Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics Edited by: Michelle Egan, American University, USA, Neill Nugent, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK and William Paterson OBE, University of Aston, UK. Editorial Board: Christopher Hill, Cambridge, UK, Simon Hix, London School of Economics, UK, Mark Pollack, Temple University, USA, Kalypso Nicolaïdis, Oxford, UK, Morten Egeberg, University of Oslo, Norway, Amy Verdun, University of Victoria, Canada, Claudio M. Radaelli, University of Exeter, UK, Frank Schimmelfennig, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland. Following on the sustained success of the acclaimed European Union Series, which essentially publishes research-based textbooks, Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics publishes cutting edge research-driven monographs. The remit of the series is broadly defined, both in terms of subject and academic discipline. All topics of significance concerning the nature and operation of the European Union potentially fall within the scope of the series. The series is multidisciplinary to reflect the growing importance of the EU as a political, economic and social phenomenon. Titles include: Jens Blom-Hansen THE EU COMITOLOGY SYSTEM IN THEORY AND PRACTICE Keeping an Eye on the Commission? Falk Daviter POLICY FRAMING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Renaud Dehousse (editor) THE ‘COMMUNITY METHOD’ Obstinate or Obsolete? Kenneth Dyson and Angelos Sepos (editors) WHICH EUROPE? The Politics of Differentiated Integration Michelle Egan, Neill Nugent, and William E. Paterson (editors) RESEARCH AGENDAS IN EU STUDIES Stalking the Elephant Kevin Featherstone and Dimitris Papadimitriou THE LIMITS OF EUROPEANIZATION Reform Capacity and Policy Conflict in Greece Eva Gross THE EUROPEANIZATION OF NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY Continuity and Change in European Crisis Management Adrienne Héritier and Martin Rhodes (editors) NEW MODES OF GOVERNANCE IN EUROPE Governing in the Shadow of Hierarchy Wolfram Kaiser, Brigitte Leucht, and Michael Gehler TRANSNATIONAL NETWORKS IN REGIONAL INTEGRATION Governing Europe 1945–83
Hussein Kassim and Handley Stevens AIR TRANSPORT AND THE EUROPEAN UNION Europeanization and its Limits Robert Kissack PURSUING EFFECTIVE MULTILATERALISM The European Union, International Organizations and the Politics of Decision Making Xymena Kurowska and Fabian Breuer (editors) EXPLAINING THE EU’s COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY Theory in Action Karl-Oskar Lindgren and Thomas Persson PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE EU Enhancing or Endangering Democracy and Efficiency? Philomena Murray (editor) EUROPE AND ASIA Regions in Flux Daniel Naurin and Helen Wallace (editors) UNVEILING THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Games Governments Play in Brussels Sebastiaan Princen AGENDA-SETTING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Emmanuelle Schon-Quinlivan REFORMING THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION Roger Scully and Richard Wyn Jones (editors) EUROPE, REGIONS AND EUROPEAN REGIONALISM Asle Toje AFTER THE POST-COLD WAR The European Union as a Small Power Richard G. Whitman (editor) NORMATIVE POWER EUROPE Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives Richard G. Whitman and Stefan Wolff (editors) THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY IN PERSPECTIVE Context, Implementation and Impact Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics Series Standing Order ISBN 978-1-4039-9511-7 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-4039-9512-4 (paperback) You can receive future titles in this series as they are published by placing a standing order. Please contact your bookseller or, in case of difficulty, write to us at the address below with your name and address, the title of the series and one of the ISBNs quoted above. Customer Services Department, Macmillan Distribution Ltd, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, UK.
Explaining the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy Theory in Action Edited by
Xymena Kurowska Assistant Professor, Central European University, Hungary
Fabian Breuer Assistant to the President, European University Institute, Italy
Editorial matter, selection and conclusion © Xymena Kurowska and Fabian Breuer 2012 All remaining chapters © respective authors 2012 Foreword Javier Solana Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 2012 978-0-230-27783-0
All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No portion of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. First published 2012 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN Palgrave Macmillan in the UK is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number 785998, of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS. Palgrave Macmillan in the US is a division of St Martin’s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world. Palgrave® and Macmillan® are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries
ISBN 978-1-349-32579-5 ISBN 978-0-230-35572-9 (eBook) DOI 10.1057/9780230355729 This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
