioactive

waste management. Any industrial activity results in generation of some waste material. Nuclear industry is no exception and the presence of radiation emitting radioactive materials which may have adverse impact on living beings and which is likely to continue to the subsequent generation as well is what sets nuclear or radioactive wastes apart from other conventional hazardous wastes. Another unique feature of the radioactive waste is the decay of radioactivity with time. This fact is gainfully exploited by the nuclear waste managers. The NRC regulates the management, storage and disposal of radioactive waste produced as a result of NRC-licensed activities. The agency has entered in to agreements with 32 states, called Agreement States, to allow these states to regulate the management, storage and disposal of certain nuclear waste. Any industrial activity results in generation of some waste material. Nuclear industry is no exception and the presence of radiation emitting radioactive materials which may have adverse impact on living beings and which is likely to continue to the subsequent generation as well is what sets nuclear or radioactive wastes apart from other conventional hazardous wastes. Another unique feature of the radioactive waste is the decay of radioactivity with time. This fact is gainfully exploited by the nuclear waste managers. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for radioactive waste related to nuclear weapons production and certain research activities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and some states regulate commercial radioactive waste that results from the production of electricity and other non-military uses of nuclear material. Various other federal agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Health and Human Services, also have a role in the regulation of radioactive material.

KEYWORDS: High level waste, Low level waste, Verification, Radioactive waste, Radionuclieds. 1|Page

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY [IJIERT] ISSN: 2394-3696 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY-2015

INTRODUCTION: This section will discuss the sources, handling, and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes (sometimes referred to as radwaste) generated by nuclear power plant operation. Radioactive wastes are the leftovers from the use of nuclear materials for the production of electricity, diagnosis and treatment of disease, and other purposes. The materials are either naturally occurring or man-made. Certain kinds of radioactive materials, and the wastes produced from using these materials, are subject to regulatory control by the federal government or the states. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for radioactive waste related to nuclear weapons production and certain research activities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and some states regulate commercial radioactive waste that results from the production of electricity and other non-military uses of nuclear material. Various other federal agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Health and Human Services, also have a role in the regulation of radioactive material. What is high-level waste? After uranium fuel has been used in a reactor for a while, it is no longer as efficient in splitting its atoms and producing heat to make electricity. It is then called “spent” nuclear fuel. About one-fourth to one-third of the total fuel load is spent and is removed from the reactor every 12 to 18 months and replaced with fresh fuel. The spent nuclear fuel is high-level radioactive waste. What is the role of NRC? The NRC regulates all commercial reactors in the United States, including nuclear power plants that produce electricity, and university research reactors. The agency regulates the possession, transportation, storage and disposal of spent fuel produced by the nuclear reactors. How hazardous is high-level waste? Spent nuclear fuel is highly radioactive and potentially very harmful. Standing near unshielded spent fuel could be fatal due to the high radiation levels. Ten years after removal of spent fuel from a reactor, the radiation dose 1 meter away from a typical spent fuel assembly exceeds 20,000 rems per hour. A dose of 5,000 rems would be expected to cause immediate incapacitation and death within one week. High-Level Radioactive Waste Some of the radioactive elements in spent fuel have short half-lives (for example, iodine131 has an 8-day half-life) and therefore their radioactivity decreases rapidly. However, many of the radioactive elements in spent fuel have long half-lives. For example, plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,000 years, and plutonium-240 has a half-life of 6,800 years. Because it contains these long half-lived radioactive elements, spent fuel must be isolated and controlled for thousands of years. A second hazard of spent fuel, in addition to high radiation levels, is the extremely remote possibility of an accidental “criticality,” or self-sustained fissioning and splitting of the atoms of uranium and plutonium. NRC regulations therefore require stringent design, testing and monitoring in the handling and storage of spent fuel to ensure that the risk of this type of accident is extremely unlikely. For example, special control materials (usually boron) in spent fuel containers to prevent occurring. Nuclear engineers and physicists carefully analyze and monitor the conditions of handling and storage of spent fuel to guard further against an accident. A barrier or radiation protection shield must always be placed between spent nuclear fuel and human beings. Water, concrete, lead, steel, depleted uranium or other suitable materials 2|Page

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY [IJIERT] ISSN: 2394-3696 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY-2015

calculated to be sufficiently protective by trained engineers and health physicists, and verified by radiation measurements, are typically used as radiation shielding for spent nuclear fuel. How and where is the waste stored? Spent fuel may be stored in either a wet or dry environment. In addition, it may be stored either at the reactor where it was used or away from the reactor at another site.

OBJECTIVE: To achieve global harmonization in policies, criteria, standards governing waste safety, public, environmental protection, together with provisions for their application which includes includes state of the art technologies and methods for demonstrating their adequacy. Waste and Environmental Safety Radioactive waste and spent fuel management In September, the Agency launched an international project on „Human Intrusion in the Context of Disposal of Radioactive Waste‟ (HIDRA). This two year project seeks to provide guidance on how to address the aspects of potential human intrusion and human actions in the demonstration of safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Assessment and management of environmental releases In November, the Agency launched a four year project entitled „Modeling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments‟ (MODARIA) to strengthen of former uranium production sites, primarily inCentral Asia but in other regions as well. In August, the Agency and the United States Department of Energy jointly hosted scientific visits to former uranium processing facilities in Utah and Colorado, as well as an international workshop on„ Management and Regulatory Oversight of Uranium Legacy Sites: Perspectives from Regulators and Operators‟ The workshop was organized under the International Working Forum on Regulatory Supervision of Legacy Sites.

SOURCES OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Radioactive waste is material that is radioactive that is no longer needed at the plant and can be disposed of. The following are some examples of the sources of radioactive waste.  After a fuel assembly has been used in the reactor core to generate power, there is a large inventory of fission products held inside the cladding of the fuel. Since the processing of spent fuel is not done for commercial power plants, the fuel must be disposed of in some safe fashion.  The activation products that are carried by the reactor coolant system are collected by the filters and demineralizers in the cleanup systems. When the filters and demineralizer resins are full, they must be disposed of as radioactive waste.

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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY [IJIERT] ISSN: 2394-3696 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY-2015

 A paper towel or rag used to wipe up radioactive water must be disposed of as radioactive waste.  A contaminated piece of equipment that is no longer useable must be disposed of as radioactive waste.

CLASSIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE: i. ii. iii.

Low level redioacive waste Intermediate level radioactive waste High level radioactive waste a) Liquid waste b) Solid waste c) Gaseous waste

SOLID WASTE Waste Type

Classification

Drummed solid waste Contaminated items Used filters Used charcoal Solid waste from HIFAR Operation Mixed waste Residues Metal scrap

Low level Low level Low level Low level Intermediate Level Intermediate Level Intermediate Level Intermediate Level

1 Low and intermediate level radioactive waste: Low and intermediate level wastesare further categorized as short lived and long-lived wastes. Radiological hazards associated with short lived wastes (