Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement

B.T.S FEE [D. Bord lycée St Michel – 54] sem 9 Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement In the field of air conditioning and refrig...
Author: Sara Norton
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B.T.S FEE [D. Bord lycée St Michel – 54] sem 9

Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement In the field of air conditioning and refrigeration, the HVAC technician cannot afford to overlook the opportunity to master control process tools such as measuring instruments and controllers. In the following example, an air-handling unit provides occupants with comfortable climate whatever loads variations, as a result temperature and moisture need to be controlled. The technician must be able to select, size, connect and adjust measuring instruments to meet required performances. He will have to keep up with new technology in order to propose clients reliable solutions, either for installing a new process or for upgrading a current system. He will also have to get to grips with software tools such as measurement recorders, spread sheet, etc in order to treat measurement data required for optimizing process efficiency. Temperature transmitter

Supply air

MT Moisture transmitter

Connect to controller MM

XM

XT Return air

1) Measurement generality Physical quantity (X) also called Physical measure or process value (PV): it’s the parameter need to be controlled. Measure (x): that is the value treated by the transmitter and displayed on the screen. Measuring signal: It represents the physical measure transmitted to a controller by a transmitter.

B.T.S FEE [D. Bord lycée St Michel – 54] sem 9

Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement 2) Sensors and transmitters a. Industrial measurement chain Moisture transmitter LCD display

MM Here, humidity sensor Interconnection medium 4-20mA or 0-10V

XM

Sensor

Central Process Unit (µp)

Configuration interface

Display module

Transmission module

xM

MM to Controller

The measurement chain carries measuring signal to controller. That is composed by: Sensor: The sensitive element converts physical quantity into electrical signal such as tension, frequency, etc. Central Process Unit: CPU is an integrated system that includes signal conditioner, digital signal processor and a configuration interface. Interconnection medium: A wire connects transmitter to controller using electrical signal according to standards such as 4-20mA or 0-10V. But new generation of transmitter use digital link adapted for industrial networks. Notice: In some cases, sensors are directly connected to controller. That is the case of thermocouple and RTD (Resistive Thermal Device) b. Different sensors families Passive sensor: they need electrical source to generate a signal e.g. Pt100 sensor. Active sensor: they do not need any energy source to generate a signal. They generate their own electrical signal e.g. thermocouple. On/Off sensor: they provide On/Off switching and they are used in safety or alarm systems e.g. Low or High-level water alarm in a Water heater.

B.T.S FEE [D. Bord lycée St Michel – 54] sem 9

Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement c. Transmitter measurement range Let’s consider a 4-20mA temperature transmitter that converts temperature into a 4-20mA signal. The measurement range is the difference between the highest and lowest temperature the transmitter can measure. What is the full range of this transmitter?

However, you have to distinguish the difference between full range and measurement range. • Full range is the range the transmitter is able to measure without be damaged • Measurement range is adapted to process requirements. Most transmitters include an adjustable range. Measurement range ≤ Full range

d. Transmitter transfer function Output signal Physical quantity X

Sensor + transmitter

Measurement signal M

20mA

4mA val.min

val.max

X

Let’s consider a temperature transmitter whose measurement range is -10 to 20°C, the LCD display indicates 5.6°C: Deduce the output current value in [mA].

B.T.S FEE [D. Bord lycée St Michel – 54] sem 9

Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement e. Transmitter connection In this section, we only deal with analog links. 0-10V link is used for short distance. Indeed, wires resistances attenuate the measurement signal. The more the wire is long the more signal attenuates. Last but not least, tension is quite a bit sensitive to Electromagnetic perturbations generated by powerful electrical machines implying signal degradation and wrong measurement value. 4-20mA current loop allows long distance interconnections because current flows through wires resistances with the same value and current is less sensitive to electromagnetic perturbations. o Connecting 2 wires 4-20mA transmitter:

+ -

X+ X-

0 24v

Input signal

230Vac

Two wires current loop electrical diagram:

Controller Process Value Input : ZI (250Ω)

X+

-

+

-

mA

+ Power supply 24Vcc

XTransmitter

B.T.S FEE [D. Bord lycée St Michel – 54] sem 9

Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement o Connecting 4 wires 4-20mA transmitter:

0 24v

X+ X-

230Vac

To controller

Power supply 24Vcc

⊗ ⊗ ⊗ O 0V 24V

Transmitter terminal board

Four wires current loop electrical diagram:

24Vcc Power supply

Controller Input : ZI ( 250Ω)

X+

-

mA

+

0V

O

Vcc Ze

XTransmitter

B.T.S FEE [D. Bord lycée St Michel – 54] sem 9

Process Control & Instrumentation : Industrial measurement

• What are respectively humidity and temperature full range? • Does this instrument include adjustable range? By which means do you adjust range? • What is the temperature measurement accuracy? • You read 5.1°C, what might be the real temperature value? • The temperature is -10°C, you read 72%, what might be the real relative humidity? • You need to purchase this transmitter for a HVAC installation. The selecting consideration are: o An indicator transmitter is required. o It’ll be connected to a controller providing 0-10V analog inputs o The system provides a 24Vac power supply o The 2 meters length probe of the transmitter will be mounted on the supply air duct. Can you specify the order code and calculate the price in Euros considering a 25% discount available for faithful clients.

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