List of Abbreviations
Notes on Contributors
1. Introduction: The Role of Theory in Research on Common Security and Defence Policy Xymena Kurowska 2.
Neorealism: A Structural Approach to CSDP Adrian Hyde-Price
3. CSDP: Approaching Transgovernmentalism? Stephanie C. Hofmann
4. CSDP: The Strategic Perspective Sven Biscop and Per M. Norheim-Martinsen
5. The Social Constructivist Sensibility and CSDP Research Xymena Kurowska and Friedrich Kratochwil
6. Sociological Institutionalism, Socialisation and the Brusselisation of CSDP Fabian Breuer
Bricolage: A Sociological Approach to the Making of CSDP Frédéric Mérand
8. A Historical Materialist Approach to CSDP Iraklis Oikonomou
9. Applying Foucault’s Toolkit to CSDP Michael Merlingen
The Praxis of Romania’s Euro-Atlantic Security Field: A Bourdieu-Inspired Research Agenda Raluca – Oana Csernatoni Conclusion: The Way Ahead for Research into CSDP Xymena Kurowska and Fabian Breuer
Preface The idea to put this book together originated during a workshop dinner in Maastricht in June 2009, and it owes much to Frederic Mérand’s insistence that the field needs a better theorisation vis-à-vis the policy’s unprecedentedly fast development. Once the idea was there, it was turned into a book proposal rather quickly. We were privileged to gather an excellent group of authors and to receive wholehearted support from Palgrave Macmillan. The generous support by the Central European University in Budapest made it possible to organise a workshop in June 2010 that gave the project a push forward as it also created a pleasant and inspiring spirit among the contributors involved. For their professionalism and enthusiasm, we would like to thank all the authors. Furthermore, we would like to acknowledge the support of the Volkswagenstiftung, the Compania di San Paolo and the Riksbankens Jubileumsfond through their ‘European Foreign and Security Policy Studies Programme’. Throughout their programme, of which both of the editors were grantees, they facilitated the emergence of a productive and diverse research community. In addition, we would like to thank various colleagues and friends for their input and support. Lena and Nicolas Breuer, Thomas Diez, Cristina Gallach, Patryk Pawlak, Tijana Prokic, Alexander H. Trechsel, and Pascal Vennesson have to be mentioned explicitly in this regard. Finally, our gratitude goes to the team of Palgrave Macmillan, in particular to Liz Blackmore and Amber StoneGalilee, and to an anonymous reader for his/her comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.
Foreword A decade after an unparalleled process of capability building for crisis management operations was set in motion with the declaration of St. Malo, the European Union (EU) can draw a very satisfactory balance of what the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has turned into. In hardly 10 years time, we have developed the civilian and military capabilities and management structures that have enabled us to deploy, since 2003, not less than 23 crisis management operations worldwide, from Aceh, in Indonesia, to the Western Balkans, the Middle East and Africa. The EU today is playing a major role in ensuring international peace in security. For that, it relies on a unique approach which brings together a whole range of instruments that complement the traditional foreign policy tools available to its member states, such as support for institutional building and good governance in developing countries, humanitarian aid, crisis management capacities and technical and financial assistance, as well as the more traditional diplomatic tools such as political dialogue and mediation. At home, we have managed to bring together member states on the issues of international security that the EU did not act upon previously or so little and in a dispersed manner. While a few years ago EU foreign policy used to be about declarations, today we are not only talking but also acting with concrete engagement on the ground in crisis areas, taking risks for peace. CSDP has also proved to be one of the most dynamic areas of EU integration. Of course, we have encountered obstacles and there is still a long way to go. However, it has become clear to all of us that the EU can be effective only when it combines all its instruments intelligently and when its members act together. The unique character of CSDP and its development has given rise to extensive academic reflection and inspired research agendas focused on EU’s foreign policy and international relations. In the pursuit of the policy’s origins and regularities of development, researchers have put forward numerous propositions and utilised various theoretical approaches. In the daily work of a practitioner, these might not be of immediate concern. However, having reached the important milestone of the tenth anniversary and the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and
considering the significant challenges ahead, CSDP deserves a thorough reflection that helps to discuss the lessons for the future. This book helps to understand and explain CSDP reality better. In particular, it brings together a team of researchers who marry extensive empirical research with sophisticated theoretical lenses to shed light on different aspects of CSDP and how it came about. This hands-on yet theory-informed knowledge provides valuable insights both for the academic students of the subject matter and for the practitioners who can rarely afford an extended reflection under the pressures of daily work. It furnishes much needed groundwork, which facilitates mature thinking about international politics and the role of the EU therein. This book will prove of valuable interest to all those who want to have a better and deeper understanding of CSDP. Javier Solana, Former EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy
Abbreviations CFSP CSCE CSDP EC ECAP ECJ ECSC EDA EDTIB EEC EMP EPC ERRC ESDI ESDP ESS EU EULEX EUPM EUPOL EUSD EUTM IR MNC NATO NCW NGO NRF OPLAN PSC QMV RIESS RMA SAP SCND TEU UN UNSC WEU
Common Foreign and Security Policy Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe Common Security and Defence Policy European Commission European Capabilities Action Plan European Court of Justice European Coal and Steel Community European Defence Agency European Defence Technological Industrial Base European Economic Community Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Programme European Political Cooperation European Rapid Reaction Corps European Security and Defence Identity European Security and Defence Policy European Security Strategy European Union European Union Rule of Law Mission EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina EU Police Mission in Afghanistan European Union of Security and Defence EU Training Mission Somalia International Relations Multinational Corporation North Atlantic Treaty Organization Network Centric Warfare Nongovernmental organisation NATO Reaction Force Operation Plan Political and Security Committee Qualified-majority voting Report on the Implementation of the ESS Revolution in Military Affairs Stability and Association Process Supreme Council of National Defence Maastricht Treaty on European Union United Nations United Nations Security Council Western European Union x
