REVIEWS IN MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY »UB Gottingen 21915419

1008 A1308

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Volume 68 ,

2008

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OXYGEN IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM SCIENCE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Glenn J. MacPherson Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC SCIENCE CO-EDITORS David W. Mittlef ehldt and John H. Jones NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston TX TECHNICAL EDITOR Steven B. Simon University of Chicago, Chicago IL OXYGEN INITIATIVE JOINT CHAIRS James J. Papike (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM) Stephen Mackwell (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston TX)

Series Editor: Jodi J. Rosso MINERALOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA GEOCHEMICAL SOCIETY LUNAR AND PLANETARY INSTITUTE

OXYGEN IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 68

Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry

68

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

Introduction Glenn J. MacPherson

A

Oxygen Isotopes in the Early Solar System A Historical Perspective Robert N. Clayton

ABSTRACT BEFORE ALLENDE AFTER ALLENDE FUNCAIs OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN PRESOLAR GRAINS CHEMICAL ISOTOPE EFFECTS PHOTOCHEMICAL EFFECTS INTERNAL ASTEROIDAL PROCESSES NITROGEN CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENT REFERENCES

3

5 5 6 8 9 9 10 10 11 12 12 12

Abundance, Notation, and Fractionation of Light Stable Isotopes Robert E. Criss, James Farquhar

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

15 15

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES AND ATOMIC WEIGHTS NOTATION Isotope ratios 5-values Isotopic fractionation factor Big delta and related approximations Capital delta Capital delta prime and delta prime Material balance COMMONLY-USED DIAGRAMS 5-8 plot : Big A and Cap A plots Three-isotope plot ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATION PROCESSES Mass-dependent fractionation Kinetic processes Non-mass-dependent fractionations CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

T1

:

16 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 24 24 26 27 28 29

Nucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution of Oxygen Bradley S. Meyer, Larry R. Nittler, Ann N. Nguyen, Scott Messenger

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION NUCLEOSYNTHESIS OF THE ISOTOPES OF OXYGEN Production of oxygen in mainline stellar burning stages Analysis of the oxygen yields from massive stars Low-mass stars Novae and Type Iasupernovae CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE ISOTOPES OF OXYGEN OXYGEN IN PRESOLAR GRAINS Oxygen in carbonaceous grains Presolar oxide and silicate grains CONCLUDING REMARKS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

31 31 32 32 36 38 41 41 45 46 47 50 51 51

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents D

Oxygen in the Interstellar Medium Adam G. Jensen, F. Markwick-Kemper, Theodore P. Snow

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Phases in the interstellar medium Forms of oxygen in the interstellar medium

55 55 56 56

OXYGEN IN THE GAS PHASE

56

Measurements of gas-phase oxygen Isotope measurements from gas-phase oxygen and carbon monoxide Inferring gas-phase depletions of oxygen OXYGEN IN INTERSTELLAR DUST Solar System silicates Silicates in circumstellar environments of young stars Dust properties in the interstellar medium Dust production by evolved stars CONSISTENCY BETWEEN GAS AND SOLID PHASES Abundance and depletion constraints Transitions between the solid and gas phase in the interstellar medium SUMMARY REFERENCES

56 60 61 63 63 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 68

0

Oxygen in the Sun Andrew M. Davis, Ko Hashizume, Marc Chaussidon, Trevor R. Ireland, Carlos Allende Prieto, David L. Lambert

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC ABUNDANCE OF OXYGEN OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE SUN Predictions of the isotopic composition of the Sun Spectroscopic constraints on the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun Identification of the solar isotopic composition trapped in lunar samples Oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind: direct measurements Summary of solar oxygen isotopic composition ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

IX

73 74 74 77 77 78 79 87 88 89 89

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents I

Redox Conditions in the Solar Nebula: Observational, Experimental, and Theoretical Constraints Lawrence Grossman, John R. Beckett, Alexei V. Fedkin, Steven B. Simon, FredJ. Ciesla

