Phrases Prepositional Phrases Appositives and Appositive Verbals and Verbal Phrases. Phrases. Grammar Review. Writing Application

UNIT 12 Phrases Lesson 12.1 Prepositional Phrases Lesson 12.2 Appositives and Appositive Phrases Lesson 518 12.3 Verbals and Verbal Phrases ...
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UNIT

12

Phrases

Lesson

12.1 Prepositional Phrases

Lesson

12.2 Appositives and Appositive Phrases

Lesson

518

12.3 Verbals and Verbal Phrases

519 521 523

Grammar Review

528

Writing Application

537

12.1

Prepositional Phrases

■ A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition

and ends with a noun or a pronoun called the object of the preposition. The stairs lead to the attic. [Attic is the object of the preposition to.] The staircase is too steep for her. [Her is the object of the preposition for.]

E TH TO TIC AT

They laid carpeting on the stairs. [Stairs is the object of the preposition on.]

For lists of common prepositions, see page 473. Adjectives and other modifiers may be placed between the preposition and its object. A preposition may have more than one object. The staircase leads to the crowded, dusty attic. [adjectives added] The staircase leads to the attic and the roof. [two objects]

A prepositional phrase acts in the same way an adjective or an adverb does. Used as an adjective, a prepositional phrase modifies a noun or a pronoun. Used as an adverb, it modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Phrases

They used the staircase on the left. [adjective phrase modifying the noun staircase] Which of the staircases leads downstairs? [adjective phrase modifying the pronoun which] At midnight you can come downstairs to the kitchen. [adverb phrases modifying the verb phrase can come] My grandfather explained that a daily walk is healthful for him. [adverb phrase modifying the adjective healthful] She walks very quickly for a young baby. [adverb phrase modifying the adverb quickly]

12.2 Appositives and Appositive Phrases

12.1 Prepositional Phrases

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Exercise 1

Identifying Prepositional Phrases

On your paper, write each prepositional phrase that appears in the following sentences. (You will find a total of twenty-five prepositional phrases.)

Crispus Attucks 1

Crispus Attucks, a former enslaved person, is a hero of the American Revolution. He was one of five men who died in 1770 during the historic Boston Massacre. 3At the time, British troops were stationed in Boston. 4Approximately four hundred inhabitants of Boston gathered around a small group of British soldiers. 5They shouted insults and threw snowballs at the British. 6Suddenly the soldiers fired into the unruly crowd. 7Attucks was hit instantly by a bullet and died beside two other men. 8Later two more men, who were also shot by the British during the attack, died from their wounds. 9Bostonians throughout the city expressed shock and outrage over the incident. 10At a trial, however, only two soldiers were found guilty, and for punishment they were branded on their thumbs. 11A monument in Boston honors the memory of Crispus Attucks and the others who perished with him in the Boston Massacre. 2

Exercise 2

Identifying Adjective and Adverb Phrases

Phrases

On your paper, write the word or words each prepositional phrase in Exercise 1 modifies. Then indicate whether each phrase is acting as an adjective or an adverb in the sentence. Exercise 3

Expanding Sentences with Prepositional Phrases

Copy and expand the following sentences by adding at least one adjective phrase and one adverb phrase to each. SAMPLE ANSWER

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The new equipment arrived. The new equipment for the office arrived by truck.

The candle flame flickers. Someone should have asked me. The comedian performed. The gardener pulled the weeds. The children brought flowers.

Exercise 4

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The classroom emptied quickly. I have used a shovel many times. The woman was buying cat food. The farmers drove their tractors. Her cousin will send a letter.

Writing with Prepositional Phrases

Write five sentences that include two or more prepositional phrases. Then underline each prepositional phrase and tell whether it is being used as an adjective or an adverb. SAMPLE ANSWER

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Unit 12 Phrases

Most students in my grade watch television on weekends. (adjective; adverb)

12.2

Appositives and Appositive Phrases

■ An appositive is a noun or pronoun that is placed next to another noun

or pronoun to identify or give additional information about it. My friend Paulo sends me long letters from Brazil. [The appositive Paulo identifies the noun friend.] ■ An appositive phrase is an appositive plus any words that modify the

appositive. He is living and working in Brasília, the capital city. [The appositive phrase, in bold type, identifies Brasília.]

