NOUN PHRASE AS SUBJECT AND OBJECT ABSTRACT

1 Noun Phrase as Subject and Object Jurnal ADHUM: Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Ilmu Administrasi dan Humaniora, Fakultas Ilmu Administrasi dan H...
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1 Noun Phrase as Subject and Object Jurnal ADHUM: Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Ilmu Administrasi dan Humaniora, Fakultas Ilmu Administrasi dan Humaniora, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sukabumi. SK. PDII-LIPI no: 0005.105/JI.3.2/SK. ISSN/2011.05. Volume III, No.1, Januari 2013 ISSN Jurnal 2088-4486

NOUN PHRASE AS SUBJECT AND OBJECT

Jauhar Helmie, S.S., M. Hum [email protected] Lecture of English Education Department, Suryakancana University

ABSTRACT This journal is entitled Noun Phrase as Subject and Object. The purpose of this research is to find out the forming of the noun phrase (NP) and Indonesian translation. The writer uses descriptive and comparative analysis method in this research. The writer describes the data, compares and analyzes them. All of the data are taken from novel “The Davinci Code”It can be concluded that the NP function as subject and object can have the same modifiers. The translation of English NP into Indonesian generally started from the head of the NP followed by the modifiers. But there is exception for the NP which modified by quantifiers and article (a and an). The translation started from the modifiers followed by the head of the NP. Key words: nouns, verbs, phrase, noun phrase, verb phrase, subject, and object Introduction Language plays an important role not only in the communication process but also in educational field. In our daily job, whether as a teacher, a translator, a writer, a journalist, or anything else which relate to language, we will certainly face some linguistic problems. Without having sufficient knowledge about linguistic, we will face some difficulties in doing our job. That is why, we need to have a comprehensive notion about linguistic so we can easily finish our job. In order to ease those problems, there is Linguistics, the study of

2 language, which studies languages as a system which consists of subsystems such as morphology, phonology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Linguistics is a science and it is the only science which studies language. As it is said by Chaer: “Secara populer orang sering menyatakan bahwa linguistik adalah ilmu tentang bahasa; atau ilmu yang menjadikan bahasa sebagai objek kajiannya; atau lebih tepat lagi, seperti dikatakan Martinet (1987:19), telaah ilmiah mengenai bahasa manusia.” (Chaer, 1994: 1-2) The word ‘linguistic’ comes from Latin word lingua, means ‘language’. There are many kinds of language in this world. One of them is English. Over 380 million people speak English as their first language. English today is variously estimated as the second, third, or fourth largest language by number of native speakers. As it is said above, there are many kinds of language in this world. Each language has different basic aspects such as the grammatical structure or the syntactic structure, and the morphological structure. The differences among the basic aspects of languages can cause many problems. It’s mainly happen in the translating process of a language or a target language. Theories Syntax As it is said that linguistics studies language as a system which consists of some branches such as morphology, phonology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Syntax is one of the branch of Linguistics and the most important aspect of English grammar. The word ‘syntax’ originates from the Greek words συν (syn), meaning “co-“ or “together”, and τάξις (taxis), meaning “sequence, order, or arrangement”. According to dictionary, “Syntax is the arrangement of words into phrases and of phrases into sentences.” In this definition is explained that Syntax studies the relationships of words in sentences and how they put together into phrases or sentences. In accordance with the definition above, another source stated, “Syntax is the study of the rules, or ‘patterned relations’, that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases combine to form sentences.” In McManis, Stollenwerk and Zheng-Sheng opinion, “Syntax is the study of the structure of sentences”. According to the definitions above, it can conclude, syntax is the

3 study of the rules that refers to the way words are put together in a group to create meaning as phrases, clauses or as a sentence. In Syntax, we learn about the syntactic structure containing the syntactic functions and syntactic categories. The syntactic functions contain subject, predicate, object, and complement. While the syntactic categories consist of noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases, and prepositional phrases. Besides that, there are also syntactic units; it consists of word, phrase, clause, and sentence.

Words We often hear the term ‘word’ and use it every time for all purposes. Word is the smallest units of syntax that hierarchically is the constituent of the larger units of syntax, which are phrase, clause and sentence. Word can stand on it own. Word, by dictionary definition, “is a single unit of language which means something and can be spoken or written.” 1 It is clear that word is a single unit that has meaning. Moreover, Richard stated, “Word is the smallest of the linguistic units which can occur on its own in speech and writing.” (Richard, et. al, 1985: 311) There are two types of word: 1. Simple word is a word that consists of one morpheme, such as the words boy, girl, man, hunt, act, and so on. 2. Complex word is a word that consists of two or more morphemes, such as gentleman, boys, hunter, and so on. Nouns Nouns used to be defined as the ‘names’ of people, places, and things. According to Matthews, “Noun is one of a class of words whose characteristic role is as an argument of a verb and which is characteristically that of words denoting concrete entities.” (Matthews, 1997: 248) Matthews gave the definition of noun by its function and its characteristics. While House and Harman stated, “Noun is a name of anything.” (House and Harman, 1950: 20) This definition is so general. It refers to the whole great sorts things. It can be concrete and abstract things.

