Pediatric Hip Pain: Septic Arthritis, Transient Synovitis, and Osteomyelitis

Pediatric Hip Pain: Septic Arthritis, Transient Synovitis, and Osteomyelitis Benjamin Easter, MS III Gillian Lieberman, MD Core Radiology Clerkship, B...
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Pediatric Hip Pain: Septic Arthritis, Transient Synovitis, and Osteomyelitis Benjamin Easter, MS III Gillian Lieberman, MD Core Radiology Clerkship, BIDMC November 16, 2009

Agenda „ „ „ „ „ „

Patient Presentation Anatomy Review Differential Diagnosis of Hip Pain/Limp Septic Arthritis vs. Transient Synovitis Osteomyelitis Diagnose our Patient

Our Patient – History and Physical Exam „

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HPI: MB is a 20 month old previously healthy female with 1 day history of sudden pain in her L hip. Refuses to walk. No recent falls or trauma. Further history: Non-contributory Vitals: T 37.3, HR 120, BP 105/59, RR 24 Focused Exam: L leg was extended and internally rotated. L hip tender to palpation. No warmth, tenderness, or erythema of lower extremity, lower back, or SI joint. Knee and ankle can be manipulated through FROM. Resists manipulation of hip. Will not bear weight on L. An insect bite was apparent on left calf. Remainder of exam: Benign

Hip Anatomy

Advanced Technology Hip Surgery. Available at: http://www.hipsurgery.co.il/english/introduction.htm. Accessed November 12, 2009.

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Available at: http://www.chop.edu/healthinfo/anatomy-of-a-joint.html. Accessed November 12, 2009.

Hip Blood Supply

Fx of femoral neck can disrupt perfusion through branches of circumflex femoral arteries, leading to avascular necrosis (AVN) Wheeless’ Textbook of Orthopaedics. Available at: http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/blood_supply_to_femoral_head_neck. Accessed November 12, 2009.

Exhaustive Differential Diagnosis of Hip Pain/Limp in Children „

Infectious „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „

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Septic Arthritis- Hip/SI Joint Osteomyelits- femoral head, pelvis Diskitis Lyme Arthritis Psoas abscess Cellulitis Soft tissue abscess Pyomyositis Appendicitis Pelvic inflammatory disease Pelvic abscesss Bursitis

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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCPD) Developmental Dysplasia of Hip Patellofemoral pain syndrome Myositis ossificans

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Osteoid Osteoma Osteogenic Sarcoma Ewing Sarcoma Leukemia Spinal Cord Tumors Leukemia Lymphoma

Inflammatory „

Mechanical/Orthopedic „

Neoplastic

Toxic/Transient Synovitis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Spondyloarthropathy Kawasaki Disease Dermatomyositis Polyarteritis nodosa Henoch Schonlein Purpura Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Trauma „ „

Sprains, Strains, Contusions Fracture (fx)- Toddler’s, stress, other

More Practical, Narrowed Differential Diagnosis „ „ „ „ „ „

Septic Arthritis- can’t miss due to rapid joint destruction and morbidity Toxic Synovitis- most common diagnosis in children with limp* Osteomyelitis- high morbidity if missed Trauma Acquired- Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) Cancer

*Fischer SU, Beattie TF. The limping child: epidemiology, assessment, and outcome. JBJS Br 1999; 81(6):1029-1034.

Septic Arthritis (SA) of the Hip „ „ „

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Infancy, 3-6 year olds Staph, Group B Strep, Gonococcal Spread „ Direct Inoculation „ Local Spread „ Hematogenous Spread- 72%* Mechanism- Bacteria in synovial membraneÆ acute inflammatory responseÆ cartilage destructionÆ synovial effusionsÆ necrosis Complications- necrosis/joint destruction, growth arrest, sepsis Tx- antibiotics, arthrocentesis

Health Resources. Available at: http://www.healthres.com/differential-diagnosis-of-septic-arthritis/. Accessed November 12, 2009.

*Morgan DS, Fisher D, Marianos A, Currie BJ. An 18 year clinical review of septic arthritis from tropical Australia. Epidemiol Infect 1996; 117:423.

Transient Synovitis (TS) „ „ „

Inflammation of joint space Pain and limited ROM in hip No clear precipitant allergic „ posttraumatic „ Post-infectious (classically follows URI)* „

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Benign clinical course that resolves with conservative tx (NSAIDs)

*Taylor GR, Clarke NM. Management of irritable hip: a review of hospital admission policy. Arch Dis Child 1994;71:59. *Haueisen DC, Weiner DS, Weiner Se. The characterization of “transient synovitis of the hip” in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1986;6:11.