Use commas to set off any appositive or appositive phrase that is not essential to the meaning of a sentence. Paulo’s brother Ernesto also lives there. [The appositive Ernesto is essential because Paulo has more than one brother.] Dora, Paulo’s only sister, lives in New York. [The appositive phrase is not necessary to identify Dora.] Phrases

Usually an appositive or appositive phrase follows the noun or pronoun it identifies or explains. Occasionally an appositive phrase precedes the noun or pronoun. A skilled mechanic, Paulo could probably find work anywhere.

Exercise 5

Identifying Appositives and Appositive Phrases

Write the appositives and appositive phrases in the sentences below. Our neighbor Katie Rosenfeld organized the dance. The most tickets were sold by Mia and Vanessa, two tenth graders. After a long search, Greg finally found and booked the band, a fantastic group. A clever class president, Juan Lopez talked his cousin into performing one of the opening comedy acts. 5. Two of Mr. Swanson’s art classes, the third and the fifth periods, began work on the decorations a month in advance. 1. 2. 3. 4.

12.2 Appositives and Appositive Phrases

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Exercise 6

Identifying Appositives and Appositive Phrases

Write the appositive or the appositive phrase that appears in each sentence. Then write the noun or pronoun that is identified or explained by the appositive.

Stars of American Culture 1. Alvin Ailey, an innovative choreographer, founded a lively modern dance company. 2. The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter is a novel by the acclaimed twentieth-century author

Carson McCullers. 3. The great contralto Marian Anderson was the first African American singer to per-

form leading roles at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. 4. Midori, one of the most brilliant violinists of her generation, launched her career

as a very young girl. 5. The Pulitzer Prize was awarded to Gwendolyn Brooks for Annie Allen, a collection

of poems. 6. The Guggenheim Museum in New York was one of the last projects of Frank Lloyd

Wright, the famous modern American architect. 7. Georgia O’Keeffe, one of the most influential twentieth-century American painters,

lived in New Mexico from 1949 to 1986. 8. Fans admired the jazz vocalist Billie Holiday for the emotionally charged quality

of her singing. 9. Rita Hayworth, the daughter of a Spanish dancer, starred in many American films Phrases

in the 1940s. 10. Nobody Knows My Name is a collection of personal essays by the author James

Baldwin. Exercise 7

Expanding Sentences with Appositive Phrases

On your paper, expand the following sentences by adding an appositive phrase to each sentence. Be sure to use commas where necessary. SAMPLE ANSWER

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

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Vitus Bering was the first European to chart the Alaskan coast. Vitus Bering, a Danish explorer, was the first European to chart the Alaskan coast.

The film was nominated for an Academy Award. The local newspaper printed my letter on its editorial page. Robert Frost wrote the poem. Alaska entered the Union in 1959. Every year New Orleans celebrates Mardi Gras. The novel is my favorite. In Washington are many cherry trees. My favorite singer will be appearing here in concert in July. Our team won. The principal of the school has resigned.

Unit 12 Phrases

12.3

Verbals and Verbal Phrases

■ A verbal is a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjec-

tive, or an adverb. ■ A verbal phrase is a verbal plus any complements and modifiers. There are three kinds of verbals: participles, gerunds, and infinitives. All three types can be expanded into phrases.

Participles and Participial Phrases ■ A participle is a verb form that can function as an adjective. ■ A present participle is made up of the base form of the verb plus -ing:

falling. A past participle is usually made up of the base form plus -ed: burned. Some past participles are irregularly formed. Participles are often used as adjectives. No one would eat the burned toast. We were warned to watch out for falling rocks. The fallen tree blocked the winding road. Phrases

A participle may also be used as part of a verb phrase. When a participle is part of a verb phrase, it is not acting as an adjective. PARTICIPLE AS ADJECTIVE PARTICIPLE IN VERB PHRASE

The growing child was curious. They saw that he was growing stronger.

■ A participial phrase contains a participle plus any complements and

modifiers. Participial phrases can be placed in various positions in a sentence. We watched the best teams playing baseball. The badly defeated team accepted its fate with grace. The victors, elated by the victory, shook hands with the losers. Throwing their hats into the air, the fans of the victorious team let out a great roar.

A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence is usually followed by a comma.

