BANGLADESH RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS JOURNAL ISSN: 1998-2003, Volume: 7, Issue: 3, Page: 277-282, September - October, 2012
PROCESSING OF GINGER POWDER Md. Rezaul Islam Shirshir, Mosharaf Hossain and Md. Mossarrof Hossain 1 Md. Rezaul Islam Shirshir, Mosharaf Hossain and Md. Mossarrof Hossain (2012). Processing of ginger powder. Bangladesh Res. Pub. J. 7(3): 277-282. Retrieve from http://www.bdresearchpublications.com/admin/journal/upload/09338/09338.pdf
Abstract The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Food Science and Nutrition, HSTU, Dinajpur and BCSIR (Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) Laboratory, Dhaka, to develop ginger powder from fresh ginger. The fresh gingers (raw materials) were collected from the local market and analyzed for proximate composition moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber 79.5%, 2.12%, 2.5%, 1.5% and 2.4% respectively. Other hand the chemical analysis of ginger powders was done and the average compositions of ginger powders were moisture: 7.6%, protein: 7.06 %, ash: 4.01%, fat: 1.85%, acidity: 1.32%, fibers: 1.5%. Six types of ginger powders were tested by a panel of 15 judges. Powders from sun dried and packaged in polythene bags secured the highest score 8.0 out of 9.0 and was ranked like very much. The ginger powders those were stored in plastic containers had lower moisture content than those were stored in polythene bags. The study showed that there is a good prospect of processing of ginger as powder. By processing ginger (powder), its market value may be increased and production can be maximized. Thus farmers would be benefited and encouraged to produce more. It has great demand on the local and international market. Ginger powder may be exported to earn valuable foreign exchange. This study has opened the door for commercial production of ginger powder from raw ginger with its light brown color, soft texture and characteristics flavor with a potential prolonged shelf-life.
Key words: Ginger, powder and processing
Introduction Ginger (Zingiber officinale) the underground arm of rhizome of the zingiberous herbaceous plant, is originated in the Southeast Asia. In Bangladesh, it is known as ‘ADA’. It is one of the earliest oriental spices known to Europe and is still in the large demand today. The largest ginger producing country is India, which produces about 50% of the world’s total production and is the largest exporter. In India, the total annual production of ginger were 4, 20,000 metric tons (FAO, 2009). Other important producers are China, Taiwan, Nigeria, Sierra Leon, Jamaica, Thailand and Australia. In Bangladesh, ginger grows well in Rangpur, Nilphamari, Khulna, Rangamati ,Bandharban and Khagrachori districts and the total area of cultivation and the annual production of ginger were 22,000 acres and 80,000 metric tons respectively (BBS, 2010) and the total area of cultivation and annual production were 22,400 acres and 77,608 metric tons respectively (FAO, 2009). Ginger requires warm and humid climate for better growth and it is well suited for the cultivation in hilly region .Its growing period is March-May and harvesting period is November-December of the year. The aroma of ginger is pleasant and spicy and its flavor penetrating, slightly biting due to presence of Faculty of Agro-Industrial and Food Process Engineering, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.
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antiseptic or pungent compounds, which make it indispensable in the manufacture of a number of food products like ginger bread, confectionary, ginger ale, curry powders, certain curried meats, table sauces, in pickling and the manufacture of certain soft drinks like cordials, ginger cocktail, carbonated drinks, bitters, etc. Ginger is also used for the manufacture of ginger oil, oleoresin, essences, tinctures etc. (pruthi, 2006). Considering the above facts the present investigation was undertaken with the following objectives: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾
To preparation of ginger powder from fresh ginger. To analyze the chemical and proximate composition of ginger powder. To study the effects of packaging materials (stored in polyethylene bags and plastic containers) on the keeping quality of the ginger powder. To assesses the storage stability and acceptability of the processed powder.
Materials and Methods Experimental Site: The study was conducted in the Faculty of Agro Industrial and Food Process Engineering, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur during the period of July 2010 to December 2010. The processing of ginger powder and composition analysis will be described in this section. Materials required: Gingers (1000 gm), Plastic containers and polythene bags. Apparatus required: Balance: Laboratory balance and Electric balance, Knives, Oven dryer, Crucible, Petridis, Desiccators, Blender Trays, Digital moisture metre, Sieve.
