Quick Reference Guide Quick Start Guide FOR PROFESSIONAL USE ONLY
QUICK START GUIDE
This guide has been developed to provide clinicians with a quick introduction to Dynamic Taping. By the end of this guide it is hoped that the clinician will: • understand the basic concept of Dynamic Tape and how it differs significantly from rigid tapes and kinesiology tapes • be aware of the risks associated with improper application and be able to safely and effectively apply some basic techniques • be aware of the options for developing their Dynamic Taping skills Remember, Dynamic Taping is a skill and just like any other it requires practice to perfect. Even if you have a lot of taping experience you will find that it takes some time to perfect your handling.
• Other tapes will often restrict movement particularly if taping multiple joints, crossing the midline or introducing rotation and spiralling techniques. • Other tapes offer very little in the way of mechanical assistance. They can provide a passive block to end of range motion but do not provide a deceleration (load absorbing) force to assist eccentric muscle contraction. Similarly they do not provide strong elastic recoil to assist weak muscles and still allow full range of movement. • Dynamic Tape has been designed to allow full, unrestricted range of motion even when taping multiple joints, crossing the midline, bringing in rotation and performing complex athletic tasks through multiple planes of movement. Dynamic Tape has no rigid end point like a kinesiology tape, can stretch over 200% and stretches in all directions. • Furthermore, Dynamic Tape uses strong elastic energy to absorb load to decelerate movement, just as a bungee cord decelerates the jumper. Energy is then stored in the form of elastic potential energy and reinjected as kinetic energy once shortening commences. In this way it will help weak, injured and fatigued muscles. • It is based on first principles of physics - if the arm is to be lifted in the air, a certain amount of force must be generated to overcome the resistance of gravity. If some of this force is contributed by the strong elastic recoil of the Dynamic Tape, the muscles do not need to generate as much. The same is true when lowering the arm. The tape provides some resistance and therefore reduces the eccentric demand on the muscles.
QUICK START GUIDE
mimic the action of the musculo-tendinous unit. E.g. calf application would assist function of the gastrocnemius/soleus/medial longitudinal arch complex and could be used for calf tears, achilles tendon injuries or plantar fasciitis. This technique would be applied with the foot in plantar flexion such that it would help decelerate dorsiflexion (eccentric calf) and then assist plantar flexion (concentric calf action). Additional, parallel strips (shown) can be added to offload the soft tissue in the case of a muscle tear.
Wrist Extensors e.g. acute tennis elbow or wrist drop apply in wrist & finger extension
Hamstrings - apply in approx 135º of knee flexion so that it decelerates terminal extension to assist eccentric hamstrings
do not copy the action of a particular muscle or group of muscles but may be used to correct movement patterns, provide an accessory motion (such as a Mulligan glide or rotation) or offload by supporting the weight of the limb e.g. a subluxed glenohumeral joint.
Upper Limb Offload
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There are generally three common types of reactions that occur with all adhesive tapes. The adhesive used on Dynamic Tape has been tested and rated as non-sensitising, non-irritating and non-toxic and is considered a very low allergy tape. The three reaction types most likely to occur with any adhesive tape include: 1. ALLERGIC reaction: These are rare but can and do happen. This is generally a reaction to the adhesive and despite our adhesive being one of the more hypoallergenic on the market we still see the occasional reaction estimated in the one per several hundred applications. Allergic reactions will: a. happen quickly - usually within 15 to 30 minutes b. will be irritated all over, anywhere that has been covered with tape c. get hot and itchy d. cause red, raised skin and welts if left too long. WARNINGS must be given to ALL patients and the tape must be removed immediately should any signs of allergic reaction appear (hot, itching, burning, stinging, irritation or redness). Failure to remove the tape can result in extremely nasty reactions. The reaction above occurred when a tape was left in situ for TWO DAYS despite signs of allergic reaction commencing after a short period. DO NOT tell people that they MUST keep it on for a certain period of time. If all is going well and it is not causing irritation, they may leave it on for up to five days. 2. CONTACT DERMATITIS: this generally occurs with the cotton based products that become moist and remain in contact with the skin for several days. We do not tend to see these with Dynamic Tape due to the quick drying fabric and its breathability. 3. MECHANICAL irritation: these can occur with any tape if excessive tension or shearing occurs on the skin. Due to the energy contained within Dynamic Tape and the way in which it is used these can occur if the Directions for Use are not followed. Mechanical reactions generally occur in the form of traction blisters. TRACTION BLISTERS will: a. occur at isolated points on the tape - usually at the ends b. commence after about 10 hours(may be sooner) up until a few days depending on the amount of tension on the skin c. commence by stinging, burning or itching or just a very sensitive feeling under the end of the tape If the tape is removed when these symptoms occur usually a little redness is all that results. Blisters should NOT occur. If the patient has been WARNED appropriately, UNDERSTOOD this warning and COMPLIED with these directions they will remove the tape before a blister results. These can and do occur if too much tension is present and the patient is not properly warned or ignores this warning. It is USER error and not an allergic reaction to the tape. They are EASY to avoid if the application guidelines are adhered to. EXAMPLE WARNING - If you experience any itching, burning, stinging, heat or redness or an increase in pain, please remove the tape immediately. Failure to do so could result in a nasty allergic reaction, blisters and skin breakdown.
