Plagiarism. What is plagiarism? Why is plagiarism wrong? Intentional Plagiarism Unintentional Plagiarism Self-plagiarism

Plagiarism • • What is plagiarism? • • Paraphrasing • Intentional Plagiarism • How to detect plagiarism • Unintentional Plagiarism • • Sel...
Author: Jerome Jones
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Plagiarism • •

What is plagiarism?

• •

Paraphrasing



Intentional Plagiarism



How to detect plagiarism



Unintentional Plagiarism





Self-plagiarism

What are the consequences of plagiarism?

Why is plagiarism wrong?

How to avoid plagiarizing

What is plagiarism? When you plagiarize,

• •

you steal the ideas or words of another and present them as your own you use another's work without crediting the source

• •

you commit literary theft you present existing ideas or products as new and original.

When you plagiarize, you commit an act of fraud. Plagiarism involves stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward. see: http://www.plagiarism.org

Examples •

handing in someone else's work as your own



providing an incorrect source for a quotation



copying someone else’s words or ideas without giving credit





changing the words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit

failing to indicate a quotation by omitting quotation marks and attribution



copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not

Handing in someone else's work as your own • You contract someone else to do your assignment for you

• You find an existing essay that seems to answer the question and turn it in as your own.

• You submit a paper written by a student in a previous class.

• You find an answer in Wikipedia or Google and use its content as your answer to an assignment without attribution.

Copying someone else’s words or ideas without giving credit

• • •

The author’s phrasing could not be improved



The idea is so well established in physics or chemistry that attribution was “unnecessary”



The idea or hypothesis was from an obscure journal that most biologists do not read

You intended to give attribution but forgot to do so The text was from an obscure journal that most biologists do not read

Misattribution • You copy an author’s words but misattribute making it “impossible” to compare with the original

• You misquote an original source to support your hypothesis

• You quote and attribute but the quotation is out of context.

An unresolved question at this time is whether ATP is the sole cytosolic species necessary for full expression of sugar transport modulation by ATP. A recent study by Wheeler (1989) concludes that ATP is without effect on sugar transport in liposomes containing reconstituted, human erythrocyte, whole membrane proteins. Our studies demonstrate that ATP modifies sugar transport in human red cell ghosts and insideout membrane vesicles (Carruthers, 1986a,b; Hebert & Carruthers, 1986; Helgerson et al., 1989; see Table I here). In addition, this current study and previous studies from this laboratory demonstrate that ATP interacts with high affinity with the glucose carrier (Carruthers, 1986a,b). A number of explanations could account for the divergent findings reported by Wheeler (1989) and here. (1) ATP modulation of sugar transport may involve additional, unidentified species which are dysfunctional or absent in the reconstitution studies reported by Wheeler (1989). (2) It is possible that the form of reconstituted carrier studied by Wheeler (1989) in the absence of Ca2+-chelating agents is the Ca2+-inhibited form shown to be insensitive to allosteric regulation by nucleotides (Helgerson et al., 1989). (3) Glucose carrier reconstituted by the procedure of Wheeler (1 989) may be dysfunctional with respect to transport and/or ATP modulation of transport.

Note: The two highlighted sections could be quoted and attributed to the authors. However, these two statements are taken out of context and misrepresent the conclusions of the study.

Carruthers, A. and Helgerson, A. L. (1989) The human erythrocyte sugar transporter is also a nucleotide binding protein. Biochemistry 28, 8337-8346,

Why is plagiarism wrong? • When you plagiarize, you steal another’s work • You misrepresent your work • In the educational setting you circumvent the learning process

• In the research setting you take credit for another’s original work

Intentional Plagiarism • You copy another’s words and either fail to attribute or you misattribute.

• You use another’s data in a stage or poster presentation and fail to give attribution.

• You claim a procedure as your own by failing to attribute.

• You claim another’s hypothesis as your own by failing to attribute.

• You misrepresent a colleague’s grant application as your own work.

Unintentional Plagiarism • You copy an interesting passage from an article you are

reading but forget to note the source. Upon subsequent review you think the words are your own.