Methods Preparation of ginger powder: The fresh gingers were collected from local market and washed with clean water to remove dirt and other field-damaged portion. After cleaning, the clean and fresh gingers were sliced up to 2mm to 3mm with knife. The slices were dried under three methods. These are: 1. Sun drying for three days up to moisture content 10-12%. 2. Oven drying at 75 °C for 20 hrs up to moisture content 9-11%. 3. Sun drying for one day at (28±2) °C and then oven drying at 75 °C for 10 hrs up to moisture content 8-9%. After cooling at room temperature, the dried ginger slices were grounded into powder in a blender separately. Then they were sieved and packaged in high density polythene bags and plastic containers. All polythene bags and plastic containers containing ginger powder were identified and stored at room temperature. Chemical Analysis: The ginger powder was analyzed for their moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber, titrable acidity, pH, minerals and salts in the laboratory of Food Science and Nuttition, HSTU, Dinajpur. Some of these analyses were done at Food and Applied Nutrition Lab, Food Enzymology Lab, Fruit Technology Lab, Vegetable Technology Lab of IFST ( Institute of Food Science and Technology), in BCSIR, Dhaka. Different parameters are tested. These are moisture content, mineral (Ash), fat, protein content, fiber, titratable acidity and pH . Data analysis: Data were statistically analyzed using the (ANOVA) “Analysis of Variance” technique with the help of the computer package MSTAT. The mean differences were adjusted by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) (Gomez and Gomez, 1984). http://www.bdresearchpublications.com/journal/
Processing of ginger powder
Results and Discussions This episode is the presentation and discussion of the results obtained from the experiments carried out to study the performance of ginger powder under different treatments. The data are presented in tables and the summary of analysis of variance of all the parameter. Proximate composition of fresh ginger and ginger powder: The fresh ginger and ginger powders were analyzed for moisture, ash, protein, fat, pH, acidity, minerals and fiber, etc. Table 1. Composition of fresh ginger and ginger powder Composition
Moisture (%) Ash (%) Protein (%) Fat (%) Fiber (%) PH Acidity (%)
79.5 1.0 2.12 2.50 2.4 6.3 2.1
5.72 4.0 7.1 1.98 1.58 5.2 1.32
Ginger powder (%) Oven dried Sun and oven dried 4.35 4.0 4.0 4.03 6.8 7.3 1.75 1.81 1.34 1.59 5.0 5.0 1.32 1.32
It was determined the chemical composition of ginger powder and compared with the chemical composition of fresh ginger. The composition of ginger may vary due to varietal difference, variations in stage of maturity, time elapsed between harvesting and analysis and the growing conditions of the ginger. Moisture content of fresh ginger was 79.5%. Keramat Ali et al., (2001) also reported that in Bangladesh, moisture content of fresh ginger was 80.9%., which was almost similar to this investigation. In case of ash content of fresh ginger was 1.0%, while the ash content of ginger powder was 4.0%. Keramat Ali et al., (2002) reported that the ash content of Bangladeshi fresh ginger was 1.2%. Pruthi (2001) reported that the ash content of dried ginger was 5.0%. So the ash content of dried ginger was higher than fresh ginger.However, protein content of fresh ginger was 2.12%, whereas protein content of ginger powder were 7.1% (sun dried), 6.8% (oven dried), 7.3%(sun and oven dried) .Ali et al., (2002) reported that protein content in fresh ginger of Bangladeshi was 2.3%. Pruthi (2006) reported that the protein content of dried ginger was 8.1%. This is slightly lower than that found in this investigation. The fat content of fresh ginger and dried ginger were 2.50% and 1.98 % ( sun dried), 1.75 % ( oven dried), 1.81 % (sun and oven dried) respectively. There was a decreasing trend to the fat content of ginger powder. This might happened due to oxidation. Sensory evaluation of ginger powder stored in polythene bags and plastic containers: The samples of ginger powder were subjected to sensory evaluation testing using 1-9 hedonic scale. The mean scores of color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of different samples are presented in following table.
