Preface xix ABBREVIATIONS A AAC – Advanced Audio Coding - format is based on the MPEG4 audio standard ACM – Association for Computing Machinery ADC...
Author: Constance Hicks
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A AAC – Advanced Audio Coding - format is based on the MPEG4 audio standard ACM – Association for Computing Machinery ADC – Analogue to Digital Converter ADDIE – Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation project development model ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line AGP – Accelerated Graphics Port AIFF – Audio Interchange File Format AR – Augmented Reality ARP/RARP – Address Resolution Protocol/ Reverse ARP ARPA – Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defence AS – ActionScript ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange ATA – Advanced Technology Attachment ATM – Asynchronous Translation Mode AVI – Audio Video Interleaved, format for digital video file B B2B – Business to Business type of e-Commerce application B2C – Business to Consumer type of e-Commerce application B2G – Business to Government type of e-Commerce application BIOS – Basic Input Output Services C C2C – Consumer to Consumer type of e-Commerce application C2G – Consumer to Government type of e-Commerce application CAD – Computer Aided Design CAV – Constant Angular Velocity CATV – Cable TV CBT – Computer Based Training



CCD – Charge Coupled Devices CCITT – Comité Consulatif Internationale de Télégraphique et Téléphonique CCTV – Closed Circuit Television CD – Compact Disc DA – Digital Audio I – Interactive R – Recordable, write once RW – Rewritable CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access CDROM – Compact Disc Read Only Memory CLV – Constant Linear Velocity CMC – Computer Mediated Communication CMOS – Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor CMY – Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow colour model CMYK – Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and blacK CPU – Central Processing Unit CR – Change Requests CRM Change Request Master CRT – Cathode Ray Tube CSCW – Computer Supported Collaborative Working CSMA/CA – Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision Avoidance CSMA/CD – Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection CSS – Cascading Style Sheets CT – Computer Tomography scan CTS/RTS – Clear To Send/Ready To Send CATV – Cable TV D dB – decibels DAC – Digital to Analogue Converter DAT – Digital Audio Tape DBV – Digital Broadcast Video DCT – Discrete Cosine Transform DCF – Distributed Coordination Functions DD – Dolby Digital DDA – Digital Differential Analyzer algorithm DDL – Description Definition Language DES – Data Encryption Standard DIFS – DCF interframe space DNS – Domain Name Server DPI – Dots per inch DRM – Digital Rights/Restrictions Management


DSL – Digital Subscriber Line DSP – Digital Signal Processing DTD – Document Type Definition DTS – Digital Theatre Systems DVD – Digital Video (Versatile) Disc R – Recordable, write once RW – Rewritable DWT – Discrete Wavelet Transform E e-commerce – Electronic Commerce EDGE – Enhanced Data for Global Enhancement e-governance – Electronic Governance e-learning – Electronic Learning EGA – Enhanced Graphics Adapter EIFS – Extended interframe space EPSS – Electronic Performance Support System F F2F – Face-to-Face communication FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access FFT – Fast Fourier Transform FLA – Adobe Macromedia Flash Project File FLV – Adobe Macromedia Flash Video File G GB – Gigabyte GDI – Graphical Device Interface GIF – Graphics Interchange Format GIS – Geographical Information Systems GML – Generalized Markup Language GOMS – Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules GOP – Group of Pictures GPRS – General Packet Radio Service GPU – Graphics Processing Unit GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications (Groupe Speciale Mobile) GUI – Graphical User Interface H HCI – Human-Computer Interaction or Interface HDLC – High-Level Data Link Control HDTV – High Definition Television HMD – Head Mounted Display