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This is possibly the most important part of a starting out with Dynamic Taping. It is important that know how to apply the tape correctly to get optimal adhesion and to reduce the risk of adverse reactions. If adverse reactions occur, it is important that you can differentiate an allergic reaction which happens rarely to a mechanical irritation which can happen often due to faulty technique (but should not happen at all). The adhesive on Dynamic Tape is stronger than most kinesiology tapes and should therefore stick well if applied correctly. It is however designed to lift away if too much tension is applied, to reduce the risk of traction blisters. The Directions for Use are explained thoroughly on the following pages. Please study these pages carefully. Of particular importance are: • preparing the skin correctly • removal of backing sheet by tearing paper so that fingers do not come into contact with adhesive • the need to leave adequate anchor points with no tension - three to four fingers’ width • the need to anchor the tape at the point three to four fingers’ width away from the end then apply gentle tension to the skin in the opposite direction so that tension is not transmitted to the skin - this will also remove any skin creases from under the tape • the need to only tension the tape to the very ONSET of resistance. This is almost IMMEDIATE. DO NOT STRETCH STRONGLY. Familiarize yourself with the Dynamic Tape. Practise gently stretching the tape until you have a good appreciation of the point at which the resistance commences.
Below you will find some photos of commonly used techniques. For instructions on how to apply these and many more, please visit the following resources: www.facebook.com/dynamictape : This is the most frequently updated source of information and contains numerous photos and videos that have been provided by Dynamic Tape Instructors and Users. We also welcome your questions and any contributions that you would like to make. www.dynamictape.com : The Dynamic Tape website contains a number of useful resources including: • Videos • eLearning - Two programs can be found - ‘A Brief Introduction’ and the comprehensive ‘Getting Started’ • Lists of upcoming workshops and distributor details Looking for a workshop in the USA? Contact the Institute of Advanced Musculoskeletal Treatments - www.iamt.org. For workshops in other countries visit www.dynamictape.com or contact your local distributor.
Contact your local distributor - Many of the representatives have a clinical background or are very knowledgeable about our products. They are a great, local resource. Distributor details are listed on www.dynamictape.com.
QUICK START GUIDE
this simple technique is applied in full knee extension. It passes anterior to the axis of the knee joint and will therefore tension and absorb load during flexion (assisting eccentric quads) and then assist knee extension. It is useful for muscle tears, patella tendinopathy, PFPS, Osgood Schlatters and Fat Pad Syndrome. A PowerBand technique can be used to provide additional force. the close up shows the ‘pinch’ or ‘gathering’ offload of the soft tissue held in place by the elasticity of the tape. Observe that there is no convolutions of the tape or skin lifting like in kinesiotaping but rather a deeper gathering up of all the soft tissue to reduce firing of sensitized nociceptors.
velocity of pronation has been shown to be of significance with Exertional Lower Leg Pain or ‘shin splints’. This technique is applied in dorsiflexion, inversion and forefoot adduction. The tape commences under the first and second metatarsal to invert the forefoot. Once under the foot, the line of pull passes on an angle from the base of the fifth metatarsal to the tubercle of the navicular. As a result there is a longitudinal force vector acting to shorten the medial longitudinal arch and adduct the forefoot. The tape is then directed supero-laterally across the anterior talocrural joint line to maximise the rotation and dorsi flexion components to provide a deceleration force to the navicular drop. There are a number of variations of this technique. Other techniques can be used in combination with this to control the rearfoot, provide an artificial windlass mechanism, assist FHL and much more. A PowerBand (2 x 3” or 2 x 2” with a 3” cover strip) is often best due to the larger forces involved.