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Exercise 8

Identifying Participles in Sentences

Write the participle that functions as an adjective in each of the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The blowing trees were etched against the sky. A broken branch scratched against the window. The closed barn doors rattled in the strong wind. Everywhere was evidence of the gathering storm. Shivering, the young boy returned to his chair near the fireplace.

Exercise 9

Identifying Participles and Participial Phrases

Write the participial phrase that acts as an adjective in each of the following sentences. Then identify the word each phrase modifies.

Early Native Americans of the Northwest

Phrases

1. The northwestern coast of North America, extending from southern Alaska to northern California, was the home of many Native American groups. 2. The dense forests inhabited by these groups have a temperate climate and plentiful rainfall. 3. Salmon caught in streams was an important source of food. 4. Knowing the woodlands well, the groups gathered wild fruit. 5. Northwest Native Americans ordinarily lived in houses built of wood. 6. Prepared for battle, they carried shields made of copper. 7. Some of the groups had totem poles decorated with carvings. 8. Displaying great artistic skill, the Northwest Native Americans produced baskets, rattles, masks, and other artifacts. 9. Native Americans of the Northwest had distinctive cultures established over hundreds of years. 10. Determined to find furs and other natural resources, Europeans came into the area in the late 1700s. Exercise 10

Writing Sentences with Participial Phrases

Write five sentences with participial phrases. Then underline each phrase and write what noun or pronoun the phrase modifies. SAMPLE ANSWER

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Unit 12 Phrases

Determined to be the next class president, Kevin began his campaign the first day of school. Kevin

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases ■ A gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used in the same way

a noun is used.

E!

STRIK

Eating is something I enjoy. [gerund as subject] My grandfather likes strolling. [gerund as direct object] Tony gives baking his best effort. [gerund as indirect object] How much enthusiasm do you feel for bowling? [gerund as object of preposition] Rachel’s favorite pastime is painting. [gerund as predicate nominative] My hobbies, writing and reading, are quiet activities. [gerunds as appositives]

Bowl + ing is fun!

■ A gerund phrase is a gerund plus any complements and modifiers.

Dancing the tango is not as easy as it looks. Fred Astaire’s marvelous dancing will always be considered superb.

The difference between a present participle and a gerund is that a present participle is used as a verb or an adjective and a gerund is used as a noun. Running around the track, Yuki felt exhilarated. [present participle]

Exercise 11

Phrases

Running gives Yuki a sense of well-being. [gerund]

Identifying Gerunds and Gerund Phrases

List on your paper the gerunds and gerund phrases that appear in the following sentences. The number of gerunds or gerund phrases in each sentence is given in parentheses.

A Spanish Conqueror 1. Conquering was the goal of the ruthless Spanish adventurer Hernando Cortés. (1) 2. His greatest accomplishment was claiming for Spain land in central and southern Mexico. (1) 3. Capturing territory was a challenging experience, Cortés found. (1) 4. The famous Spaniard enjoyed discovering and exploring new places. (2) 5. Cortés was adept at gaining the trust of some Native Americans. (1) 6. The result was his winning the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán, through the overthrow of Emperor Montezuma. (1) 7. By 1521 several of Cortés’s goals—finding gold, claiming Mexican lands, and conquering native groups—were fulfilled. (3) 8. For several years, Cortés was famous for controlling much of present-day Mexico. (1) 9. His trip to Spain in 1528 resulted in his receiving the title of marquis. (1) 10. Cortés sailed back to Mexico in 1530 and began building his palace and exploring the Pacific region. (2)

12.3 Verbals and Verbal Phrases

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Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases ■ An infinitive is a verb form that is usually preceded by the word to and

is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. When you use the word to before the base form of a verb, to is not a preposition but part of the infinitive form of the verb. To stand can be uncomfortable. [infinitive as subject] Infants first learn to crawl. [infinitive as direct object] Her aim is to walk. [infinitive as predicate nominative] Birds have an instinct to fly. [infinitive as adjective] I am happy to run. [infinitive as adverb] ■ An infinitive phrase contains an infinitive plus any complements and

modifiers. We decided to sail across the lake. They wanted to drive slowly around the park. To run in a marathon someday is my secret ambition. A triathlon requires athletes to train diligently. To complete a triathlon is a success in itself. Phrases

Exercise 12

Identifying Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases

Write the infinitive phrase that appears in each of the following sentences.