HSB – Hue, Saturation (or chroma) and Brightness (or lightness) colour model HSI – Hue, Saturation and Intensity colour model HTML – Hyper Text Mark-up Language HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol I ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ICT – Information and Communication Technology IDE – Integrated Development Environment IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission IEEE – Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IMP – Interface Message Processor ISM – Interactive Storage Media IP – Internet Protocol IPMP – Intellectual Property Management and Protection IPR – Intellectual Property Right IR – Infra Red ISAKMP – Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ISO – International Standards Organization ISM – Interactive Storage Media ISP – Internet Service Provider ITO – Indium Tin Oxide ITU – International Telecommunication Union J JPEG – Joint Pictures Expert Group L LAN – Local Area Network LAPB – Link Access Procedure version B LCD – Liquid Crystal Display LCP – Link Control Protocol LED – Light Emitting Diode LLC – Logical Link Control LP – Long Playing (Vinyl Records) LTM – Long-Term Memory LZW – Lempel-Ziv-Welch data compression method M MAC – Media Access Control protocol MAN – Metropolitan Area Network MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging MB – Megabyte MCI – Media Control Interface


MDCT – Modified Discrete Cosine Transform MIDI – Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions MMS – Multimedia Messaging Service MOS – Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor MP3 – MPEG Layer 3, format for audio encoding MPC – Multimedia Personal Computer MPEG – Motion Pictures Expert Group, of ISO MR – Media Richness theory MJPEG – Motion JPEG MXML – Macromedia XML standard N NCP – Network Control Protocol NSF – National Science Foundation NTSC – Television Standards Committee, TV broadcast standard O OCR – Optical Character Recognition OD – Olfactory Display OLED – Organic Light Emitting Diode OSI – Open Systems Interconnections OSTA – Optical Storage Technology Association P PAL – Phase Alternating Line, TV broadcast standard PATA – Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment PC – Personal Computer PCF – Point Coordination Function PCM – Pulse Coded Modulation PCS – Personal Communication Services PDA – Personal Digital Assistant PDF – Portable Document Format PDP – Plasma Display Panel PGP – Pretty Good Privacy PIFS – PCF interframe space PLCP – Physical Layer Convergence Procedure PMD – Physical Medium Dependent PN – Petri Nets POS – Point of Sales PPP – Point-to-Point Protocol PPPoE – PPP over Ethernet PPV – Poly p-phenylen-vinylen




R RAM – Random Access Memory RF – Radio Frequency RGB – Red Green and Blue colour model RIA – Rich Internet Applications RLE – Run Length Encoding data compression method S S/MIME – Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions SALT – Speech Application Language Tags SATA – Serial Advanced Technology Attachment SCSI – Small Computer System Interface SDLC – Synchronous Data Link Control SECAM – SÉquentiel Couleur Avec Mémoire (French for Sequential with Memory), TV broadcast standard SEF – Summative Evaluation Form SGML – Standard Generalized Markup Language SIFS – Short Interframe Space SME – Subject Matter Expert SMS – Short Message Service SSL – Secure Socket Layer STG – State-Transition-Graphs STM – Short-Term Memory STP – Shielded Twisted Pair cable SWF – Adobe Macromedia Flash Animation File T TC – Test Controller TCP – Transfer Control Protocol TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access TR – Test Report TRM – Test Report Master TFT – This Film Transistor TLS – Transport Layer Security TP – Twisted Pair cable TV – Television U UCS – Universal Character Set UDF – Universal Disc Format UDP – User Datagram Protocol UNICODE – UNIfication CODE URL – Uniform Resource Locator



USB – Universal Serial Bus UTF – Unicode Transformation Format UTP – Unshielded Twisted Pair cable V UAN – User Action Notation VDU – Visual Display Unit VE – Virtual Environment VHS – Video Home System, recording and playing standard for analogue video VPN – Virtual Private Network VR – Virtual Reality VRML – Virtual Reality Modelling Language VRAM – Video Random Access Memory W W3C – World Wide Web Consortium WAN – Wide Area Network WAP – Wireless Application Protocol WiFi – Wireless Fidelity WIMP – Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointing WWW – World Wide Web WYSIWYG – What You See Is What You Get X XML – eXtensible Mark-up Language XSL – Extensible Style Language Y YIQ – colour model described by intensity (Y) and hue (I –in-phase chrominance, Q –quadrature chrominance) YUV – colour model described by luminescence (Y) and chrominance (U and V)