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In some situations or with some clinical conditions it may be necessary to introduce more force into the kinetic chain. This can be done by using a wider strip of tape (e.g. 3” instead of 2”) or by applying additional strips in parallel. Another method is to create a Dynamic Tape PowerBand. This provides a simple way to graduate the amount of force introduced into the system while still permitting full range of motion. PowerBands are particularly useful for lower limb applications, particularly on larger clients or for providing additional deceleration forces in the cases of instability e.g. previous glenohumeral joint dislocation.
A PowerBand is created by laminating two or three layers of Dynamic Tape together before applying it to the body. It is then applied as one piece of tape possessing far stronger resistance and improved elastic recoil properties. It is also easier to handle.
• Cut two or three pieces of identical length Dynamic Tape. • Place one piece on a firm surface and spray the fabric side of the tape lightly with adhesive spray. DO NOT remove the backing sheet. • Take the second piece of tape and carefully remove the backing sheet from one end. It is best to avoid finger contact with the adhesive surface. This can be done by tearing the backing sheet about 2” (5cm) away from the end. • Apply this end to the back (fabric side) of the first piece making sure that the strips are aligned. • Gently peel off the backing sheet as you progressively apply the second strip to the back of the first, smoothing it down as you go. • IMPORTANT - there must be no stretch between the layers. Stretch will result in shearing and is more likely to cause the PowerBand to delaminate. • Repeat with a third strip if necessary. Please note that three strips contain a lot of force and are not required often. • Hold the completed PowerBand and rub thoroughly to generate heat and activate the glue. CAUTION - The increased strength of the PowerBand carries with it the potential to create greater tension on the skin and the additional risk of traction blisters if not applied correctly. It is therefore intended for SHORT DURATION wear only e.g. a training session or a match. The Directions for Use with regard to large anchor points, minimal tension and a clearly understood WARNING must be strictly adhered to.
The usual guidelines with regard to site preparation and application MUST be adhered to. Only use on strong, healthy skin for short durations. An adhesive spray may be required due to the increased elastic recoil. Leave larger than normal anchor points (3” to 4”) to accommodate the increase in elastic recoil. No or very minimal tension is required when applied in the shortened position Using a 2” (5cm) tape for the PowerBand allows for a 3” (7.5cm) cover strip to be applied. This will secure the PowerBand and ensures that there is only one layer of tape at the interface with the skin. This will reduce lifting or peeling, particularly in contact sports. • Give a comprehensive and clearly understood warning. • • • • • •
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Many of the usual techniques can be used with PowerBands also. The quadriceps and deceleration of pronation techniques outlined above are two examples of this. In many cases, using a PowerBand simplifies the technique as sufficient force is achieved with one PowerBand rather than having two or three single strips. strongly decelerates into end range external rotation and transitions back into internal rotation. Can be used in those with unstable shoulders or for late stage cocking problems in throwers. The PowerBand is a variation on the single layer technique however we generally do not bisect the tape to create sternal and clavicular branches.
2” (5cm) PowerBand - crosses the humeral head anteriorly and has a strong effect on rotation and horizontal extension. Often, a PowerBand consisting of 2 x 3” layers is used. A cover strip would not be required.
3” (7.5cm) cover strip in place. This attaches to skin on all sides of the PowerBand to anchor it down and reduce the chance of peeling, especially in contact sports. It will also provide an additional layer of strong elastic energy.
The tape will now strongly decelerate at end range external rotation - ideal for those with previous dislocations or cocking problems in the throwing athlete.
provides several functions by supporting the weight of the upper limb, upwardly rotating the scapula and resisting anterior humeral head translation. Middle and Lower trapezius along with the rotator cuff have less load to deal with and are at a better length to be recruited. Can be used for A/C joint, cuff, biceps, glenohumeral subluxations and more.
2” (5cm) PowerBand positioned anteriorly to support the weight of the upper limb, approximate the joint and resist anterior translation of the humeral head and posteriorly to assist scapula upward rotation and retraction
3” (7.5cm) cover band in place. In many cases 2 x 3” PowerBand can be used without a cover strip
Please read prior to application 1/3 CAUTION This product requires careful and skilful application. Failure to follow the Directions fo Use available on the product packaging or at www.dynamictape.com can result in skin irritation, blisters and poor adhesion.