Mary Cassatt 1. Mary Cassatt was one of the foremost American artists to paint in the Impressionist style. 2. Cassatt spent much of her childhood in Europe but decided to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. 3. In 1866 she went to live in France. 4. The great French painter Edgar Degas began to influence her work. 5. Degas helped Cassatt to master her drawing techniques. 6. Cassatt often chose to paint portraits of mothers and children. 7. Degas invited Cassatt to exhibit paintings with other Impressionists. 8. Cassatt encouraged her American relatives and friends to purchase the paintings of the French Impressionists. 9. In so doing, Cassatt helped to influence a growing American interest in contemporary art. 10. Today art lovers are able to appreciate Cassatt’s work for its own remarkable qualities.

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Exercise 13

Identifying Verbal Phrases

On your paper, write each of the verbal phrases that appears in the following sentences. Write whether each phrase is a participial phrase, a gerund phrase, or an infinitive phrase.

Elephants 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Exercise 14

Phrases

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Elephants have the distinction of being the largest land mammals. Living in the tropical regions of Asia and Africa, they may reach a height of 13 feet. Their tusks, weighing as much as 200 pounds each, can be more than 10 feet long. The distinctive ears of the African elephant are huge, measuring up to 4 feet in width. Elephants use their fingerlike trunks to pick up objects. Elephants browse all day, feeding on a variety of plants. Elephants can learn to carry logs and to perform in circuses. Training young elephants takes great skill. Handling the elephants may be difficult for the trainers. Hunted for ivory and often deprived of their natural surroundings, elephants now must struggle for their survival. An adult elephant needs to eat about 300 pounds of food a day. The elephant needs to search almost constantly for food. Weighing over 200 pounds, a newborn elephant stands about 3 feet tall. The adults form a circle around their offspring to protect them from predators. Young elephants amuse themselves by playing with each other. Traveling to water holes each day, elephants spend a lot of time in and around water. Splashing themselves with muddy water keeps elephants cool. Elephants love to bathe in fresh water and are excellent swimmers. Most wild Asian elephants, protected by regional governments, live on preserves. Large predators avoid attacking adult elephants because of their size. Using Verbal Phrases

On your paper, use each of the following verbal phrases in an original sentence. Write whether each phrase is a participial phrase, a gerund phrase, or an infinitive phrase. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

blaming us for the loud music to test the speakers playing the drums to annoy the neighbors turning down the speakers listening at the door to play more softly upset by all the commotion to make everyone happy putting pads on the floor

12.3 Verbals and Verbal Phrases

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UNIT 12

Grammar Review PHRASES The passage below is taken from a novel by the Japanese American writer Yoshiko Uchida. The novel tells of a young Japanese woman who arrives in San Francisco in 1917 to marry a man whom she has never met. In this passage, she contemplates her fate. The passage has been annotated to show many of the kinds of phrases covered in this unit.

Literature Model from Picture Bride by Yoshiko Uchida

Phrases

Prepositional phrase (adjective phrase)

Prepositional phrase (adverb phrase)

Infinitive Phrase

Participial phrase (adjective phrase)

Gerund phrase (object of preposition)

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Unit 12 Phrases

ana Omiya stood at the railing of the small ship that shuddered toward America in a turbulent November sea. She shivered as she pulled the folds of her silk kimono close to her throat and tightened the wool shawl about her shoulders. She was thin and small, her dark eyes shadowed in her pale face, her black hair piled high in a pompadour that seemed too heavy for so slight a woman. She clung to the moist rail and breathed the damp salt air deep into her lungs. Her body seemed leaden and lifeless, as though it were simply the vehicle transporting her soul to a strange new life, and she longed with childlike intensity to be home again in Oka Village. She longed to see the bright persimmon dotting the barren trees beside the thatched roof, to see the fields of golden rice stretching to the mountains where only last fall she had gathered plump white mushrooms, and to see once more the maple trees lacing their flaming colors through the green pine. If only she could see a familiar face, eat a meal without retching, walk on solid ground and stretch out at night on a tatami mat instead of in a hard narrow bunk. She thought now of seeking the warm shelter of her bunk but could not bear to face the relentless smell of fish that penetrated the lower decks.