Transient Synovitis and Septic Arthritis – Different Entities, Similar Presentation „ „ „ „ „

atraumatic, acutely irritable hip progressive signs of fever limp or refusal to bear weight limited ROM abnormal labs

Because of the morbidity of SA and the relatively benign course of TS, it is very important to be able to distinguish between these two entities. What is the role of imaging in this process?

Role of Imaging – Plain Radiographs „

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By ACR Appropriateness criteria, plain films of the area of interest are the #1 study in all limping/hip pain children!* Advantages Rapid overview „ Rule out certain conditions e.g. fx „ Rule in certain conditions e.g. SCFE „ Fast, cheap, readily available „ Automatic control from contralateral hip „

*American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria- Limping Child Ages 0-5 Years. 2007. Available at: http://www.acr.org/SecondaryMainMenuCategories/quality_safety/app_criteria/pdf/ExpertPanelonPediatricImaging/Limping ChildUpdateinProgressDoc6.aspx. Accessed November 10, 2009.

Let’s view some examples of diagnoses that can be made on plain film alone.

Toddler’s Fracture on Plain Film

Toddler’s Fracture on frontal radiograph of R lower extremity– oblique, nondisplaced fx of tibial diaphysis

Gable H. Image Interpretation. Available at: http://www.imageinterpretation.co.uk/images/ankle/TODDLERS%20AP.jpg. Accessed November 12, 2009.

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease on Plain Film

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease on frontal radiograph of pelvis AVN of L femoral head

PACS, CHB

Avulsion Fracture on Plain Film

Frontal radiograph of pelvis showing avulsion fx of R ischial tuberosity in 14 yo F athlete

PACS, CHB

SCFE on Plain Film “Frog leg”/lateral radiograph of pelvis showing R SCFE with “ice cream falling off cone” appearance

PACS, CHB

In review, plain films are the initial study of choice in all children with hip pain or limp. What are the imaging recommendations for patients with suspected SA?

Imaging of Suspected Septic Arthritis ACR Appropriateness Criteria and Score* „

Plain Films – 9 „

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Early Changes- effusion, soft tissue swelling Late Changes- cortical destruction, periosteal reaction

Tc-99m bone scan of lower extremity – 7 „ „

Ultrasound of Hip – 8 „ „

Detect effusion Guide aspiration (provides definitive diagnosis)

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Good for nonfocal physical exams 54% of patients with no diagnosis after clinical, laboratory, and radiographic evaluation had abnormal bone scans+

MRI of area of interest – 7 „

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Detect effusion, synovial inflammation Nonspecific changes

*American College of Radiology, 2007. +Aronson J, Garvin K, Seibert J, et al. Efficiency of the bone scan for occult limping toddlers. J Pediatr Orthop 1992;12(1):38-44.

Let’s look at our patient’s initial imaging…

Our Patient’s Plain Films

Frog leg position (femur abducted, externally rotated) provides lateral view of femoral heads

Frontal Radiographs of Pelvis and Left Lower Extremity

All films read as normal

Lateral Radiographs of Pelvis and Left Lower Extremity

All Images- PACS, CHB

Our Patient’s Ultrasound „

Two Primary Roles „ „

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Detect joint effusion Guide aspiration of effusion which provides only definitive diagnosis of SA

Because TS is most common cause of limp, some algorithms use U/S before plain films in evaluation of these children* * Fischer, 1999 Sagittal Ultrasound of MB’s hips Iliopsoas Tendon

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Femoral Head Femoral Metaphysis

Normal joint spaceanechoic, concave PACS, CHB

Joint Effusionincreased size, convex shape

What’s the problem with Ultrasound? „

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Both SA and TS present with joint effusion, so ultrasound can’t make this all-important distinction Options for distinguishing SA from TS 1. Clinical Criteria „ 2. Arthrocentesis „

Option 1- Kocher Criteria* for Differentiating SA and TS 1. 2. 3. 4. „

Fever Non-weight bearing ESR>40 mm/hr WBC>12,000/mm3 Prospective Confirmation „

Only 59% chance of SA if all 4 criteria met+

Criteria Chance of SA 0 1

0.2% 3.0%

2 3

40% 93%

4

99.6%

*Kocher MS, Zurakowski D, Kasser JR. Differentiating between septic Arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children. JBJS (Am) 1999;81(12):1662-70. +Luhmann SJ, Jones A, Schutmann M, et al. Differentiation Between Septic Arthritis and Transient Synovitis of the Hip in Children with Clinical Prediction Algorithms. JBJS 2004;86:956-962.

