Excel: Beyond the Basics

Excel: Beyond the Basics Microsoft Excel® is an effective tool to use in conjunction with PowerSchool. While PowerSchool manages your data successfully, Excel helps you organize that data in a graphical, easy-to-use format. This course covers the following topics:

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Learning basic Excel terminology

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Using formulas and functions to calculate data

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Improving the appearance of the data using cell background colors and conditional formatting

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Controlling how the worksheet prints using Page Setup

Basic Excel Concepts Open Excel and look at the rows on the top of your screen. Depending on which version of Excel you are using, the rows should look similar to this screen shot:

Note: This screen shot shows Excel 2011 for Mac; Excel 2007 and Excel 2010 for the PC are similar. If you use a different version of Excel, some of your options may appear in a different order or format. •

The first row is the menu bar, which includes the File and Edit menus

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The second row is the Ribbon, where the majority of commands that you'll use are grouped into individual tabs. A few examples include:

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The Home tab, which deals primarily with formatting cells

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The Layout tab, which has all the page setup commands

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The Formulas tab, which lists the different functions in Excel, by type

The third row is the Formula bar, where you edit formulas that you enter into cells

Become familiar with some Excel terminology: •

A cell is described by the column letter, then the row number For example, the cell located in the first column and row is A1. The cell located in the third column and fifth row is C5.

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A cell is a single field for data within a worksheet

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Worksheets are pages in a workbook

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A workbook is another name for an Excel file

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An Excel workbook can have an infinite number of worksheets, but more than 30 worksheets may affect performance

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The number of rows and columns in a worksheet depends on your version—Excel 2011 for the Mac and Excel 2010 for the PC each have 16,384 columns and 1,048,576 rows

Excel: Beyond the Basics Activity 1 – Find Your Way Around in Excel Learn how to open an Excel workbook, then move around and enter some text. 1.

Open the ExcelBasics.xls file

2.

Click PSU Excel below the worksheet

3.

Click cell A8, type Copy Paper, and press Enter

4.

Click Undo

5.

Click cell A8, type Copier Paper, press Enter again

6.

Click the Disk icon to save your file

Formulas and Functions in Excel Formulas and functions are the cornerstones for success in Excel. Excel has over 200 different functions in the following categories: •

Date and time (add months or years to a date, add hours to a time)

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Math and trig (most have to do with trigonometry)

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Statistics (average, minimum, maximum)

Most people use five or six functions on a regular basis, and advanced users may use 15–20 functions.

Activity 2 – Create Your First Formula Now that you know how to navigate in Excel, use a formula to find the sum of three numbers. 1.

Click cell E3

2.

Type the formula =B3+C3+D3, and press Enter

3.

Click cell C3, change the entry to 201, and press Enter What happens?

4.

Now, click Undo to replace the cell with the original value

Activity 3 – Use the SUM function The SUM function is a more efficient way to add up a series of numbers. 1.

Select cells B4 through E4

2.

Select the Formulas tab, and click AutoSum

3.

Click cell E4, then click Copy

4.

Click cell E5, and click Paste to copy the formula from E4 to E5 What is the formula in E5?

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Excel: Beyond the Basics Activity 4 – Use Paste Special When you copy and paste in Excel, unexpected results may occur. Use Paste Special to control the results. 1.

Copy cell E3

2.

Click cell B15

3.

Select the Home tab, click the arrow below Paste, and select Paste Special

4.

Select Values, and click OK

5.

Look at the Formula bar What does the formula say?

Activity 5 – Lock Formulas When you copy and paste a formula in Excel, the rows and columns change relative to the location of the cell where you’re pasting the formula. To keep a row or column reference consistent, use absolute references. To keep a column or row from changing when you copy and paste a formula, use the dollar sign. 1.

Click cell A10

2.

Enter Sales Tax

3.

Enter .01 in cell B10 to establish a 1 percent tax rate

4.

Press Enter

5.

Click cell F3

6.

Enter the formula =E3*B10

7.

Press Enter

8.

Copy the formula from cell F3 to cell F4 What’s the formula in cell F4?

9.

To fix the formula so that it consistently refers to cell B10, change the formula in cell F3 to =E3*B$10, and press Enter The dollar sign in front of the row number keeps the row number the same when you paste the formula to another cell.

10. Now, copy the formula from cell F3 to cell F4 again 11. Click cell F3 The data in cell F3 is the sales tax amount. 12. Now, add the sales tax to the original amount; type =E3*B$10+E3, and press Enter 13. Copy the formula from cell F3 to cell F4

Setting Up Formulas As you prepare to set up a formula, recall the mnemonic you may have been taught in grade school to help you remember the order of mathematical operations: “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally.” Excel follows the same order when completing calculations, which is: parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction.

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Excel: Beyond the Basics Activity 6 – Use Parentheses in Formulas Find the average of how much toner was used in the first three months of the year. 1.

Click cell G3

2.

Find the sum of the toner for January, February, and March by entering =B3+C3+D3

3.

To find the average, divide by 3

4.

Type =B3+C3+D3/3 Is the average calculated correctly?

5.

Add parentheses so the formula calculates the average correctly

6.