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Table 2. Mean sensory score for color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of various ginger powders Samples code
Sensory attributes Flavor Texture
111. I. = Sun dried and packaged in polythene bag; 111. II. =Sun dried and packaged in plastic container; 222. I. = Oven dried and packaged in polythene bag; 222. II. =Oven dried and packaged in plastic container; 333. I. =Sun and Oven dried and packaged in polythene bag; 333. II. =Sun and Oven dried and packaged in plastic container. A single way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out for color preference and results revealed that there were significant differences in color acceptability. It has been revealed by DMRT test that the treatments of the ginger powder with different methods and packaging significantly affected the degree of color acceptability of the ginger powder. The highest color score (8.0 out of 9.0) was achieved with the sample sun dried and packaged in polythene bag containing sample code 111. I. while the lowest score (7.0 out of 9.0) was found sample oven dried and packaged in plastic container containing sample code 222.II. In case of flavor preference among the ginger powder samples of single way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the samples were significantly affected in flavor acceptability. It has been revealed by DMRT test that the treatments of the ginger powder with different methods and packaging significantly affected the degree of flavor acceptability of the ginger powder. The highest flavor score (8.267 out of 9.0) was achieved with the sample sun dried and packaged in polythene bag containing sample code 111. I. while the lowest score (6.933 out of 9.0) was found sample oven dried and packaged in plastic container containing sample code 222.I and II. In case of texture preference among the ginger powder samples of single way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the samples were significantly affected in flavor acceptability. It has been revealed by DMRT test that the treatments of the ginger powder with different methods and packaging significantly affected the degree of texture acceptability of the ginger powder. The highest texture score (8.4 out of 9.0) was achieved with the sample sun dried and packaged in polythene bag containing sample code 111. I. while the lowest score (7.067 out of 9.0) was found sample oven dried and packaged in plastic container containing sample code 222.II. In case of overall acceptability preference among the ginger powder samples of single way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the samples were significantly affected in overall acceptability. It has been revealed by DMRT test that the treatments of the ginger powder with different methods and packaging significantly affected the degree of overall acceptability of the ginger powder. The highest overall acceptability score (8.267 out of 9.0) was achieved with the sample sun dried and packaged in polythene bag containing sample http://www.bdresearchpublications.com/journal/
Processing of ginger powder
code 111. I. while the lowest score (7.002 out of 9.0) was found sample oven dried and packaged in plastic container containing sample code 222. (I& II) and the sun dried and oven dried and packaged in polythene bag, containing sample code 333.I. The effects of packaging materials and storage time on ginger powder: The moisture content of different ginger powders was determined during packaging and at intervals of 60 days. The moisture content of ginger powders packaged in plastic containers and polythene bags is showed in following table. Table 3. Samples stored in plastic containers Samples Powder
Moisture content (%) 1st test during packaging
3rd test after 4 months (sometimes opened)
2nd test after 2 months (sometimes opened) 7.5
4th test after 6 months
Sun and oven dried
Table 4. Samples stored in polythene bags Samples Powder Sun dried
Moisture content (%) 1st test
during packaging 5.72
test after 2 months 6.1
3rd test after 4 months 6.8
4th test after 6 months 7.5
Sun and oven
By determining moisture content, it was observed that the samples that are packaged in plastic containers and capped had the lower moisture content than the samples packaged in polythene bags. The ginger powders that are opened sometimes was observed and found that the moisture content was increased comparatively more. For increasing moisture content, the keeping quality of ginger powder would be decreased. So, Capped plastic container is comparatively better than polythene bag as a packaging material for storage purpose of ginger powder under ambient temperature. Cost analysis: The costs of gingers and ginger powders were analyzed to determine the feasibility of marketing and consumer acceptance. Total cost for preparation of ginger powder from 5 Kg fresh gingers: Table 5. Cost analysis of ginger powder production Item Ginger (5 Kg) Fixed cost Labor (1) Others Total
Cost ( Tk.) 400 20 130 50 600
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In general, the approximate value of 1 kg ginger powder is 1050 Tk. So the market value of 950 gm ginger powder will be 997.50 Tk. According to cost analysis, ginger powder production is commercially profitable.
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