Pediatric Pain Management and Medication Error Prevention

Pediatric Pain Management and Medication Error Prevention Tara L. Smith, Pharm. D. Clinical Pharmacy Manager Sacred Heart Hospital, Pensacola, FL May ...
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Pediatric Pain Management and Medication Error Prevention Tara L. Smith, Pharm. D. Clinical Pharmacy Manager Sacred Heart Hospital, Pensacola, FL May 19, 2010

Disclosures 

There are no disclosures for this speaker

Objectives Define pain  Discuss assessment of pediatric pain  Review current treatment options  Identify methods to prevent errors with pain medications 

Pain Pain (pān) [L. poena, dolor; Gr. algos, odynē] a more or less localized sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony, resulting from the stimulation of specialized nerve endings. It serves as a protective mechanism insofar as it induces the sufferer to remove or withdraw from the source. www.merckmedicus.com, accessed May 2010

Pain can be… 

Acute  Procedural

 Post-operative  Traumatic



Chronic  Sickle

Cell  Migraine  Cancer

Types of Pain 

Nociceptive – tissue or joint injury, dull or aching  Viceral – deep internal pain, pressure or cramping  Somatic



Neuropathic  pain

occurring after an injury heals, involves peripheral nerves or CNS



Psychogenic  pain

related to psychological distress

Developmental Pain Perception 

Neonates & Infants  Can’t

verbally explain their pain or tell you where it hurts  Have physiologic and neurobiologic differences Neural transmission in peripheral nerves is slower  Dorsal horn neurons have wider receptive fields and lower excitatory thresholds 

Brislin RP, Rose JB. Anes Clin N Am 23 (2005) 789-814

Toddlers & Children 

Can usually verbalize where it hurts, however  Do

not have vocabulary to describe the pain  Cannot pinpoint the exact site of pain

Adolescents 

Can better explain pain  Where

it hurts  What it feels like  How long it lasts  How intense the pain feels 

Must differentiate drug seeking from true pain

Pain Assessment 

Few formal studies for pediatric pain treatment  The

Joint Commission has put more emphasis put on pain as the 5th vital sign



More evidence pointing to long term effects of painful experiences in childhood

Pain Assessment 

Multiple pain rating scales  Wong-Baker

Faces  FLACC (Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability)  N-PASS (Neonatal Pain, Agitation, & Sedation Scale)  CHIPPS (Children’s and Infants’ Postoperative Pain Scale)

Wong-Baker & Number Scale

Hockenberry, MJ, Wilson, D: Wong’s Nursing Care of Infants and Children, ed. 8, St. Louis, 2007, Mosby. Reprinted with permission. Copyright Mosby.

FLACC Scale

Sedation Assessment Ramsay Scale  GCS modified by Cook & Palma  Vancouver Sedative Recovery Scale (VSRS)  COMFORT Scale  Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS)  Motor Activity Assessment Scale (MAAS) 

Developmental Pharmacology of Pain Treatment 

Drug Distribution  Vd

- Higher water to total body ratio in neonates and infants = potential for longer duration of action of water-soluble drugs  Neonates have higher percentage of cardiac output going to brain = higher drug concentrations in brain  Smaller fat and muscle stores = higher plasma concentration due to less drug uptake Brislin RP, Rose JB. Anes Clin N Am 23 (2005) 789-814

Developmental Pharmacology of Pain Treatment 

Hepatic metabolism  CYP450

responsible for metabolism of many analgesics (NSAIDs and opioids)  At birth hepatic enzymes are immature resulting in reduced clearance of drugs  Drug clearance in 2-6 year olds is higher than adults due to hepatic mass relative to body mass Brislin RP, Rose JB. Anes Clin N Am 23 (2005) 789-814

Developmental Pharmacology of Pain Treatment 

Renal excretion  Depends

on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular secretory function  Renal function reaches adult levels by 1 year of age

Greco C, Berde C. Pediatr Clin N Am 52 (2005) 995-1027

Developmental Pharmacology of Pain Treatment 

Protein binding – reduced in neonates  Lower

plasma albumin and glycoprotein  Highly protein bound drugs (opioids, anesthetics) have higher unbound concentration

