Nursing Students Clinical Supervision: Using Nicklin Cycle

Nursing College of Porto Nursing Students Clinical Supervision: Using Nicklin Cycle Pires, Regina M., RN, MSc, PhD-Student Ferreira, Maria M., RN, M...
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Nursing College of Porto

Nursing Students Clinical Supervision: Using Nicklin Cycle

Pires, Regina M., RN, MSc, PhD-Student Ferreira, Maria M., RN, MSc, PhD World Academy of Nursing Science

2nd International Nursing Research Conference

Professors at Nursing College of Porto

[email protected]

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World Academy of Nursing Science 2nd International Nursing Research Conference

Nursing College of Porto

INTRODUCTION

Clinical Supervision Clinical supervision of nursing students is a key component of nursing education

The concept of supervision is used here as an overarching concept, which refers to the guidance, support and assessment of nursing students by clinical staff

The goal of supervision is to ensure that student learning occurs and that students are safe in the clinical setting (Atack et al., 2000; Jones, 2003)

Clinical Supervision Is indispensable in the road for the quality of teaching and practice

Is important for the nurses involved in the teaching and supervision because this reflects in the quality of graduates and consequently in the quality of nursing care

It provides the opportunity to increase students’ skills and knowledge, to develop a professional identity, and to transfer classroom knowledge to the clinical setting with guidance and support

Clinical supervision as a tool in nursing training Opportunity to follow-up students

Clinical Supervision (May, 2003)

Spaces for reflection

Discussion of clinical practice Alternative approaches to practice care

Nursing colleges have responsibility Optimize the training processes

Innovate Define strategies to be used in the supervision

Invest in the training of nurses in the area of clinical supervision Assure support to supervisors during the process

Nicklin’s Practice-Centred Supervision Model

 Nicklin proposed that clinical supervision should be used to analyse issues and problems, to clarify goals and identify strategies for goal achievment and to establish an appropriate plan of action

 Nicklin describes a practice centered supervision model which has managerial, educational and supportive elements

Nicklin’s Practice-Centred Supervision Model

Educational

• The educative process of developing skills and increase student knowledge

Supportive

• Supportive element help students to grow up, deal with patients needs and suffer and control their own distress

Managerial

• Managerial element related with quality control aspects of professional practice and the maintenance of professional standards.

Nicklin’s Supervision Cycle

Nicklin transferred the stages of the nursing process into a Supervision cycle

Supervision Cycle Practice Analysis Problem

Evaluation

identification

Supervision Cycle Implementa-

Objective setting

tion

And Action Planning

World Academy of Nursing Science 2nd International Nursing Research Conference

Nursing College of Porto

STUDY DESIGN

Objectives To understand the perception of clinical supervisors about the use of the Nicklin Cycle in clinical supervision of nursing students

Type of study Qualitative nature

Case study

holistic view of the phenomenon generalizations that result of the findings from multiple cases

Sample  20 nurses - 19 female and 1 male  Undertaking a Post graduate Course of Clinical Supervision at Nursing College of Porto (European project: "Learning During Education and in the Clinical Field", Project Number: N/03/B/F/PP/165.010, in the extent of the Leonardo of Vinci Program )

Theoretical and practical courses 30 ECTS – 750 h

Data collection Interviews

Performed from May to December 2010

Discourse was analyzed through content analysis

 All nurses supervised 2 or 3 nursing students during a clinical training at hospital on medical, surgical or pediatric wards  During 130 hours

 All of them used the Nicklin’s Cycle (Analysis of practice, problem identification, objective setting, planning, implementation and evaluation)  Advantages, disadvantages, difficulties in using the model/cycle

 Opinion of this model in the supervision of nursing students

World Academy of Nursing Science 2nd International Nursing Research Conference

Nursing College of Porto

RESULTS

Results It is a deeply driven model for clinical practice

The simplicity and structure of the cycle enable and facilitate the identification of problems in practice

The supervisor can set the most appropriate supervision style to students and context, plan their activities and assess the whole supervisory process

Results The applicability of Nicklin Cycle is important to decision make

Its use is facilitated because it’s a cycle of steps similar to those of the Nursing Process

It allows to structure the intervention of the supervisor which prints more rigor and quality to the developed supervision

Results Provides greater objectivity in the analysis of practices, in identifying needs and problems in the students' development

Facilitates and clarifies the planning and implementation of monitoring strategies and to assess the effectiveness of supervision and to recast the developed intervention.

More effective student´s monitoring

Results

The lack of experience in the using the cycle

A difficulty in the first uses of this instrument

World Academy of Nursing Science 2nd International Nursing Research Conference

Nursing College of Porto

DISCUSSION

Discussion In accordance with those available from other works in this area that described that the Nicklin Cycle is a good tool for peer supervision:

Nicklin Cycle is an important instrument of work and solving problems in supervising students

Is an important strategy in students’ supervision

World Academy of Nursing Science

CONCLUSIONS

2nd International Nursing Research Conference

The use of Nicklin cycle supervision Nursing College of Porto

Conclusions Improves more objectivity and systematic analysis of process at all stages

Facilitated focus supervisor in key aspects of the development of students

Able to identify and adjust the objectives of the supervision and, crucially, selects the most appropriate strategies needed to the students development

Fosters reflexive analysis capacity of their practices, selfevaluation of their difficulties and aspects to optimize in the learning process

REFERENCES



Atack, L., Comacu, M., Kenny, R., LaBelle, N., Miller, D., (2000). Student and staff relationships in a clinical practice model: impact on learning. Journal of Nursing Education 39 (9), 387–400.



Fulton, J., Bohler, A., Hansen, G. S., Kauffeldt, A., Welander, E., Santos, M. R., Thorarinsdottir, K., & Ziarko, E. (2007). Mentorship: An international perspective. Nurse Education in Practice, 7(6), 399-406.



Jones A. (2003). Some benefits experienced by hospice nurses from group clinical supervision. European Journal of Cancer Care, 12, 224–232



May, L. (2003). Support systems: Louise May advises nurses on how to get the most out of clinical supervision. NURS STAND), Feb 26-Mar 4; 17(24), 60



Nicklin (1997). A practice-centred model of clinical supervision. Nursing Times, November 12, 93(46).



Pires, R., Morais, E., Santos, M., Kock, M., Sardo, M. D., & Machado, P. P. (2004). Supervisão Clínica de Alunos de Enfermagem. Revista Sinais Vitais, 54, p. 5.



Proctor, B. (1987). Supervision: A cooperative exercise in accountability. In M. Marken, & M. Payne (Eds.). Enabling and ensuring supervision in practice. Leicester: Youth Bureau and Council for Education and Training in Youth and Community Work.



Sloan, G., & Watson, H. (2002). Clinical supervision models for nursing: Structure, research and limitations. Nursing Standard, 17(4), 41-46.



Yin, R. (2003). Case Study Research - Design and Methods. Third edition. California: Sage Publications Inc.

References

World Academy of Nursing Science 2nd International Nursing Research Conference

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