1- Remove hair
2- Clean & Dry (e.g. alcowipe)
3- Rub to heat skin
4- Apply Adhesive Spray*
5- Anchor Point – No Stretch
6- Anchor with thumb and tension in opposite
direction to tape. This will remove skin folds and reduce tension on the skin at the end of the tape
Round corners Anchor with thumb and apply tension to skin in opposite direction to tape
> 5cm No Stretch
Anchor well away from the joint to improve leverage & adhesion while reducing tension on skin
8- Apply other anchor point with no tension
7- Apply Gentle Tension Tape should not narrow
Tension gently until resistance is first felt
DO NOT stretch strongly
Maintain pressure on thumb
* Very good results can be obtained without the use of an adhesive spray provided that all other guidelines are adhered to and sufficient time (> one hour ) is allowed before participating in vigorous exercise, swimming or bathing or strongly stretching the tape. Continued overleaf
Please read prior to application 2/3 9- Rub thoroughly to activate glue
10- Allow 45 - 60 minutes before engaging in vigorous exercise, swimming or bathing.
11- Always use spray on feet and ankles *
12- Spray back of first layer before applying the next layer when overlapping tape*
13- Always lock over foot and achilles to increase 14- Cover and protect load absorption as well as adhesion
– Remove tape immediately if itching, stinging, burning or irritation occurs as you may be developing a reaction which can lead to skin breakdown.
Poor application will result in poor adhesion, tension, shearing and blisters
Traction on skin
Tension and skin folds
Reaction to a sticking plaster
(c) 2012 PosturePals Pty Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publishers.
Directions for Use 3/3 Contra-indications Do not use on frail, broken or sunburned skin or on those with known sensitivity
Caution Apply strictly according to directions for use Accredited Dynamic Tape training recommended prior to use DO NOT stretch strongly. Excessive stretch will result in blisters Remove immediately, discontinue use and seek medical advice if itching, burning, stinging, rash, redness or irritation occurs Circumferential applications should be applied on an angle to prevent compression of blood vessels and nerves – Remove if pins and needles or numbness occurs Check product thoroughly if packaging is damaged
Application Remove hair (clippers recommended) Clean and dry skin (remove creams, lotions & oils) Round off the corners of the tape to reduce lifting Place the body part in desired position Apply an anchor point of > 4cm with no stretch to avoid tension on skin Hold anchor (4cm from end) to minimise traction on the skin and gently stretch tape until resistance is first felt – DO NOT stretch strongly Apply the final 4cm of tape with no stretch Rub thoroughly to activate the heat sensitive glue Allow 45 – 60 minutes before swimming, showering or vigorous exercise May remain in place for up to five days as directed Remove tape in the direction of hair growth. Hold down skin and peel tape back along itself Do not remove when wet
Further Tips Use adhesive spray to hasten bonding, around foot and ankle or if overlapping tape (apply on back of first layer) Apply a locking strip over foot and ankle applications to improve adhesion and load absorption A rigid locking strip (zinc oxide) may be useful around the ends of the tape. This is especially useful on fingers For videos, specific techniques, tips and disclaimer please visit www.dynamictape.com
Weapons for serious athletes and clinicians FOR PROFESSIONAL USE ONLY
www.dynamictape.com.au POSTUREPALS PTY LTD PO Box 1312 Port Vila, VANUATU Tel: +61 (0)2 8011 3823 Email.: [email protected]
PosturePals Pty Ltd Europe Nigel Kaufman Evenaristr 10 64293 Darmstadt Germany Tel.: +49 (0)6151 397 5899 Email.: [email protected]
(c) 2011 PosturePals Pty Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publishers. Disclaimer Dynamic Tape Tape Quick Quick Start Reference Guide is Guide designed is designed to provide to authoritative provide authoritative education education and training andintraining the subject in the matter subject matter covered in conjunction with an accredited Dynamic Taping workshop. While the publisher has taken all reasonable care in the preparation of this publication, its accuracy cannot be warranted. Materials and examples in this guide do not constitute advice on the management of any particular case. The author and the publisher expressly disclaim responsibility for any adverse effects arising from the use or application of information contained in this book.