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION OXYGEN FUGACITY DURING CRYSTALLIZATION OF REFRACTORY INCLUSION MELTS Experimental technique Results Thermochemistry Selection of fassaite-melilite pairs Oxygen barometry THE OXIDATION STATE OF IRON IN ORDINARY CHONDRITES The problem Radial transport processes ,• Vertical transport processes Relationship between/ 0; of cosmic gases and abundances of C, O and H Condensation of fayalitic olivine Change of FeO/(FeO + MgO) during chondrule melting REDOX CONDITIONS INFERRED FROM OTHER IRON-BEARING NEBULAR MATERIALS Amoeboid olivine aggregates Metal grains in CH chondrites FORMATION CONDITIONS OF ENSTATITE CHONDRITES Mineralogy of EH3 enstatite chondrites Condensation at high C/O ratio Bulk chemical compositions of EH enstatite chondrites Condensation of EH enstatite chondrites Formation conditions of EH3 enstatite chondrites CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

8

93 94 94 94 96 99 103 105 109 109 Ill 112 114 115 124 126 126 127 127 127 127 130 130 134 135 .....136 136

Oxygen Isotopes of Chondritic Components Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Alexander N. Krot, Byeon-Gak Choi, Jerome Aleon, Takuya Kunihiro, Adrian J. Brearley

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CHONDRITES AND THEIR COMPONENTS

141 142 144

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF SECONDARY PHASES 145 OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS 149 Alteration and secondary minerals of fine grained CAIs (FGIs) 149 ORIGINAL OXYGEN ISOTOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF FGIs 151 FGIs in primitive O chondrites 151 FGIs in primitive E chondrites 151 FGIs in CO 3.0 chondrites 151 FGIs in CR chondrites 152 FGIs in CM chondrites 154 FGIs in CV chondrites 154 FGIs in CH chondrites • 155 FGIs in CB chondrites 155 Chondrule-bearing FGI 155 Summary of oxygen isotopic characteristics of FGIs 156 Alteration and secondary minerals of amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) 156 ORIGINAL OXYGEN ISOTOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF AOAs 158 AOAs in CV chondrites 158 AOAs in CO, CR, Acfer 094 and CM chondrites 159 Summary of oxygen isotopic characteristics of AOAs 161 OXYGEN ISOTOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF COARSE-GRAINED CAIs (CGIs) 161 7R-19-1, a compact Type A CGI 163 E49, a compact Type A CGI 163 SS-02, aTypeB2CGI 165 TTV1-01, aType-B2CGI 166 1623-2, a compact Type A CGI 166 V2-01, a fluffy Type A CGI 167 Chondrule-bearing CGIs 168 Summary of oxygen isotopic characteristics of CGIs 169 OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF CHONDRULES 169 Chondrules in CH chondrites 170 Chondrules in CR chondrites 170 Chondrules in CB chondrites 170 Chondrules in CO and Acfer 094 chondrites 171 Chondrules in CV chondrites 172 Chondrules in E chondrites 172 Chondrules in ordinary chondrites 172 Refractory inclusion-bearing chondrules 172 Summary of oxygen isotopic characteristics of chondrules 174 OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF MATRIX 175 Existence of submicron silicate grains with extreme non-solar oxygen isotopic compositions ...176 Oxygen isotopic heterogeneity of matrix 177 Summary of oxygen isotopic characteristics of matrix 179 IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROPHYSICAL SETTING OF CHONDRITIC COMPONENT FORMATION 179 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 181 REFERENCES 182

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Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents 7

Mass-independent Oxygen Isotope Variation in the Solar Nebula Edward D. Young, Kyoshi Kuramoto, Rudolph A. Marcus, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Stein B. Jacobsen