H

Grammar Review Why did I ever leave Japan, she wondered bitterly. Why did I ever listen to my uncle? And yet she knew it was she herself who had begun the chain of events that placed her on this heaving ship. It was she who had first planted in her uncle’s mind the thought that she would make a good wife for Taro Takeda, the lonely man who had gone to America to make his fortune in Oakland, California.

Review: Exercise 1

Appositive phrase

Expanding Sentences with Prepositional Phrases

The following sentences describe an imaginary journey on a boat. Read through the sentences quickly to get an idea of the scene. Then rewrite each sentence, adding at least one prepositional phrase—either an adjective phrase or an adverb phrase—to the sentence. You can imagine any scene that you wish. The ship rocked violently. The boy watched the dark waves. His hair was tossed. He wore a long scarf. The breeze flushed his cheeks. He carried a small suitcase. He was taking a long trip. The previous night he had slept poorly. The boy ate little. Memories flooded his mind. He felt intense longing. He had left his family. All his friends had stayed behind. The ship was crowded. Many people were traveling. Some men sang songs. Small children played games. Young women chatted. Sailors came and went. The captain appeared only once. The boy sat quietly. He had a faraway look. The ship arrived late. A man greeted the boy. The boy’s new life had begun.

Phrases

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Grammar Review

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Grammar Review Review: Exercise 2

Expanding Sentences with Appositives and Appositive Phrases

The following sentences describe Hana Omiya, the main character of Picture Bride. Each sentence is followed by a group of words in parentheses. Rewrite each sentence, incorporating the words in parentheses as an appositive or appositive phrase. Use a comma or commas to set off the appositive or appositive phrase from the rest of the sentence. SAMPLE ANSWER

The ship sailed toward San Francisco. (a small steamer) The ship, a small steamer, sailed toward San Francisco.

Phrases

1. A solitary figure stood on the open deck. (a small woman with a shawl) 2. The woman was traveling to America. (Hana Omiya) 3. She had left her home and was traveling to meet her future husband. (a small village in Japan) 4. Her father had died, leaving four daughters and a wife behind. (a prosperous landowner) 5. Of the four sisters, Hana was the only one without a husband. (the youngest) 6. Hana’s mother was determined to find a match for her. (a practical woman) 7. The idea that Hana should go to America was suggested by another relative. (Uncle Oji) 8. Oji knew a Japanese man who had gone to California to seek his fortune. (Taro Takeda) 9. Taro Takeda had opened a small shop in Oakland. (the son of a friend of Oji’s) 10. Oji said that Taro would make a good husband. (a hardworking and honest man) 11. Hana’s dark eyes were fixed on the horizon. (a barely perceptible line of blue) 12. The bracing scene contrasted with her mood. (a heavy feeling of dread) 13. Familiar faces filled her mind. (now only distant memories) 14. She yearned to see not the ocean but the graceful persimmons and maples. (the trees of home) 15. The discomforts of the trip were becoming unbearable. (seasickness and unpleasant odors) 16. Even more unbearable was her fear. (a constant companion on the voyage) 17. Another land was to be her new home. (a country with strange people and an unfamiliar language) 18. A man totally unknown to her was to be her husband. (her companion for the rest of her life) 19. His picture offered few clues to his character. (a faded photograph) 20. She was overwhelmed by bitterness. (an emotion unfamiliar to her) 21. She longed for familiar customs. (the simple ceremonies of her homeland) 22. She longed as well for the familiar landmarks of her village. (the carefully cultivated gardens and flaming maple trees) 23. Yet she was being hurled toward America. (an unknown wilderness) 24. Would she ever again see her old home? (Oka Village) 25. Tears streamed from her brimming eyes. (drops of sorrow)

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Unit 12 Phrases

Grammar Review Review: Exercise 3

Expanding Sentences with Participial Phrases

The following sentences relate to Hana Omiya and her life. Each sentence is followed by another sentence in parentheses. Combine the sentences, changing the sentence in parentheses into a participial phrase. Be sure to place the participial phrase near the word that it modifies. Note that some of the sentences may be expanded in more than one way. SAMPLE ANSWER

