WWW.SLFPAINT.ORG NR 4 DECEMBER 2014 - VOLUME 60 Web Guide Raw materials Raw Material Decorative coatings Raw Material Additives/fillers/pigments ...
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A few words from the President











K E R S Fö

committee is selecting the best papers and putting together the program. We hope to have selected the papers before years end and finalise the program in January. The congress homepage and registration should also be up and running in early February. We will be making a separate mail out with the congress program and all registration details in February. Sponsorship has also been very successful and we thank all sponsors for their donations! A special thanks to our four gold sponsors who will get a special mention here and in future issues:

ISSN 0106-7559 MEDLEMSBLAD FÖR SKANDINAVISKA LACKTEKNIKERS FÖRBUND – SLF INNEHÅLL Few words from the president SLF Congress, Gothenburg, Sweden The impact of photocatalytic interior paints on formaldehyde and vocs in indoor air Industrinyt Sponsors Top 25 paint mnufacturers in Europe World’s top ten Paints companies 2013 annual report

Sid 3 4

8 20 21 22 26

PRESIDENT Laszlo Guitman Bäckagårdsvägen 50 SE-302 74 Halmstad Telefon: +46735936301 Mail: [email protected]

GENERALSEKRETÆR/ANSVARLIG UDGIVER Nordic Building & Paint Labs AB Peter Weissenborn Stubbsundsvägen 17 SE-131 41 Nacka SWEDEN Mail: [email protected] +46 733 571 635 CHEFREDAKTØR Simon Greve Phoenix Paint DK - 5900 Rudkøbing Telefon +45 6251 2828 Fax +45 6251 2727 Mobile +45 3167 7958 Mail: [email protected] ANNONCER: Simon Greve OMSLAGSBILD:

Almost another year has passed and soon it is Christmas time again. I know it is a cliché, but time certainly does fly, at least when your having fun. This is the last issue of Färg och Lack Scandinavia for 2014 and also the last issue for our editor Simon Greve. We thank Simon for his efforts over the years and especially for having turned around the economics from loss to breakeven / profit. We are searching for a new editor and have one potential very good candidate to take over this important role. The SLF board will be meeting in mid-January to discuss the journal and also have our annual Board meeting. The national associations have had their annual meetings during the past weeks and some changes in the SLF Board have occurred. Anette Nordskog from Norway has stepped down as chairperson and left over the reins to Kristofer Larsen. In Finland Ari Vaha has been replaced as chairperson by Esa Juuti. I look forward to working with Kristofer and Esa the coming year and would like to say a sincere thank you to Anette and Ari for all their hard work over the past years. Anette will especially be remembered for her extra efforts in updating the SLF homepage (see In Sweden, Peter Fehér remains as chairperson. I have no news from Denmark but assume Lene Bisgaard remains as chairperson. The SLF congress organisation is progressing nicely. The call for papers has now closed and the technical

AkzoNobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals Claraint Imerys R2 Group The silver and bronze packages are still open for sponsorship until April 2015, so if you are interested please send me an email. For managers please include the registration fee of 4000 SEK per person in your budgets for 2015! Again I would like to thank the congress committee for all their efforts so far and make a special mention of them here: Peter Fehér, Anna-Karin Gunnarsson, Martin Lamkén, Tony Reinler Carina Stjernman, Peter Weissenborn. Finally it is time to wish everyone a Merry Christmas and prosperous 2015. I hope to see as many of you as possible at SLF congress in Gothenburg on 16-18 September. As usual if any member would like to discuss any SLF matters please send me an email at [email protected] org or telephone +46735936301. Laszlo Guitman, SLF President 16 November 2014 Laszlo Guitman, SLF President 16. november 2014


Skandinaviska Lackteknikers Förbund Federation of Scandinavian Paint and Varnish Technologists Sponsorship packages at the SLF Congress in Gothenburg 2015 Gold – 35 000 SEK x x

x x x

Your company will be promoted with the largest logo size in the Congress programme and SLF Magazine – “Färg och Lack”, stating that you are a gold sponsor. Placement of a large size company logo on a large banner in the main hall where morning and afternoon tea will be served, plus logo exposure during the congress dinner stating that you are a gold sponsor. (Normally the SLF congress gets 2-4 gold sponsors and this space will be shared). Guaranteed lecture during the congress with possibility of handing out promotional material after the lecture and leaving such material on sponsor table in main hall. Space in contents page of book of abstracts (paper copy handed out at start of congress). The congress will only be accepting a maximum of four gold sponsors, so first come first serve.