Our Patient and the Kocher Criteria „

How would our patient score on the Kocher Criteria? Afebrile „ Non weight bearing „ ESR 86 mm/hr „ WBC 12,500/mm3 „

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She meets 3 of the Kocher criteria, so her chance of SA is 93% If her chance were lower, we could stop here 93% chance of SA requires us to proceed with arthrocentesis

Option 2 – Arthrocentesis „

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Aspiration provides definitive diagnosis and fluid can be sent for culture and sensitivity But aspiration is invasive, so we don’t want to do it in setting of low clinical suspicion for SA MB’s Kocher criteria gave us a high suspicion for SA, so we decided that aspiration was appropriate

Companion Patient Sagittal Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration of Hip

Needle

* Effusion Femur

PACS, CHB

MB’s parents did not consent to arthrocentesis (they felt her clinical status had improved). So we can’t definitively say what she had, but let’s look at some other patients with SA.

Septic Arthritis – Companion Patient #1 7 yo M presenting with R hip pain Sagittal Ultrasound of Hip

Joint space widening

T2 Fat Sat Axial MRI PACS, CHB

XR AP Pelvis, Companion Patient Effusion Æ bulging fat pads Gluteal and Iliopsoas

Hyperintense fluid within joint space consistent with effusion

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* Manaster BJ. Chronic Hip Pain: Radiographic Evaluation Radiographics 2000;20:S3-S25

Femoral heads with normal bone marrow signal PACS, CHB

Septic Arthritis – Companion Patient #1 7 yo M presenting with R hip pain

In this patient, septic arthritis was confirmed by aspiration, but transient synovitis could have had identical imaging.

Septic Arthritis – Companion Patient #2 11 yo M p/w 3 day history of refusal to bear weight, fevers, chills „ „

Plain films at outside hospital read as normal The now familiar ultrasound… Sagittal Ultrasound of Hips

Joint space shows effusion * Layering and echogenicity consistent with debris PACS, CHB

Septic Arthritis – Companion Patient #2 11 yo M Continued Diminished tracer uptake/photopenia in R capital femoral epiphysis indicating lack of perfusion

Tc-99m Bone Scan of Anterior Pelvis

What’s the story?

PACS, CHB

Septic Arthritis – Companion Patient #2 11 yo M Continued MR Axial T2 Fluid Sensitive

PACS, CHB Hyperintense collections showing joint effusion and surrounding edema

MR Coronal T1 Post-Contrast

PACS, CHB

Lack of enhancement of R capital femoral epiphysis compared to L suggests avascular necrosis

Septic Arthritis – Companion Patient #2 What Happened? Septic Arthritis Æ Joint Effusion Æ Tamponade of Vascular Supply to Femoral Head Æ Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head

Imaging of Septic Arthritis Conclusion „ Imaging can distinguish between

SA and TS, but generally only late in the disease process when there is already bone involvement/AVN.

Back to Our Patient – Hospital Course „ „ „ „

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Day 2 * Spiked fever Now partially weight bearing PACS, CHB Repeat U/S showed Sagittal Ultrasounds of our Patient’s L Hipresolution of effusion Admission (Above) and Hospital Day 2 (Below) Resolving U/S and partial Increased weight bearing reduce echogenicity suspicion for SA along femur is * thickened Spiking fevers and hip pain synovium, but increase suspicion for effusion has PACS, CHB osteomyelitis largely resolved compared to above image

Osteomyelitis „ „

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Proximal femur is most common site in children Pelvic osteomyelitis may also occur (notably children will allow careful examination of hip) Menu of Imaging Plain Film- more sensitive in later stages, shows bone destruction (if >30%) and effusion* „ Bone Scan- can detect multifocal disease in children with suspected osteomyelitis „ MRI- useful if plain films negative, detect bone marrow edema and effusion „

*Myers MT, Thompson GH. Imaging the Child with a Limp. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1997;44(3): 637-658.