ABSTRACT 187 INTRODUCTION '. 188 GALACTIC OXYGEN ISOTOPE EVOLUTION-A NON-CHEMICAL PATH TO MASS INDEPENDENCE 189 Testing the hypothesis - the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun 191 CHEMICAL MASS-INDEPENDENT OXYGEN ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION 192 The MIF in ozone formation 193 Conditions fora chemical MIF in the formation of CAIs 195 A possible chemical mechanism for MIF in CAIs 195 Consequences of chemical mechanism for MIF in the early water 196 Testing the hypothesis: experiment to test gas phase MIF at high temperature 197 PHOTOCHEMICAL MASS-INDEPENDENT OXYGEN ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION: CO SELF-SHIELDING 198 CO photodissociation and self-shielding 198 Astronomical observations of oxygen isotope fractionation by CO self-shielding...200 The pivotal role of H2O 201 CO self-shielding at the inner annulus of the solar circumstellar disk 203 CO self-shielding at the surfaces of the solar circumstellar disk 204 CO self-shielding in molecular clouds and inheritance in the Solar System 210 Testing the hypotheses: predictions of the CO self-shielding models 212 SUMMARY 213 REFERENCES -. 214

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Oxygen and Other Volatiles in the Giant Planets and their Satellites Michael H. Wong, Jonathan I. Lunine, Sushil K. Atreya, Torrence Johnson, Paul R. Mahaffy, Tobias C. Owen, Therese Encrenaz

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Oxygen-based insights from the outer planets and their moons The protosolar abundances MEASURING OXYGEN IN JUPITER'S ATMOSPHERE Structure of the cloud layers Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer water mixing ratio measurements The probe entry site: A 5-(j.m hot spot Spectroscopic measurements of Jovian water xii

219 220 220 221 222 222 223 225 226

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents Lightning on Jupiter Oxygen isotopes in Jupiter Summary of Jovian oxygen OUTER PLANET VOLATILE GASES Oxygen and other heavy element enrichments in Jupiter Volatile enrichments in the other outer planets OXYGEN IN OUTER PLANET SATELLITES Jupiter's satellites Saturn's satellites Outer Solar System satellites and Kuiper Belt Objects FORMATION OF THE OUTER PLANETS Volatile enrichment by icy planetesimals Volatile enrichment by carbonaceous planetesimals Volatile enrichment by disk evolution CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

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227 228 228 229 229 231 232 234 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 241

Oxygen in Comets and Interplanetary Dust Particles Scott A. Sandford, Scott Messenger, Michael DiSanti, Lindsay Keller, Kathrin Altwegg

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION THE CHEMICAL FORM OF OXYGEN IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM, "COMETARY" INTERPLANETARY DUST PARTICLES, AND COMETS Oxygen carried by carbonaceous materials in the interstellar medium, meteorites, cosmic dust, and cometary samples Direct detection of oxygen-bearing volatiles in comets The oxygen-bearing minerals in "cometary" IDPs and samples from comet 81P/Wild2 OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM, COMETS, COMETARY SAMPLES, AND "COMETARY" IDPS Oxygen isotopes in interstellar materials In situ measurement of the oxygen isotopes in the volatile material of comet Halley Oxygen isotopic compositions of meteorites, "cometary" IDPs and samples from comet 81P/Wild FUTURE IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN COMETS CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

xm

247 247 249 249 253 258 260 261 261 262 264 265 265 265

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents 1 Z

Oxygen and Asteroids Thomas H. Burbine, Andrew S. Rivkin, Sarah K. Noble, Thais Mothe-Diniz, William F. Bottke, Timothy J. McCoy, M. Darby Dyar, Cristina A. Thomas

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION DYNAMICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ASTEROID BELT ASTRONOMICAL TECHNIQUES Brightness Reflectance spectroscopy Spectral data Corrections Interaction of photons with a surface ABSORPTION BANDS Electronic absorption features Vibrational absorption features SPACE WEATHERING Effect of space weathering on reflectance spectra Space weathering environment of asteroids Experimental studies Evidence of space weathering on asteroids Implications for visible/near-IR remote sensing ORDINARY CHONDRITES, LODRANITES/ACAPULCOITES, AND UREILITES DETERMINING MINERAL CHEMISTRIES * Determining the ratio of olivine to pyroxene Modified Gaussian Modeling ASTEROID TAXONOMY A-types C-complex D-andP-types E- andXe-types K-andL-types M-types O-types Q-types R-types S-complex T-types V-types HELIOCENTRIC DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAXONOMIC CLASSES IN THE MAIN BELT DISTRIBUTION OF HYDRATED ASTEROIDS IN THE MAIN BELT NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS SPACECRAFT MISSIONS COLLISIONAL AND DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF ASTEROIDS xiv