Silver – 20 000 SEK x x x x

Your company will be promoted with medium logo size in the Congress programme and SLF Magazine – “Färg och Lack”, stating that you are a silver sponsor. Placement of a medium company logo on a large banner in the main hall where morning and afternoon tea will be served stating that you are a silver sponsor. Possibility of leaving promotional material on the sponsor table in the main hall. Space in contents page of book of abstracts (paper copy handed out at start of congress).

Bronze – 10 000 SEK x x x x

Your company will be promoted with small logo size in the SLF Magazine – “Färg och Lack”, stating that you are bronze sponsor. Placement of a small company logo on a large banner in the main hall where morning and afternoon tea will be served stating that you are a bronze sponsor. Display of small logo on projector image during change of lectures. Space in contents page of book of abstracts (paper copy handed out at start of congress).

Special sponsorship x x x x x

Payment of the congress bag with company name/logo on the bag. Promotional materials in the conference bag, for example bottle opener, pens, paper etc. Sponsorship of welcome drinks and snacks on arrival evening. Sponsorship of drinks and snacks after sightseeing trip by boat “Paddan” tour. Sponsorship of drinks coupon after congress dinner.

If you or your company would like sponsor the conference, we ask you to please send name of company and contacts and what sponsorship package you have in mind to: [email protected] . Please note that the deadline for sponsoring is 31st of March 2015. The congress will be held at Post hotel in Gothenburg, Sweden the 16th – 18th of September 2015.


Welcome to the

21st SLF Congress Do it yourself, less!

16 – 18 September, 2015 Gothenburg, SWEDEN


Do it yourself, less!

Welcome to the 21st SLF congress! The Federation of Scandinavian Paint and Varnish Technologists (Skandinaviska Lacktecknikers Förbund – SLF) and the Swedish Society for Paint and Varnish Technology (Färg och Lacktekniska Föreningen) are proud to invite you to the 21st International Coating Conference - SLF Congress The congress will be held under the title: Do it yourself, less! Is this where the industry is heading? Are the producers seeking more efficient ways to produce the paint and rely on the raw material suppliers and producers of production equipment to streamline the production? Do the end consumers look for functional coatings which require less manpower to apply and less maintenance during the lifecycle? There will be four sessions covering: • Binders and pigments • Environment and production • R&D and analysis • Paint additives The congress will be held in Gothenburg, Sweden at the Clarion Hotel Post, located next to the central station, in the centre of town. The congress will soon open for registrations; you will find more updated information on the congress homepage at: The registration fee will be around 4000SEK (€450), including lunch and dinner, exact price will be set when registration opens. If you have any questions regarding the congress, please contact us via e-mail at: [email protected]

Conference Chairman: Laszlo Guitman, SLF President Technical Committee: Peter Weissenborn, Nordic Building & Paints Labs Martin Lamkén, Caparol Peter Fehér, R2


Social Committee: Carina Stjernman, Claraint Anna-Karin Gunnarsson, Flügger Färg Tony Reinler, Azelis

Do it yourself, less!

Clarion Hotel Post Clarion Hotel Post is a large, modern conference hotel with a focus on offering guests personalized service in a warm and welcoming atmosphere. The fantastic architecture in the old Post Office has been beautifully preserved and enhanced with a new and equally spectacular renovation. Situated at Gothenburg’s best address, Drottningtorget, and only steps away from the central station and several bus and tram lines, the expression ”in the heart of the city” cannot be more appropriate.

Göteborg Gothenburg is found on the west coast of Sweden, right in the heart of Scandinavia. The city has got plenty to offer – with lots of great shopping, a flourishing restaurant scene and the stunning archipelago just around the corner. Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by Gustav Adolf II and has since then undergone an exciting journey from being a shipping and industrial city to also becoming a creative hub for innovation. Today, the city boasts a number of internationally successful companies within marketing, architecture, web design and special effects for film. Local fashion from Nudie, Velour and Monki is becoming increasingly common in international press.