Enter =(B3+C3+D3)/3

Activity 7 – Find the Average Value in a Range To find the average value in a range, you don't have to manually enter data in each cell or figure out how many cells you're averaging. Instead of typing =(B3+C3+D3)/3, use the AVERAGE function. 1.

Click cell G4

2.

Click the arrow next to the AutoSum icon, and select Average

3.

Click cell B4 and drag the mouse to D4; then, click the check mark in the Formula bar

Activity 8 – Find the Lowest Value in a Range The MIN function finds the smallest number in a range of selected cells. 1.

Click cell H3

2.

Click the arrow next to the AutoSum icon, and select Min The cell formula is =MIN(B3:G3), which means data from columns B through G are included in the calculation.

3.

Change the formula to =MIN(B3:D3) so that only the individual months’ amounts in cells B3, C3, and D3 are compared to find the minimum dollar amount

4.

Press Enter

Activity 9 – Find the Highest Value in a Range The MAX function is the opposite of MIN, but it works the same way. 1.

Click cell I3

2.

Click the arrow next to the AutoSum icon, and select Max The cell formula is =MAX(B3:H3), which means data from columns B through H are included in the calculation.

3.

Change the formula to =MAX(B3:D3) so that only the individual months’ amounts in cells B3, C3, and D3 are compared to find the maximum dollar amount

4.

Press Enter

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Excel: Beyond the Basics Activity 10 – Copy Formulas with AutoFill You may reuse a formula in Excel by copying and pasting it. However, AutoFill is the most effective approach. 1.

Click cell E5

2.

Place your pointer in the lower-right corner of the cell

3.

When your pointer changes to a black plus sign, double-click your mouse

4.

Look at the result in cell E7, and notice that you copied the formula down Why does it work?

5.

Repeat the result for cells F4, G4, H3, and I3

Activity 11 – Use AutoFill for a Built-in List AutoFill can also populate cells with values from a list. The list can be predefined, such as the days of the week, a series of dates, or a list of numbers. 1.

Click Sheet2 below the worksheet

2.

Click cell A1, and type Mon

3.

Press Enter

4.

Place your pointer in the lower-right corner of cell A1

5.

Click and drag down to cell A7 Notice the pattern.

6.

Click cell C1

7.

Type January

8.

Place your pointer in the lower-right corner of the cell

9.

Click and drag across to cell P1

Activity 12 – Create A Custom List Customize AutoFill to fit your needs. Create lists of staff members, building names, or students to fill cell values. First, use predefined lists to maximize efficiency. 1.

Click the Excel menu, then select Preferences Windows Excel 2007 users click the Office button, and select Excel Options > Popular > Edit Custom Lists. Windows Excel 2010 users click the File menu and select Options > Advanced > General > Edit Custom Lists.

2.

Choose Custom Lists from the menu

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Excel: Beyond the Basics

3.

In the List entries box, enter a list of values you might use all the time, like your staff members This list is available in any workbook, not just this one.

4.

Click Add

5.

Click OK Windows users click OK again.

6.

Click cell A9, and type a word/phrase from your list

7.

Press Enter

8.

Place your pointer in the lower-right corner of the cell

9.

Click and drag down to A17

Formatting Your Data Excel offers a range of options to change the appearance of your data, including: •

Inserting rows and columns

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Freezing rows and columns in place

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Changing the font and font color

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Altering the cell background color

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Modifying the border around the cell

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Formatting a cell conditionally (formatting only cells that meet a certain condition)

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Excel: Beyond the Basics Activity 13 – Insert a Row Insert a new row into your document. 1.

Click cell A2

2.

From the Insert menu, select Rows Windows users right-click and select Insert > Shift Cells Down > Ok. Which row moves down? Why?

Activity 14 – Freeze Panes Use the Freeze Panes option to lock a row or column in position so those rows remain visible as you move around the worksheet. 1.

Click cell B3

2.

Select Freeze Panes from the Window menu Windows users select the View tab > Freeze Panes > Freeze Panes.

3.

Scroll right; notice which cells are still visible

4.

Click cell A1

5.

Scroll down and notice which cells are still visible

Activity 15 – Use the Formatting Toolbar to Create a Heading Use the Formatting toolbar to make a heading row that stands out at the top of the page. 1.

Return to the PSU Excel worksheet, and select cells A1 through I1

2.

In the Alignment section, click Merge to merge the nine cells into one cell and center the text Windows users, select the Alignment or Home tab, and select Merge and Center.

3.

Click the arrow next to the paint bucket, and select a color for the cell background

4.

Change the size and color of the text

5.

Click Undo What is undone?

6.

Redo the formatting

Activity 16 – Format Using Format Cells Use Format Cells to change the format of a cell in a variety of ways. 1.

Click cell B4

2.

From the Format menu, select Cells Windows users, click the arrow below Format, and select Format Cells.

3.

Click Font, and under Size, select 12

4.

Click Fill, and choose a color

5.

Click OK Make sure to click OK after each pane that you use in the Format Cells window. Otherwise, clicking the Undo icon will undo all the formatting steps.

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Excel: Beyond the Basics 6.