273 273 275 276 276 276 278 279 281 281 281 288 291 291 293 293 294 294 295 296 296 297 297 301 304 306 307 308 308 310 310 310 ...310 312 312 314 321 323 324 326

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents DELIVERY OF METEOROIDS TO EARTH THE EFFECTS OF PLANETARY EMBRYOS AND RADIAL MIXING IN THE MAIN BELT COULD IRON METEORITES HAVE COME FROM THE TERRESTRIAL PLANET REGION? SUMMARY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES -.

13

327 329 330 331 331 331

Oxygen Isotopes in Asteroidal Materials Ian A. Franchi

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION ORDINARY CHONDRITES Introduction Ordinary chondrites - whole-rock Ordinary chondrites - components R CHONDRITES ENSTATITE METEORITES Introduction EH and EL chondrites Aubrites CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES Introduction CV chondrites CK chondrites CO chondrites CM chondrites CI chondrites CR chondrites CH chondrites CB chondrites PRIMITIVE ACHONDRITES Introduction Acapulcoites and lodranites Brachinites Winonaites Ureilites BASALTIC ACHONDRITES Introduction Howardites, eucrites and diogenites Angrites Basaltic inclusions IRONS AND STONY-IRONS Introduction

'..

345 346 349 349 349 351 356 358 358 358 .....360 1..361 361 361 365 366 368 371 372 373 374 375 375 376 377 377 378 379 379 380 381 .382 382 382

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents IAB Complex IIAB HE IIIAB IVA Mesosiderites Pallasites Ungrouped irons CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

I4

383 384 384 385 386 387 387 388 389 390

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Oxygen Isotopic Composition and Chemical Correlations in Meteorites and the Terrestrial Planets David W. Mittlefehldt, Robert N. Clayton, Michael J. Drake, Kevin Righter

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Nebular element fractionations Oxygen isotope anomalies Mechanisms of non-mass-dependent isotope fractionation CHONDRITIC METEORITES Micro- and meso-scale correlations „ Correlations among chondrite groups UREILITES TERRESTRIAL PLANETS SUMMARY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

xvi

399 400 400 400 403 405 407 407 408 417 419 422 423 423

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents ID

Record of Low-Temperature Alteration in Asteroids Michael E. Zolensky, Alexander N. Krot, Gretchen Benedix

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION C, P AND D ASTEROIDS - CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES Aqueous activity on the CI parent asteroid(s) and its oxygen isotope record Aqueous activity on the CM parent asteroid(s) and its oxygen isotope record Oxygen isotopic compositions of secondary minerals in the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Tagish Lake Aqueous alteration of CR chondrites and their oxygen isotope record Hydrous and anhydrous alteration of CV chondrites and their oxygen isotope records Low-temperature aqueous alteration of CO chondrites Veritas asteroids - hydrous chondritic interplanetary dust particles S ASTEROIDS - ORDINARY AND R CHONDRITES Aqueous alteration of ordinary chondrites and its oxygen isotope record..^ Aqueous alteration of R-chondrites and its oxygen isotope record M AND E ASTEROIDS - INCLUDING ENSTATITE CHONDRITES OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF ASTEROIDAL WATER AND EVOLUTION OF OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE INNER PROTOPLANETARY DISK SUMMARY AND FUTURE WORK ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

16

429 429 430 430 434 437 438 439 448 448 451 451 452 452

454 455 456 456

The Oxygen Cycle of the Terrestrial Planets: Insights into the Processing and History of Oxygen in Surface Environments James Farquhar, David T. Johnston