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

The woolen shawl offered little warmth. (The shawl was draped over her shoulders.) Her silk kimono made her look like a bird. (Her kimono was fluttering in the wind.) The sea air was damp and cheerless. (The air was rushing past her face.) Hana recalled the warm colors of her village. (She was gazing absently at the sea.) The memory of familiar faces haunted her. (The faces were filled with goodwill.) She recalled the rice fields. (The rice fields were rustling in the breeze.) She longed to see the orange persimmons. (The persimmons were hanging from the bare trees.) Why was she going to America to marry a man? (The man was unknown to her.) Her uncle had described Taro as decent and hardworking. (Her uncle was speaking eagerly.) Hana had decided to leave Japan. (Hana had been longing for a different kind of life.) Her sisters lived in big cities. (Her sisters were married to merchants.) Their lives were monotonous. (Their lives were filled with routine.) Hana did not want to be a bored wife. (A bored wife is trapped in a dull marriage.) At first Hana had looked forward to a new life. (Her life would be filled with excitement.) She dreaded the future now. (She was plagued with uncertainty.) She had reluctantly boarded the ship. (She was leaving her family behind.) Many passengers had stayed in their quarters. (They were exhausted by the trip.) Hana remained on the deck. (She was not accompanied by even a single friend.) She listened to some Russian travelers. (The Russians were singing of home.) The loneliness was as endless as the sea. (The loneliness was stretching before her.) Family members would have made the journey less terrifying. (They would have provided companionship.) Hana would be alone in America too. (She would be isolated by language.) She listened to the cries of sea gulls. (The gulls followed the ship.) The cries tore at her heart. (The cries reminded her of abandoned infants.) Hana cried. (She lowered her head.)

Grammar Review

Phrases

8. 9.

Hana stood on the deck of the ship. (She was shivering in her thin clothes.) Shivering in her thin clothes, Hana stood on the deck of the ship.

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Grammar Review Review: Exercise 4

Writing Sentences with Gerund Phrases

The exercise that follows focuses on the lives of immigrants who came from Japan to the United States. Each item consists of a question followed by a phrase in parentheses that answers the question. For each item, write a sentence that answers the question, using the words in parentheses as a gerund phrase. SAMPLE ANSWER

Phrases

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

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Unit 12 Phrases

What is painful? (leaving one’s homeland) Leaving one’s homeland is painful.

In the late nineteenth century, what was difficult in Japan? (earning a living) What seemed like a good idea? (moving to the United States) What was a first step for many poor immigrants? (signing a work contract) What was impossible for early Japanese immigrants? (becoming an American citizen) What did many Japanese immigrants find practical? (living in California) What was a common job for Japanese families who moved to California? (picking grapes) What did many Japanese immigrants have to accept? (working for low wages) What was a goal for many of them? (owning property) How did many Japanese immigrants survive? (applying skills learned in their native land) What did one Japanese immigrant begin doing? (growing rice on wasteland) What is now an important industry in California? (cultivating rice) How did other Japanese immigrants earn a living? (fishing for abalone, tuna, and sardines) What enterprise did some Japanese families in California develop? (extracting salt from sea water) How did many Japanese businesspeople survive? (banding together in associations) What was one goal of the associations? (lending money to members) As more Japanese families arrived, what became a part of their lives? (maintaining a sense of their cultural heritage) What became prevalent in many parts of the West? (segregating Japanese schools and communities) What helped keep their heritage alive? (wearing traditional dress for special occasions) What was one particularly important tradition? (practicing the ancient tea ceremony) What was another means of preserving cultural ties? (singing traditional songs) What was the only way to cross the ocean before the invention of the airplane? (traveling by boat) What provided the Japanese with a healthy supply of protein? (fishing the ocean waters) What enabled Japanese immigrants to continue to enjoy seaweed, a Japanese staple? (living near an ocean) Over what issue did some Japanese young people in the United States begin to disagree with their elders? (keeping to the traditional ways) What is one value that has enabled many Japanese Americans to succeed? (working hard)

Grammar Review Review: Exercise 5

Writing Sentences with Infinitive Phrases

The exercise that follows describes some cultural characteristics and practices of Japanese immigrants to the United States early in the twentieth century. Each of the items consists of a question followed by a phrase in parentheses that answers the question. For each item, write a sentence that answers the question, using the words in parentheses as an infinitive phrase. SAMPLE ANSWER