Greco C, Berde C. Pediatr Clin N Am 52 (2005) 995-1027

Treatment - NSAIDS Acetaminophen  Ibuprofen  Aspirin  Ketorolac 

 Oral

and IV formulation

Treatment – Opioids 

Morphine  Standard

opioid that other opioids are measured against

Treatment – Opioid Derivatives Hydromorphone  Methadone  Fentanyl  Meperidine 

Codeine  Oxycodone  Hydrocodone  Tramadol 

Treatment – Atypical Opioids 

Ketamine  Phencyclidine

derivative  Dissociative anesthesia

Treatment - Miscellaneous 

Nalbuphine  Kappa



Clonidine  Alpha



agonist and mu antagonist

2 adrenergic agonist

Dexmedetomidine  Alpha

2 receptor agonist

Pain Management Strategies - Oral 

Various options for dosing  Liquid

 Tablet  Chewable

tablet  Extended-release

Pain Management Strategies - IV Intermittent Bolus dosing – peaks and valleys with pain control  Can be combined in-patient with oral meds to cover breakthrough pain  Can cover breakthrough pain with PCA 

Pain Management Strategies - IV Continuous In-patient use only with close monitoring  Routine sedation assessments 

Pain Management Strategies - PCA, PCEA Best used in children that can understand when to push the button (usually children greater than 7 years old)  Must be cautious that parents or nurses are not managing the drug administration 

Pain Management Strategies - Intranasal 

Fentanyl  Useful

in short procedures with quick recovery from sedation



Butorphanol  Dispensed



as nasal spray

Ketorolac tromethamine (Sprix®) product – not yet approved in pediatrics  Less side effects than IV or oral products  New

Pain Management Strategies - Transdermal Lidocaine/prilocaine cream  Buffered lidocaine 

 Jet



propulsion

Fentanyl patches  Cannot

be cut  Patch can be “blocked” so only the portion touching the skin is being absorbed

Pain Management Strategies - Non-pharmacologic 

Cognitive behavior therapies  Distraction

 Guided

imagery  Relaxation 

Child Life Specialists

Monitoring and Managing Side Effects Nausea  Pruritis  Sedation  Constipation 

Out-Patient Med Error Prevention 

Acetaminophen  32mg/ml

liquid  100mg/ml infant drops 

Ibuprofen  20mg/ml

liquid  40mg/ml infants drops

Dosing Devices 

Different dropper sizes Pediacare Fever Drops® come with a 1.25ml (¼ tsp) dropper  Motrin® and Advil® Infant's Drops come with a 1.875ml syringe for dosing  The administered dose is the same, but dosing tools are different 

Combination Products 

Be careful with dose calculations  Acetaminophen

with Codeine  Acetaminophen with Hydrocodone 

Dose is based on most potent drug

Caregiver Understanding Milligrams vs. milliliters  Teaspoon vs. milliliters  Confirm dose measurement with caregiver at point of dispensing EVERY refill 

In-patient Medication Error Prevention 

Multiple concentrations of injectable meds  Morphine     

2mg/ml 4mg/ml 5mg/ml 10mg/ml 15mg/ml



Multiple concentrations of oral meds  Morphine  





Liquid 2mg/ml Liquid concentrate 20mg/ml Immediate-release tablet Extended-release tablet

Verbal Orders

Standard Drip Concentrations 

Continuous IV infusions  Standard

concentrations and volumes  Appropriate rates for patient size (neonate vs. teen)  Programmable smart pumps 

PCA  Bolus

doses and hourly limits  Basal rates 

PCEA  Often

combination products

Pain Protocols ISMP “Guidelines for Standard Order Sets”  Post-operative order sets  Procedural order sets 

 CT,

MRI  Central line placement 

Disease state specific orders  Migraine  Sickle

Cell  Oncology

ISMP – Confused Drug Names           

Morphine – Hydromorphone Clonidine – Klonopin Codeine – Lodine Toradol – Foradil Fentanyl – Sufentanil Hydrocodone – Oxycodone Ketorolac – Ketalar Methadone – Metadate – Methylphenidate Naloxone – Lanoxin Narcan – Norcuron Celebrex – Cerebyx www.ismp.org/tools/confuseddrugnames.pdf