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION ISOTOPIC VARIATIONS AMONG TERRESTRIAL MATERIALS Historical account of oxygen isotopic variations of terrestrial reservoirs Molecular oxygen Ozone Other oxygen-bearing atmospheric species with nonzero A17O Multiply substituted molecular species EVOLUTION OF OXYGEN IN EARTH'S SURFACE ENVIRONMENTS Planetary processing of oxygen OBSERVATIONS RELEVANT TO THE EVOLUTION OF OXYGEN IN THE ATMOSPHERE AND OCEANS xvii

463 463 464 465 471 471 473 473 474 475 476

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents Hypotheses about the levels of oxygen in Earth's early environments The transition from a low-oxygen atmosphere to a high oxygen atmosphere Into the Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic Oxygen and Proterozoic carbon cycle Oxygen concentration variations since the end of the Proterozoic Conceptual model for oxygenation of Earth surface environments NEW FRONTIERS CONCLUDING STATEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

1 /

476 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 487

Redox Conditions on Small Bodies, the Moon and Mars Meenakshi Wadhwa

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION SMALL BODIES , Brachinites and other primitive achondrites Ureilites Aubrites Angrites Eucrites THE MOON MARS OTHER TERRESTRIAL PLANETS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

1 O

493 493 494 494 495 496 496 496 497 499 503 505 506 506

Terrestrial Oxygen Isotope Variations and Their Implications for Planetary Lithospheres Robert E. Criss

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION OXYGEN ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF TERRESTRIAL ROCKS Earth's primordial 518O value Oxygen isotope variations of terrestrial rocks ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATION PROCESSES Isotopic fractionation factors Fractional crystallization and AFC Real magmas Subsolidus fractionation processes xviii

511 511 512 512 513 514 514 515 516 517

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents OXYGEN ISOTOPE ZONATION AND HETEROGENEITY IN PLANETARY LITHOSPHERES Processes producing I8O zonation Processes producing I8O heterogeneity Bulk 18O composition of the continents Isotopic changes over geologic time CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

19

519 519 521 523 524 525 525

Basalts as Probes of Planetary Interior Redox State Christopher D. K. Herd

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION THE OXIDATION STATE OF THE EARTH'S MANTLE The lower mantle The upper mantle OXYBAROMETERS APPLICABLE TO BASALTIC ROCKS Oxygen fugacity from mineral equilibria Multivalent trace elements Oxygen fugacity from multivalent trace elements THE BASALT-MANTLE SOURCE REDOX RELATIONSHIP Is basalt oxygen fugacity reflective of the redox state of its mantle source? Implications for understanding the redox states of planetary interiors ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

L\J

527 527 528 530 531 533 535 541 541 546 546 548 549 .'..549

Rheological Consequences of Redox State Stephen Mackwell

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION DEFORMATION OF OLIVINE Olivine single crystal studies Olivine aggregate studies How does oxygen fugacity affect creep of olivine? DEFORMATION OF OTHER SILICATES How does oxygen fugacity affect creep of other silicates? SUMMARY REFERENCES

xix

555 555 556 556 558 562 564 566 567 568

Oxygen in the Solar System - Table of Contents Appendix: Meteorites - A Brief Tutorial David W. Mittlefehldt ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CHONDRITES Carbonaceous chondrites Ordinary chondrites Enstatite chondrites Rumuruti-like and Kakangari-like chondrites .' ACHONDRITES Acapulcoite-lodranite clan Winonaites and silicate inclusions from IAB (and possibly IIICD) irons Angrites Aubrites Brachinites Howardite-eucrite-diogenite clan Ureilites IRONS Magmatic iron meteorite groups Non-magmatic iron meteorite groups STONY IRONS Main-group and Eagle Station grouplet pallasites Mesosiderites ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

571 571 572 574 575 576 576 576 577 579 579 579 580 580 581 581 583 585 585 585 586 587 587

Subject Index

591

Meteorite Index

597

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