PROGRAMME IN SHORT Wednesday 16 September, 2015 13.00-17.00 Pick-up Post Hotel Gothenburg and visit Emballator 18.00-21.00 Registration and Reception at Post Hotel with welcome drinks and snacks Thursday 17 September, 2015 Friday 18 September, 2015 08.00-10.00 Registration 09.00-11.00 Parallel Session 3 and 4 09.00-12.00 Opening and plenary session 11.00-13.00 Plenary session and closing 12.00-13.00 Lunch 13.00 Grab and Go lunch 13.00-16.00 Parallel Sessions 1 and 2 16.45-18.15 Paddan Scenic boat trip and cocktails/ horderves 19.00-late Dinner and entertainment


THE IMPACT OF PHOTOCATALYTIC INTERIOR PAINTS ON FORMALDEHYDE AND VOCS IN INDOOR AIR Dr. Leif Wirtanen and Mr. Joonas Auvinen, Tikkurila Oy ABSTRACT People e.g. in the Nordic countries spend up to 90 % of their time indoors. Thus, we are almost continuously exposed to a multitude of chemicals commonly found in indoor air. Research conducted during the past decades has shown that these chemicals may cause adverse health effects, such as irritation of eyes, nose and throat, headache, fatigue, dizziness, sinus congestions, allergic reactions, and respiratory infections. Lately, photocatalytic paints have been launched on the market, which are claimed to have an air purifying effect. The photocatalyst added to these paints create radicals, when exposed to UV-radiation. These radicals react with e.g. organic compounds decomposing and degrading them via often very complex reaction chains. The end products of these chain reactions are carbon dioxide and water, if the reactions are fully completed (mineralisation). If mineralisation does not take place, then a great number of side products can be formed, which may be stabile and harmful. In this study, six photocatalytic interior paints having different binder systems were examined. The target compounds used were formaldehyde and a mixture consisting of five common indoor air VOCs. The target compounds were introduced into environmental chambers containing the different paints. Tests were carried out using two different light sources under dynamic conditions. Samples were collected from the test chamber air and analysed using GC/MS and HPLC. A clear decrease of the formaldehyde or the VOC-mixture concentration could not be observed. But, on the other hand, it was observed that a number of new compounds was formed, both under normal office light and UVA-light. Typical new compounds included formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, etc. All possibly generated compounds could not be collected or analysed in this study, but the measurements clearly indicate that photocatalytic reactions generated by photocatalytic interior paints do not generate carbon dioxide and water only. The new compounds formed may be stabile and, in addition, detrimental to human comfort and health. INTRODUCTION Indoor air contains typically a complex mixture of chemicals, see Figure 1. Common sources of chemicals in indoor air include outdoor air, ventilation equipment, building materials, furniture, house-hold products and occupant activities. The concentration of chemicals in indoor air is usually low, in the order of some decades of μg/m³ at most (JÄRNSTRÖM 2007, SALONEN ET AL. 2008). Even though the concentration of chemicals is usually low, people may suffer from adverse health effects caused by them. In newly established or newly renovated buildings, the concentration of chemicals might be elevated for some time, usually for a couple of months, in some cases even up to one year. The elevated concentrations are caused mainly by the building materials and furnishings used. Because of this, and of course to decrease the chemical burden people are exposed to in general, it is important to decrease the amount of chemicals in indoor air to a minimum. The two most effective means to reduce the concentration of chemicals in indoor air are to have sufficient ventilation and to use low emitting materials.


Figure 1. A schematic and tentative presentation of organic compounds in indoor air (WOLKOFF & NIELSEN 2001). Indoor air may contain additionally e.g. inorganic species and fibres. But, for energy saving reasons, it might be more valuable to clean indoor air than to e.g. increase the ventilation rate. There are many different air cleaning systems on the market and they are gaining increasing interest. A number of new techniques are now available, of which photocatalysis is one example. In photocatalysis, one of the most used catalysts is nanoscale TiO2 (anatase) which, when exposed to UV-light of high intensity, degrades i.a. organic compounds. The end products of photocatalysis, as far as organic compounds are concerned, are CO2 and water, if the reactions are fully complete. TiO2 is a typical semiconductor having an energy gap of 3,2 eV (387 nm for anatase) between valence and reduction bands. The key step in photocatalysis is the formation of hole-electron pairs on irradiation with UV-light in the presence of ambient air. These hole-electron pairs form highly active radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) when the holes react with water via the oxidative pathway, and superoxide radicals (•O2-) when the electrons react with molecular oxygen via the reductive pathway, see Figure 2. (LINSEBIGLER ET AL. 1995)

