Palgrave Macmillan Series in Global Public Diplomacy

Palgrave Macmillan Series in Global Public Diplomacy Series editors: Kathy Fitzpatrick, Florida International University, USA Philip Seib, University ...
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Palgrave Macmillan Series in Global Public Diplomacy Series editors: Kathy Fitzpatrick, Florida International University, USA Philip Seib, University of Southern California, USA

Advisory Board: Mai’a K. Davis Cross, ARENA Centre for European Studies, Norway Nicholas J. Cull, University of Southern California, USA Teresa LaPorte, University of Navarre, Spain Donna Lee, University of Kent, United Kingdom Jan Melissen, Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael and University of Antwerp, Belgium Abeer Najjar, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates William A. Rugh, Former U.S. Ambassador to Yemen and United Arab Emirates, USA Cesar Villanueva Rivas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico Li Xiguang, Tsinghua University, China At no time in history has public diplomacy played a more significant role in world affairs and international relations. As a result, global interest in public diplomacy has escalated, creating a substantial academic and professional audience for new works in the field. This series examines theory and practice in public diplomacy from a global perspective, looking closely at public diplomacy concepts, policies, and practices in various regions of the world. The purpose is to enhance understanding of the importance of public diplomacy, to advance public diplomacy thinking, and to contribute to improved public diplomacy practices. The editors welcome submissions from scholars and practitioners representing a range of disciplines and fields (including diplomacy, international relations, international communications, public relations, political science, global media, marketing/ advertising) and offering diverse perspectives. In keeping with its global focus, the series encourages non-US-centric works and comparative studies. Published by Palgrave Macmillan: Toward a New Public Diplomacy: Redirecting U.S. Foreign Policy Edited by Philip Seib Soft Power in China: Public Diplomacy through Communication Edited by Jian Wang Public Diplomacy and Soft Power in East Asia Edited by Sook Jong Lee and Jan Melissen

The Practice of Public Diplomacy: Confronting Challenges Abroad Edited by William A. Rugh The Decline and Fall of the United States Information Agency: American Public Diplomacy, 1989–2001 Nicholas J. Cull Beyond Cairo: US Engagement with the Muslim World Darrell Ezell Collaborative Public Diplomacy: How Transnational Networks Influenced American Studies in Europe Ali Fisher Religion and Public Diplomacy Edited by Philip Seib Communicating India’s Soft Power: Buddha to Bollywood Daya Kishan Thussu European Public Diplomacy Edited by Mai’a K. Davis Cross and Jan Melissen The Challenge of Public Diplomacy James Thomas Snyder Shaping China’s Global Imagination: Branding Nations at the World Expo Jian Wang Front Line Public Diplomacy: How US Embassies Communicate with Foreign Publics William A. Rugh China and Taiwan in Central America: Engaging Foreign Publics in Diplomacy Colin R. Alexander Turkey’s Public Diplomacy Edited by B. Senem Çevik and Philip Seib US Public Diplomacy and Democratization in Spain: Selling Democracy? Edited by Francisco J. Rodr íguez, Lorenzo Delgado, and Nicholas J. Cull

Turkey’s Public Diplomacy Edited by B. Senem Çevik and Philip Seib

TURKEY’S PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

Copyright © B. Senem Çevik and Philip Seib, 2015. Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 2015 978-1-137-46697-6 All rights reserved. First published in 2015 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN® in the United States—a division of St. Martin’s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Where this book is distributed in the UK, Europe and the rest of the world, this is by Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number 785998, of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS. Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world. Palgrave® and Macmillan® are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries. ISBN 978-1-349-57957-0 ISBN 978-1-137-46698-3 (eBook) DOI 10.1057/9781137466983 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Turkey's public diplomacy / edited by B. Senem Çevik and Philip Seib. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Turkey—Foreign relations—21st century. I. Çevik, B. Senem, editor. JZ1639.T87 2015 320.561—dc23

2015006101

A catalogue record of the book is available from the British Library. Design by Newgen Knowledge Works (P) Ltd., Chennai, India. First edition: September 2015 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CON T E N T S

List of Abbreviations Introduction: Why Turkey’s Public Diplomacy Matters B. Senem Çevik and Philip Seib One

Two

vii 1

Turkey’s Public Diplomacy: Its Actors, Stakeholders, and Tools Gaye Aslı Sancar

13

Historical Perspective: Ottomans and the Republican Era Vedat Demir

43

Three Engaging with the Middle East: The Rise and Fall of Turkish Leadership in the 2000s Özlem Tür

67

Four

Dominance in the Neighborhood: Turkey and Iran Melody Mohebi

85

Five

Elsewhere in the Neighborhood: Reaching Out to the Western Balkans Marija Mitrović Bošković, Dušan Reljić, and Alida Vra čić

Six

The Benefactor: NGOs and Humanitarian Aid B. Senem Çevik

Seven

Turkish Foreign Policy in a Transatlantic Context: A Case for Soft Power and Public Diplomacy Kıvanç Ulusoy

99 121

153

vi Eight

Contents Addressing Controversy I: Public Diplomacy between Turkey and Armenia Burcu Gültekin Punsmann

Nine

Addressing Controversy II: Turkey and the Kurds Galip Dalay

Ten

Expanding Perspective: Reaching Out to China and the East Çağdaş Üngör

173 193

213

Eleven Noor and Friends: Turkish Culture in the World M. Selcan Kaynak

233

Notes on Contributors

255

Index

259

A BBR E V I AT ION S

AA AFAD AK Party/AKP ASEAN BiH BRICS EC EDAM EU FIFA FSA GPoT Center JDP ICTJ IFRC IfS İ HH IKSV IMF KFOR KIZILAY KRG MBC MENA MINTs MIT MUSIAD NATO

Anadolu Agency The Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency Adalet ve Kalk ınma Partisi Association of South East Asian Nations Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, China, South Africa European Community Centre for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies European Union The Federation of International Football Associations Free Syrian Army Global Political Trends Center Justice and Development Party (AK Party or AKP) The International Center for Transitional Justice International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Instrument for Stability The IHH Humanitarian Relief Foundation Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts International Monetary Fund Kosovo Force Turkish Red Crescent Kurdistan Regional Government Middle East Broadcasting Center Middle East and North Africa Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey National Intelligence Service Independent Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association North Atlantic Treaty Organization

viii NGO NSC OIC ORSAM OSCE PIC PKK PYD RCC SATR SCO SDE SECI SEEBRIG SEECP SETA SNC TABDC TARC TEDA TESEV THY TIKA TOBB TRT TURSAB TUSIAD TUSKON UEFA UNESCO UNHCR UNPROFOR VOT WTA YETEM YÖK

Abbreviations Nongovernmental Organization National Security Council Organization of the Islamic Conference Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe ÖSYM Student Selection and Placement Center Peace Implementation Council Kurdish Workers’ Party PKK’s Syrian offshoot Regional Cooperation Council Support to Armenia-Turkey Rapprochement Shanghai Cooperation Organization Institute of Strategic Thinking Southeast European Cooperative Initiative South-Eastern Europe Brigade South East European Cooperation Process Foundation for Political, Economic, and Social Research Syrian National Council Turkish-Armenian Business Development Council The Turkish Armenian Reconciliation Commission Translation and Publication Grant Program of Turkey The Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation Turkish Airlines The Prime Ministry Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey Turkish Radio and Television Corporation Association of Turkish Travel Agents Turkish Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association Turkish Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists The Union of European Football Associations United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Protection Force Voice of Turkey Women’s Tennis Association Yunus Emre Centre for Turkish Training and Teaching Turkish Higher Education Board

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