Contributors Michael Merlingen is an Associate Professor at the department of International Relations and European Studies at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. His current research interests lie in EU foreign and security policy, and heterodox IR theory, notably the intersections of poststructuralist and marxist theories. Michael has published two books on the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP): European Union Peacebuilding and Policing: Governance and the European Security and Defence Policy (2006; paperback edition in 2010; with the help of R. Ostrauskaitė); and the edited volume European Security and Defence Policy: An Implementation Perspective (2008; paperback edition in 2010; co-editor Ostrauskaitė). His third book – European Security and Defense Policy: What It Is, How It Works, Why It Matters – has been published in October 2011. Michael has just embarked on a new long-term research project to explore ways to combine Marxists and Foucauldian insights, notably with respect to theorisations of world order and imperialism. Sven Biscop is Director of the Europe in the World Programme at Egmont – Royal Institute for International Relations, Brussels, and Visiting Professor on European security at Ghent University, Belgium, and at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium. He is a member of the Executive Academic Board of the EU’s European Security and Defence College and, on behalf of Egmont, he co-directs the Higher Studies in Security and Defence, co-organised with the Royal High Institute for Defence. His recent and upcoming publications include The European Security Strategy: A Global Agenda for Positive Power (2005), The EU and the European Security Strategy: Forging a Global Europe (2008, co-edited with Jan Joel Andersson), and The Routledge Handbook of European Security (2012, co-edited with Richard Whitman). His current research focuses on European grand strategy and on military integration in Europe. Fabian Breuer works in the Presidency of the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence. He holds a PhD in Political Science from the EUI – with emphasis on European security and defence policy – and he completed his post-doctoral research project on CSDP, funded by EFSPS and the Volkswagen Foundation. Previously he functioned as a project manager of the European Union Democracy Observatory (EUDO) and xi
Notes on Contributors
the EU Profiler at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. He was also a project associate with the Global Public Policy Institute in Berlin and has worked for the press office of Javier Solana at the European Council. Raluca – Oana Csernatoni has a bachelor's degree in International Relations at the West University of Timisoara, Romania, and a master's degree in International Relations and European Studies at the Central European University in Budapest. Presently, Raluca is a third-year PhD student at the Department of International Relations and European Studies at Central European University. Her thesis focuses on a Bourdieusean approach to the Brussels-end of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions and the involvement of the new European Union (EU) member states in the CSDP framework. Her research interests range from International Relations theory and methodology, European Union foreign policy, CSDP, to critical and post-structuralist theories in security studies. Stephanie C. Hofmann is Assistant Professor at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Her work has been published in journals such as Perspectives on Politics and Journal of Common Market Studies. In her research, she has so far focused on the supply side of the creation or maintenance of peace and stability. To this end, she has studied the regime complex of crisis management institutions, as well as the networks that emerge within institutions. Adrian Hyde-Price is Professor of International Politics at the University of Bath, where he lectures on International Security. His publications include European Security in the Twenty-First Century (2007), Germany and European Order (2000), The International Politics of East Central Europe (1996) and European Security beyond the Cold War (1991). He has also coedited British Foreign Policy and the Anglican Church (2007), Europe’s New Security Challenges (2001) and Security and Identity in Europe: The New Agenda (2000). His current research interests focus on Europeans and modern war, Europe and the Middle East, and NATO and the EU as security actors. Friedrich Kratochwil was the Chair in International Relations at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy between 2003 and 2011. He received his PhD from Princeton and taught at Maryland, Princeton, Columbia, Denver and Pennsylvania, before returning to Germany. At
Notes on Contributors xiii
present, he is a Visiting Professor at Central European University, Hungary and Kyung Hee University, South Korea. He has published widely on International Relations, social theory, international organizations and international law. His latest book is entitled The Puzzles of Politics (2011). Presently he is working on a manuscript of The Practice of (Inter)national Politics. Xymena Kurowska is Assistant Professor at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. She has published on different aspects of European security, including CSDP policy process, CSDP missions and integrated border management. She works on security theory, security policy practice and interpretive methodologies in International Relations. Frédéric Mérand is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Montreal, Visiting Professor of European Studies at LUISS University in Rome and Deputy Director of the Centre for International Peace and Security Studies. His work on European security, policy networks, transatlantic relations and the sociology of the European Union can be found in journals such as Security Studies, Journal of Common Market Studies, and Cooperation and Conflict. His book on the European security and defence policy was published by Oxford University Press in 2008. Per M. Norheim-Martinsen is a Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). He holds a PhD from the University of Cambridge and is a former officer of the Norwegian Army. He has published widely on the EU’s security and defence policy, including the recent article ‘Beyond Intergovernmentalism: European Security and Defence Policy and the Governance Approach’ in Journal of Common Market Studies (2010). Iraklis Oikonomou is a Research Associate at the Hellenic Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He holds a PhD from the University of Wales Aberystwyth and recently completed a post-doctoral research project, funded by EFSPS and Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, on EU space policy. His articles have appeared in, among others, Rethinking Marxism, Studia Diplomatica, Monthly Review and The Bologna Center Journal of International Affairs. His main research interests include European integration theory, EU space and armaments policies and the political economy of CSDP.