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

What did many Japanese men want to do? (to get married) What was difficult in the United States? (to find a Japanese bride) What did some men return to Japan to do? (to seek a wife) What did other men ask their parents in Japan to do? (to send them a suitable woman for a wife) What did a friend usually agree to do? (to arrange the marriage) What was the young wife forced to do? (to face her frightening and uncertain future with courage) What did the wife need to do? (to travel to America alone) What was wrenching for the picture brides? (to leave their families and their familiar villages behind) What did most wives expect to do in the United States? (to work hard) What did most wives hope to do? (to find economic security) What were Japanese taught as small children? (to control their feelings) What was considered to be proper public conduct for Japanese women? (to be shy and retiring) How was a Japanese wife supposed to act toward her husband? (to act quiet and obedient) What was considered to be a fate worse than death? (to be disgraced) What did Japanese farmers expect their children to do? (to work in the fields) What was the purpose of the large bowl-like hats worn by Japanese fishers? (to protect the head from the sun and the ocean spray) What was the reason behind the Japanese custom of removing shoes upon entering the home? (to avoid damaging the floor mats) What did the large windows in Japanese living rooms allow the members of the family to do? (to view the garden outside) What was one thing that Japanese girls liked to do on holidays? (to wear brightly colored kimonos) What was the purpose of cultivating the silkworm in Japan? (to make silk fabric) Grammar Review

Phrases

7. 8.

What did many Japanese immigrants to the United States hope to do? (to start a new life in the new land) Many Japanese immigrants to the United States hoped to start a new life in the new land.

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Grammar Review Review: Exercise 6

Writing Sentences with Verbal Phrases

Use each phrase below in an original sentence about the excerpt from Picture Bride. Forms ending with -ing may be used in either participial or gerund phrases. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

standing at the ship’s railing to protect herself from the cold sea winds transported to a new country wishing desperately for her home remembering the beauty of the trees and fields to see the face of someone she knew smelling the strong fish odors anguished about her decision to leave influenced by her uncle’s words to meet her husband-to-be

Review: Exercise 7

Proofreading Phrases

The following passage describes the artist And¯o Hiroshige, whose work appears on the opposite page. Rewrite the passage, correcting the errors in spelling, grammar, and usage. Add any missing punctuation. There are twenty-five errors.

Ando¯ Hiroshige 1

Ando¯ (or Ichiyu-sai) Hiroshige (1797–1858) the son of a fire warden, was born in Edo, a city later called Tokyo and he plans to follow in his fathers footsteps. 2However, he soon begun to study painting with the famous painter Utagawa Toyohiro. 3 At first Hiroshige followed another painters practice of using human subjects, but he was soon recognized as a landscape artist. 4Trying a number of pictorial themes Hiroshige finally settled on landscapes birds, and flowers. 5 Abandoning portraiture and historical subjects he focused on nature themes throughout his life. 6 Making steady artistic progress Hiroshige experimented with printmaking. 7 Began to make wood-block prints in a style called ukiyo-e, which, literally translated, means “floating world.” 8These prints was inexpensively massproduced for popular consumption. 9Following an artists instructions craftspeople made the prints. 10 The subject matter of the ukiyo-e prints were historical events portraits, and landscapes. 11Sometimes the prints was even used to teach people, mainly

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Unit 12 Phrases

Grammar Review

Phrases

And¯o Hiroshige, The Compound of the Tenjin Shrine at Kameido, 1856

children about some of the elements of Japanese culture. 12Enabling the populace to have art in their homes printmakers produced countless numbers of such prints. 13These prints popular and inexpensive works at the time, today are quite valuable. 14 The artwork on this page, a typical wood-block print is made in the ukiyo-e style. 15Applied with a separate wood block each color is clear and vivid. 16Hiroshige combined plants, birds, water, and figures crossing a bridge to form a subtly poetic atmosphere in an everyday seen. 17 To Hana Omiya, the character in Uchida’s Picture Bride such an image would undoubtedly recall many fond images of Japan and of all things Japanese. 18Its delicate desine, decorative colors, hanging leaves, and arched bridge would remind her of the world she had left behind. Grammar Review

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Grammar Review Review: Exercise 8

Mixed Review Read the brief biography of Yoshiko Uchida. Then use the facts in the biography and the guidelines in parentheses to expand the sentences.

