Qualitative Data Analysis The Process of Analysis and the use of Computer-assisted Techniques
I was at lunch standing in line and he [another male student] came up to my face and started saying stuff and then he pushed me. I said . . . I’m cool with you, I’m your friend and then he push me again and calling me names. I told him to stop pushing me and then he push me hard and said something about my mom. And then he hit me, and I hit him back. After he fell I started kicking him. —Morrill et al., 2000:521 Does it surprise you that the text excerpt above is data used in a qualitative research project? That is the first difference between qualitative and quantitative data analysis—the data to be analyzed is text, rather than numbers, at least when the analysis first begins. Does it trouble you to learn that there are no variables and hypotheses in this qualitative analysis by Calvin Morrill, Christine Yalda, Madeleine Adelman, Michael Musheno, and Cindy Bejarano (2000)?
STEPS IN QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS 1. Documentation of the data and the process of data collection 2. Organization/categorization of the data into concepts 3. Connection of the data to show how one concept may influence another 4. Corroboration/legitimization, by evaluating alternative explanations and disconfirming evidence and searching for negative cases 5. Representing the account (reporting the findings)
TECHNIQUES OF QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS
Documentation The data for a qualitative study most often are notes jotted down in the field or during an interview—from which the original comments, observations, and feelings are reconstructed— or text transcribed from audiotapes. “The basic data are these observations and conversations, the actual words of people reproduced to the best of my ability from the field notes” (Diamond, 1992:7). Conceptualization, Coding, and Categorizing Identifying and refining important concepts is a key part of the iterative process of qualitative research. Sometimes conceptualization begins with a simple observation that is interpreted directly, “pulled apart” and then put back together more meaningfully.
Examining Relationships and Displaying Data Examining relationships is the centerpiece of the analytic process, because it allows the researcher to move from simple description of the people and settings to explanations of why things happened as they did with those people in that setting. The process of examining relationships can be captured in a matrix that shows how different concepts are connected, or perhaps what causes are linked with what effects.
Authenticating Conclusions No set standards exist for evaluating the validity or “authenticity” of conclusions in a qualitative study, but the need to consider carefully the evidence and methods on which conclusions are based is just as great as with other types of research. Individual items of informationcan be assessed in terms of at least three criteria (Becker, 1958): • How credible was the informant? • Were statements made in response to the researcher’s questions, or were they spontaneous? • How does the presence or absence of the researcher or the researcher’s informant influence the actions and statements of other group members?
Reflexivity Confidence in the conclusions from a field research study is also strengthened by an honest and informative account about how the researcher interacted with subjects in the field, what problems he or she encountered, and how these problems were or were not resolved. Such a “natural history” of the development of the evidence enables others to evaluate the findings.
COMPUTER-ASSISTED QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS The analysis process can be enhanced in various ways by using a computer. Programs designed for qualitative data can speed up the analysis process, make it easier for researchers to experiment with different codes, test different hypotheses about relationships, and facilitate diagrams of emerging theories and preparation of research reports (Coffey & Atkinson, 1996; Richards & Richards, 1994). We use two of the most popular programs to illustrate these steps: HyperRESEARCH and QSR NVivo.
Text preparation begins with typing or scanning text in a word processor or, with NVivo, directly into the program’s rich text editor.
Coding the text involves categorizing particular text segments. This is the foundation of much qualitative analysis. Either program allows you to assign a code to any segment of text. You can both make up codes as you go through a document and assign codes that you have already developed to text segments.
Analysis focuses on reviewing cases or text segments with similar codes and examining relationships among different codes. You may decide to combine codes into larger concepts.
In reality, using a qualitative data analysis computer program is not always as straightforward as it appears (Bachman & Schutt, 2001:314). However you decide to analyze your qualitative data, the results will be rich with detail and provide an in-depth understanding of an aspect of the social world.