Figure 2. The photocatalytic process (FUJISHIMA ET AL. 1999)


EXPERIMENTAL The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the photocatalytic behaviour of paints and how this affects the quality of indoor air. The degradation of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and the possible side products formed was examined. The binder system, the influence of the age of the paint film, and the dependence of the UVA-light intensity on the photocatalytic activity were the variables. Six photocatalytic interior paints with different binder systems and one reference paint were tested. The paints were tested on three different substrates: glass, gypsum plaster, and a polymer-modified plaster, see Table 1. Table 1. Materials used in this study and their main characteristics. Material Photocatalytic Paint A Photocatalytic Paint B Photocatalytic Paint C Photocatalytic Paint D Photocatalytic Paint E Photocatalytic Paint F Reference Paint Plaster A Plaster B Glass-plate

Main characteristics Water-borne, polyorganic-siloxane Water-borne, silica sol-gel Water-borne, lime Water-borne, PVAc/ethene Water-borne, PVAc/ethene Water-borne, styrene acrylic Water-borne, PVAc/ethene Gypsum binder, water mixable Polymeric binder, water mixable -

Classification Commercial Research formula Research formula Research formula Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial -

Preparation of the paint films Each different photocatalytic paint and one reference paint were applied onto its substrate using a roller. The average target dry film-thickness was 80 μm, which was calculated using Equation 1. The size of the substrate was 220 mm × 280 mm. Ppaint =

Tt u A u δ Vs u 100



where Ppaint is the amount of wet product applied (g), Tt is the dry film thickness for testing (μm) (EN 927-1 1998), A is the painted area (cm2), δ is the density of the wet product (g/cm3), Vs is the solid content of the product (vol-%). The freshly painted surfaces were stored for two days in dynamic environmental test chambers and the aged paints were stored first one month in normal light and then three months under True Light (8W, containing the whole spectrum of ordinary sun light) before the start of the experiments. The storing conditions were 23±2 °C and relative humidity 50±5 %.


Preparation of the plasters The plasters were prepared by using a mixer attached to a power drill according to the manufacturer´s recommendations. A uniform layer of a plaster was applied onto a glass plate with a spatula. A stainless steel border was used to adjust the thickness to 3 mm. The test specimens were weighed before and after application. Methods and analysis The experiments were carried out in environmental test chambers made in accordance to ISO 16000-9 (2006). The volume of the chambers is 27 dm3 and the conditions were: temperature 21±2 °C, relative humidity 50±5 %, air exchange rate 0.5 h-1. The chambers were cleaned before each test; metal objects were cleaned in a hot oven (400 °C) for 10 minutes and other surfaces were cleaned with ethanol and water. The effectiveness of the cleaning process was controlled by measuring the blank value of each chamber before every test. The blank values for VOCs were < 10 μg/m3 and for aldehydes and ketones < 25 μg/m3. The experimental setup contained totally six chambers, three with UVA-light (Black light) and three with normal office light, see Figure 3. In the UVA-chamber the light intensity on the surface of the painted system was 1-2 W/m2 and it comprised only UVA light. In the reference chamber the UVA light intensity was 5-10 mW/m² and the total light intensity was 600-800 lx.

Figure 3. An office light (reference) environmental test chamber (left) and UVA-light test chamber (right). Measurement procedures Formaldehyde tests A fresh or aged paint applied onto glass (all paints) or plaster (Paints A and B) was placed into the chamber 48 h prior to start of the sample collection. 1500 μg/m3 formaldehyde was injected through a septum into the environmental chamber. After injection the chamber was let to stabilize for 2 minutes, before the UVA-light was switched on. Duplicate samples were collected into DNPHcartridges after 15 min (0.4 l, 200 ml/min), 2h (2 l, 200 ml/min) and 24 h (6 l, 200 ml/min).