Click Undo What is undone?

7.

Reset the formatting by clicking Redo

Activity 17 – Format Numbers as Currency Represent dollar amounts in the worksheet using currency format. 1.

Select cells B3 through I8

2.

On the Home tab, select Currency from the menu in the Number group

Activity 18 – Use the Format Painter Use the Format Painter to copy formatting from one cell to another. Now that you have formatted cell B4 the way you want, you can transfer that formatting to other cells in the worksheet. 1.

Click cell B4

2.

Click the Format Painter icon (paintbrush)

3.

Select cell B3, and drag your mouse to cell I8 To copy the formatting to multiple ranges of cells, double-click Format Painter, and apply the formatting. To release the formatting, press esc.

Activity 19 – Use Conditional Formatting When you have a large worksheet of values, you may want to spot the unusual values right away. Use Conditional Formatting to help you find anomalies in your data. 1.

Select cells B3 through D8

2.

On the Home tab, select Conditional Formatting, and then choose New Rule Windows users click Format only cells that contain, and skip to step 5.

3.

From the Style menu, select Classic

4.

From the second menu, select Format only cells that contain

5.

From the third menu, select Cell value, and then greater than Windows users select Cell value, and then greater than.

6.

Enter 20 in the first text field

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Excel: Beyond the Basics 7.

From the “Format with:” menu, select custom format… Windows users click Format.

8.

Click Fill

9.

Change the background color to red, and click OK

10. Click OK Now, add a condition so that any values less than or equal to 15 have a green background. 11. From the Format menu, select Conditional Formatting, and click + to add a new rule Windows users click Conditional Formatting > New Rule > Format only cells that contain. Skip to step 14. 12. From the Style menu, select Classic 13. From the second menu, select Format only cells that contain 14. From the third menu, select Cell value, and then select less than or equal to Windows users select Cell value and then select less than or equal to. 15. Enter 15 in the text field 16. From the “Format with:” with menu, select custom format… Windows users click Format. 17. Click Fill 18. Change the background color to green, and click OK 19. Click OK > OK

Activity 20 – Organize Data Use the functions Text to Columns and Sorting to organize the data on a worksheet. 1.

Click the Students tab

2.

Insert two new columns between columns A and B

3.

Select column A

4.

From the Data menu, select Text to Columns…

5.

Leave the Original data type as Delimited and click Next

6.

Select Comma and Space as the Delimiters and click Next

7.

Click Finish

8.

Type a new title for each column:

9.

A

Last Name

B

First Name

C

MI

Select cell A2 through cell F305

10. Select Sort… from the Data menu 11. Select Grade_Level in the first Sort by criteria menu to sort the data by the grade level Copyright © 2012 Pearson

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Excel: Beyond the Basics 12. Click OK

Formatting and Printing a Worksheet By default, a workbook in Excel has one worksheet—the Windows version has three—but you can add as many as you like. You can format different margins, page orientation, headers, and footers in each worksheet. But if multiple worksheets each deal with similar data, you may want every worksheet to look the same.

Naming a Worksheet Worksheet names like Sheet1 don't provide specific information. If you have one worksheet for students, another for teachers, and a third for quarters, naming the worksheets Students, Teachers, and Quarters makes each worksheet immediately identifiable.

Activity 21 – Change a Worksheet's Name Change the name of Sheet2 in your workbook. 1.

Right-click Sheet2

2.

Select Rename from the menu, and type PSU Practice

3.

Press Enter

Activity 22 – Use Page Setup Use Page Setup to make sure that your worksheet prints the way you want. 1.

Return to the PSU Excel worksheet

2.

From the File menu, select Page Setup Windows users click the Page Layout tab.

3.

Click Margins Windows users select Margins > Custom Margins.

4.

Under “Center on page,” check Horizontally and Vertically to make the data print in the center of the page

5.

Click Header/Footer

6.

Click the Footer menu and select Page 1 of ?

7.

Click Sheet Windows users click the arrow in the Sheet Options group, and select Sheet.

8.

Click the arrow icon in the “Rows to repeat at top” field

9.

Click cell A2, and press Enter

10. Click OK

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Excel: Beyond the Basics Activity 23 – Copy a Worksheet Multiple worksheets in a workbook may have common formatting. The fastest way to duplicate a worksheet's formatting is to copy the original worksheet. 1.

Right-click PSU Excel

2.

From the menu, choose Move or Copy

3.

Select (move to end)

4.

Check Create a Copy

5.

Click OK

6.

From the File menu, select Page Setup Windows users click the Page Layout tab.

7.

Click Margins Notice that the margins, headers, and footers in the original and in the copy are the same.

8.

Click Cancel

Activity 24 – Delete a Worksheet Delete unneeded worksheets. 1.

Right-click PSU Practice

2.

From the menu, choose Delete

3.

Click OK Windows users click Delete. Can you undo the worksheet deletion?

Key Points •

Excel files – Use the rows and columns to organize and manipulate data

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Formulas – Use formulas like equations; they give results based on the data in the cells referenced

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Cells – Format cells to change their appearance

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Page format – Adjust the page format so files print as you want

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