• You thought the methodology was so commonplace that attribution was unnecessary



You reproduce an explanatory figure by hand from a text or journal but forget to note the source. Upon subsequent review you think the idea is your own.

• You believe the ideas you have developed are original but, in fact, they were previously hypothesized by others.

Self-plagiarism • Methodology sections are easily propagated from one paper to the next.

• You publish the same data more than once. • You lift sections from one paper to use in other papers.

• You write a review by reproducing sections of your earlier papers.

Fang, F. C., Steen, R. G. and Casadevall, A. (2012) Misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; PMID: 23027971

Paraphrasing • You lift a section of text from someone’s

publication and paraphrase using your own voice to restate the passage but you do not provide attribution.

• You use the text of one of your papers in your thesis. While you did most of the experiments, you did not write the original paper.

How to avoid intentional & unintentional plagiarism • •

Use integrity and be honest at all times



If you copy text from your own works as boilerplate, highlight it, indicate the source and note that you must convey the meaning of the passage using new english.



Rephrase copied text to indicate you can express your understanding of another’s work in your own words but always provide full attribution.



Only use your previously published data if you write a review or you develop a new hypothesis. Note that you must seek copyright permission if using figures that are unchanged from the original.

If you copy text, highlight it in your research notes and provide attribution in your notes.

How do I cite correctly? •

You follow a statement with a footnote or citation marker that points either to a footnote that indicates the citation or to a bibliography that lists all citations

e.g.

or,

AMP Kinase regulates sugar transport in brain capillary endothelial cells during metabolic stress.1

Glucose transport in endothelial cells is mediated by GLUT1 (1,2). BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.

Cura, A. J. and Carruthers, A. (2012) AMP Kinase regulation of Sugar Transport in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells During Acute Metabolic Stress. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. In Press

2.

Cura, A. J. and Carruthers, A. (2010) Acute modulation of sugar transport in brain capillary endothelial cell cultures during activation of the metabolic stress pathway. J Biol Chem 285, 15430-15439, PMC2865294

1Cura,

A. J. and Carruthers, A. (2012) AMP Kinase regulation of Sugar Transport in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells During Acute Metabolic Stress. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol In Press

How do we detect plagiarism? • Several plagiarism detection/avoidance tools are

available (e.g. Turnitin, iThenticate, WriteCheck); see: http://www.plagiarism.org

• UMMS provides our students and faculty with access to Turnitin - a web based tool that compares your text against original sources on the web; see: http:// libraryguides.umassmed.edu/content.php? pid=133095&sid=1151889

• The faculty have an extensive and eidetic memory for important papers in their field.

"TurnItIn" for GSBS ATTENTION STUDENTS We have created a new class on Turnitin (the anti-plagiarism tool) that will allow you to assess the originality of any piece of work you write. Point your browser to http:// www.turnitin.com. Sign in or, if you do not have an account, create one. To do this: • • • • • • • • • •

Click on “Create Account” at the top of the page In the “Create a User profile” table click create a new student account Enter the class ID 10956733 Enter the class enrollment password gsbs Enter your first name, last name and email address Choose a password (pick something you'll remember!) Confirm the password Select a secret question and answer it Read and confirm the user agreement Click "Create Profile"

You will then enter the class “Core Course". Note: The assignment is called Take-home Exam”. Once you have submitted a paper to a particular "assignment", you cannot use this one again. If you run out of new assignments, email Dr. Carruthers and request he post more. You will receive a report on the originality of your paper. If you need any help in interpreting your report or help with using Turn It In, please contact Sally in the Library.

• • •

Consequences of Plagiarism You become intellectually lazy or deceitful. You will lose the trust of your peers and faculty. If you deny a substantiated charge of plagiarism, you will be called before an honor board regardless of whether or not the plagiarism was intentional.



If the honor board finds that you plagiarized, they will recommend your dismissal from the GSBS.



If dismissed from the GSBS, we, if asked, will inform subsequent schools you apply to that you were dismissed for an Honor Code violation.