Osteomyelitis – Companion Patient #3 11 yo F fever, L hip pain, MSSA bacteremia Sagittal Ultrasound of L Hip

Tc-99m Bone Scan

Increased tracer uptake in L ischium and acetabulum * Note LACK of effusion

PACS, CHB

PACS, CHB

Osteomyelitis – Companion Patient #3 11 yo F fever, L hip pain, MSSA bacteremia MR Axial T2/Fluid Sensitive Sequences- Inferior on Left and Superior on Right

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PACS, CHB Hyperintensity on Fluid Sensitive Sequence showing Marrow Edema and Abscess

Osteomyelitis – Companion Patient #3 11 yo F fever, L hip pain, MSSA bacteremia MR Coronal T1 Pre-Contrast (Left) and Post-Contrast (Right) PACS, CHB

Enhancement of L ischium with contrast suggests increased perfusion to infected bone

Our Patient – MR Images T1 Coronal MRI of Pelvis

T2 Coronal MRI of Pelvis

No Evidence of Osteomyelitis

PACS, CHB

No difference in signal intensity or appearance between R and L femurs

Normal bone marrow intensity bilaterally without surrounding fluid

Our Patient – A Review „

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20 month old female with pain in L hip and refusal to walk Plain Films- Normal U/S- Significant effusion in L hip No aspiration per parent’s request 2 days later- resolving effusion and spiking fevers MR- No evidence of osteomyelitis

Our Patient’s Diagnosis- Transient Synovitis „ „ „

Pain and limited ROM in hip No clear precipitant Role of Imaging in TS Plain Films- exclude bony abnormalities, may be normal or show effusion „ U/S- shows effusion and may guide arthrocentesis „ MRI- may show joint effusion and synovial inflammation, exclude osteomyelitis „

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Imaging results not specific for TS TS is a clinical diagnosis that requires ruling out SA by aspiration if suspicion high

Review/Conclusions „ „

DDx of hip pain/limp in children is very broad ACR Appropriateness Criteria „ „ „

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Everyone should get plain films U/S, MRI, Tc-99m Bone Scan all have a role Little role for CT- limited to trauma, pre-op planning

Viewed radiographic appearance of Toddler’s fx, LCPD, avulsion fx, SCFE Viewed characteristics of SA, TS, and osteomyelitis on various imaging modalities TS vs. SA is a hard and all-important decision „ „ „

Imaging not very helpful until late in disease process Kocher Criteria can help Arthrocentesis provides definitive diagnosis

Acknowledgements „

Thank you! Adam Jeffers, MD „ Sarah Bixby, MD „ Diana Rodriguez, MD „ Iva Petkovska, MD „ Gillian Lieberman, MD „ Maria Levantakis „

References „ „

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Advanced Technology Hip Surgery. Available at: http://www.hipsurgery.co.il/english/introduction.htm. Accessed November 12, 2009. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria- Limping Child Ages 0-5 Years. 2007. Available at: http://www.acr.org/SecondaryMainMenuCategories/quality_safety/app_criteria/pdf/ExpertPanelonPediatric Imaging/LimpingChildUpdateinProgressDoc6.aspx. Accessed November 10, 2009. Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Available at: http://www.chop.edu/healthinfo/anatomy-of-a-joint.html. Accessed November 12, 2009. Fischer SU, Beattie TF. The limping child: epidemiology, assessment, and outcome. JBJS Br 1999; 81(6):10291034. Haueisen DC, Weiner DS, Weiner Se. The characterization of “transient synovitis of the hip” in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1986;6:11. Kocher MS, Zurakowski D, Kasser JR. Differentiating between septic Arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children. JBJS (Am) 1999;81(12):1662-70. Luhmann SJ, Jones A, Schutmann M, et al. Differentiation Between Septic Arthritis and Transient Synovitis of the Hip in Children with Clinical Prediction Algorithms. JBJS 2004;86:956-962. Myers MT, Thompson GH. Imaging the Child with a Limp. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1997;44(3): 637658. Morgan, DS, Fisher, D, Marianos, A, Currie BJ. An 18 year clinical review of septic arthritis from tropical Australia. Epidemiol Infect 1996; 117:423. Taylor GR, Clarke NM. Management of irritable hip: a review of hospital admission policy. Arch Dis Child 1994;71:59. Wheeless’ Textbook of Orthopaedics. Available at: http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/blood_supply_to_femoral_head_neck. Accessed November 12, 2009.