Yoshiko Uchida

Phrases

Yoshiko Uchida was born in California, in 1921. Her parents, seeking a better life, had moved to the United States several years before Uchida was born. Her mother, who was an amateur poet, taught Uchida to love words. As a child, Uchida witnessed the struggles of many Japanese Americans. Many of them spoke little English but ran their own businesses and earned a reputation as hard workers. When Uchida was about to begin her final college exams, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, and the United States entered World War II. Soon afterward the Uchidas, along with thousands of other Japanese Americans, were moved to relocation camps. At the camp at the Tanforan Race Track in California, Uchida’s family lived in a horse stall for five months. Uchida spent three years in the grim, dusty camps. After the war, Uchida studied education and taught in a Philadelphia school. She later left her teaching job and traveled to Japan, where she collected folktales and visited her ancestors’ tombs. After learning a great deal about Japanese culture, she returned to California and dedicated herself to writing fiction. Uchida has written mostly for children; Picture Bride is her first novel for adults. It appeared in 1987. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

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Unit 12 Phrases

Yoshiko Uchida was born in 1921. (Add an appositive phrase.) Her parents came to America. (Add an infinitive phrase.) Uchida’s mother taught her to love words. (Add an appositive phrase.) As a child, Uchida observed many Japanese immigrants. (Add a participial phrase.) Most of them knew few words. (Add an adjective phrase.) Many of the immigrants earned a living. (Add a participial phrase.) The immigrants earned a reputation. (Add the preposition for and a gerund phrase.) The United States entered World War II. (Add an adverb phrase.) When Pearl Harbor was attacked, Uchida was studying. (Add an adverb phrase.) The Uchidas were sent to the Tanforan Race Track. (Add an appositive phrase.) Thousands were sent to the camps. (Add an adjective phrase.) Uchida’s entire family lived in a stall. (Add an adjective phrase.) Uchida lived in the camps. (Add an adverb phrase.) After the war Uchida studied. (Add an infinitive phrase.) She taught school. (Add an adverb phrase.) Later she decided to stop and travel to Japan. (Add a gerund or a gerund phrase.) She went to Japan. (Add an infinitive phrase.) After she returned, she made a decision. (Add an infinitive phrase.) Most is written for children. (Add an adjective phrase.) Picture Bride was published in 1987. (Add an appositive phrase.)

Writing Application Phrases in Writing Note how Mary Stewart uses appositives, participles, and prepositional phrases to enliven this passage from The Crystal Cave. As you read, pay particular attention to the italicized words.

point location as well as to add specific detail to your sentences. Compare the following: The flow of bats had ceased. My eyes looked quite black. STEWART’S VERSIONS Behind me the flow of bats had ceased. . . . In that light my eyes looked quite black. . . . IMPRECISE VERSIONS

For more about the writing process, see TIME Facing the Blank Page, pp. 121-131.

2 Use appositives to combine short,

choppy sentences. My mother had had one once. It was an antique from Egypt. STEWART’S VERSION My mother had had one once, an antique from Egypt . . . CHOPPY VERSION

Phrases

Behind me the flow of bats had ceased, and the cave was still. Reassured, I stayed where I was, studying myself with interest in the mirror. My mother had had one once, an antique from Egypt, but then, deeming such things to be vanity, she had locked it away. Of course I had often seen my face reflected in water, but never my body mirrored, till now. I saw a dark boy, wary, all eyes with curiosity, nerves, and excitement. In that light my eyes looked quite black; my hair was black, too. . . .

1 Use prepositional phrases to pin-

3 Use participles and participial phrases

to connect ideas and show the relationships between them. I was reassured. I stayed where I was. I studied myself with interest. STEWART’S VERSION Reassured, I stayed where I was, studying myself with interest ... UNCLEAR VERSION

Techniques with Phrases Try to apply some of Mary Stewart’s techniques as you write and revise your own work.

Practice

Revise the following passage by adding prepositional phrases to show location and by combining choppy sentences with appositives and participles. Vinland, or Wineland, is an area of North America. It is believed to have been along the coast. The Vikings probably explored this part before other Europeans did. The Vikings were courageous and skillful. The Vikings began to send ships in about the year 1000. They established no settlements. Leif Eriksson was probably sailing from Norway to Greenland. His ship was blown off course. He came to a land. It had first been sighted a few years earlier by another Viking.

Writing Application

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