VOC tests A fresh or aged paint applied onto glass (all paints) or plaster (Paints A and B) was placed into the chamber 48 h prior to start of the sample collection. A mixture of five different VOCs (n-heptane, toluene, α-pinene, 1-hexanol and nonanal) was injected into the chamber using a syringe. The concentration of each individual VOC was approximately 600 μg/m3, and the total injected VOC amount was 3000 μg/m3. Air samples were collected into TENAX TA and DNPH-cartridges successively. Duplicate air samples were collected after 15 min (0.2 l, 200 ml/min), 2 h (0.4 l, 200 ml/min) and 24 h (1 l, 200 ml/min). Thus, both VOCs and their decomposition products, such as ketones and aldehydes, were collected simultaneously. Analysis of aldehydes and ketones Carbonyl compounds were analysed according to ISO 16000-3 (2001). After sampling, the ends of the cartridges were capped and put into pouches. The samples were stored in a refrigerator for a maximum of 14 days prior to sample analysis. The analytes were eluted from the cartridge with 5 ml of acetonitrile. The separation was carried out in a C18 analytical column and the quantification was performed with a UV detector at 360 nm wavelength. The mixture of seven DNPH derivatives of aldehydes and ketones (CarbCarbonyl-DNPH Mix 1 Supelco) was used for calibration and quantification. The day to day variation of the components was 1.6 – 4.3 % (n=28) at a concentration range of 0.5–0.9 μg/ml. The analysis results are given as concentrations of carbonyl compounds in sampled air expressed as μg/m3. VOC-sample analysis The samples were stored in sealed glass jars in a refrigerator for a maximum of 8 days prior to sample analysis. The analysis was performed by the GC/MS-method according to ISO 16000-6 (2004). The accuracy of the analysis is 15 – 41 % depending on the compound, being 25 % on average. The limit of detection is also compound dependent. The analysis results are given as concentrations of VOCs in sampled air expressed as μg/m3. RESULTS Effect of the substrate Three different substrates were investigated to understand the effect of the substrate on the photocatalytic reactions. 1500 μg/m3 formaldehyde was injected through a septum into the environmental chamber, as presented above. Figure 4 shows the results from one of these tests. The trend shown in Figure 4 was similar irrespective of paint type or lighting conditions.

12 12

Paint A on different substrates in UVA-light 1800

Formaldehyde (μg/m³)

1600 1400 1200 1000 Plaster A 800

Plaster B Glass


Empty chamber 400 200

0 0







Time (h)

Figure 4. The concentration of formaldehyde as Paint A was applied on different substrates. The amount of formaldehyde injected was 1500 μg/m³.The test was performed in UVA-light. Photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde In Figure 5 is presented the concentration of formaldehyde as a function of time as the different paints were applied on glass. The results are for aged paints only, since these are more representative, taking into consideration the fact that in a freshly applied paint the paint's own emissions may alter the emission profile. Furthermore, an aged paint film does not undergo any significant changes anymore. Formaldehyde concentrations, aged paint (UVA-light) 1500 Paint A Paint B 1200

Paint C Paint D

TVOC (μg/m3)

Paint E 900

Paint F Reference Paint Empty chamber



0 0







Time (h)

Figure 5. The concentration of formaldehyde when the different paints are applied on glass. The amount of formaldehyde injected was 1500 μg/m³. The test was performed in UVA-light.


During the test, new carbonyls were formed due to photocatalysis and photodegradation, as is presented in Table 2. Table 2. Detected carbonyls in the formaldehyde test of aged paints. Paint Office light (μg/m³) UVA-light (μg/m³) 15 mina 2 hb 24 hc 15 min 2h

24 h


Paint A Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Paint Bd Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Paint Cd Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Paint Dd Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Paint E Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Paint F Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Reference paint Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone

182 300 598

114 286 170

186 280 105

201 1358 1152

610 4084 1158

371 2725 1145

374 692 63

444 898 145

387 781 191

752 2585 441

1065 6155 2363

295 753 346

438 440 63

391 313 88

125 167 118

712 946 3534

554 1538 737

37 186 163

556 175 125

387 145 423

177 144 755

583 790 925

696 820 3800

233 300 2409