4 Types of nouns, classified by form and meaning: 1. Nouns classified by form: a. Simple nouns are nouns which have not been formed by combining two separate words, e.g. girl, sister, table, book, etc. b. Compound nouns are nouns which have been formed by combining two separate words e.g. bookcase, outlet, greenhouse, earthquake, outcome, etc. c. Phrasal nouns are groups of related words, written separately or with hyphens, e.g. Alfred the Great, Duke of Windsor, bother-in-law, maid-of-honor, etc. 2. Nouns classified by meaning: a. Proper nouns are nouns begin with capital letter in writing. It includes personal names (Mr. Robby Williams); names of geographic units such as countries, cities, rivers, etc. (Italy, Venice, Amazon); names of nationalities and religions (an Indonesian, Islam); names of holidays (Thanksgiving Day); names of time units (Monday, January); words used for personification, a thing or abstraction treated as a person (Nature, Liberty). b. Concrete Nouns are physical objects that can be perceived by the senses, we can see, touch, smell the object, e.g. car, tree, fish, etc. c. Abstract Nouns are concepts, ideas that exist in our minds only, e.g. justice, truth, loyalty, etc. d. Countable Nouns can take plural, e.g. one boy, two boys, etc. e. Mass nouns are nouns that cannot take plural, e.g. iron, flour, water, etc. f. Collective Nouns name a group of people or things gathered together into a unit, e.g. committee, crowd, audience, majority, etc. Verbs Combined with its subject, the verb becomes the central element of a sentence or clause. According to House and Harman, “A verb is that part of speech which expresses action (run, walk, steal, kill, jump), being (am, become), or state of being (suffer, rejoice).” (House and Harman, 1950: 93) Verbs may be classified according to their meaning as transitive and intransitive; and according to their form as regular and irregular. The classification of verbs to their meaning:

5 1. In a transitive verb, the action is conceived as ‘going across’ or ‘passing over’ from a subject or doer to an object or receiver; as, He lifted the hammer. Therefore, every transitive verb requires a receiver for the action which it expresses. 2. An intransitive verb either shows no action at all (He is a good man; She appears amiable); or represents action as limited to the subject or agent; as, She walks briskly; The scheme works well. The classification of verbs to their form: 1. A regular verb is one which forms its past indicative and past participle by adding the suffix –ed, -d, or –t to the present infinitive (or the present indicative) form’ as, work, worked, worked; hate, hated, hated; burn, burnt, burnt. 2. An irregular verb is one that does not form its past indicative and past participle by adding –ed, -d, or –t to the stem-word; as, ride, rode, ridden; awake, awoke, awaked; bleed, bled, bled; tell, told, told; set, set, set. Phrases Phrase is one of the syntactic units, which is one level above word. Phrase generally defines as a group of related words that fulfill one of syntactic functions in a sentence. It does not contain a subject and a verb. This definition is accordance with the definition by dictionary, “Phrase is a group of words without a verb, especially one that forms part of a sentence.” Moreover another source stated, “A phrase is a group of words that functions as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.” It means that phrase is a group of words, it functions as a single unit in a sentence or fulfill one of syntactic functions in a sentence. Therefore, one of the elements of the phrase cannot be moved. If it is going to be moved, it has to move all the constituents of the phrase. While House and Harman stated, “A Phrase is a group of related words without a subject or a predicate, acting as a single part of speech.” (House and Harman, 1950: 12) They explained that a phrase has no subject or predicate and it acts as a single part of speech. All the definitions above states that, a phrase consists of more than one word. A phrase has no subject and predicate, therefore a phrase shall be formed by free morphemes not bound morpheme. It means there is no subject-predicate or predicateobject structure relationship between the constituents of the phrase.

6 Most phrases have a head or central word which defines the type of phrase. Some phrases, however, can be headless. For example, the poor is a noun phrase composed of a determiner (the) and an adjective (poor), but not noun. Phrases can be classified by the type of the head: 1. Noun phrase (NP) with a noun as a head, e.g. beautiful flower, smart girl, luxurious car, etc. 2. Verb phrase (VP) with a verb as a head, e.g. sleep soundly, trust me, run quickly, etc. 3. Adverbial phrase with adverb as a head, e.g. very easily. 4. Adjectival phrase with an adjective as a head, e.g. full of smile, very big. 5. Prepositional phrase (PP) with a preposition as a head, e.g. under the bridge, through the window, etc. Noun Phrases Noun phrase is a phrase with noun as the head. It is one of the most important syntactic categories. According to Chalker in her book Current English Grammar, “A noun phrase is a word or words functioning in a sentence like a noun.” (Chalker, 1984: 46) In this definition Chalker explained that noun phrase can be a single word or a group of words. So, the proper noun, John, can count as a noun phrase by itself, so do the pronouns like I, she, he, they can be a noun phrase as well. Moreover another source stated, “A noun phrase is a phrase whose head is a noun or a pronoun, optionally accompanied by a set of modifiers.” It is said that the head of a noun phrase can be a noun or a pronoun and it is clustered by modifiers. The modifiers may be determiners, such as articles (the, a), demonstratives (this, that), numerals (three, six), possessives (my, your, their), and quantifiers (some, many, much), adjectives (huge, old), participle (frozen), other nouns (broadcasting), and adverbs (only). Quirk and Greenbaum in “A University Grammar of English” distinguish three main components of the noun phrase: 1. The head, around which the other components cluster. For examples: 1. The pretty girl 2. The committee’s report 3. The bright day 4. The man in the corner 5. The reasonable price

7 2. Premodification, which comprises all the items placed before the head-notably adjectives and nouns. For examples: 1. The pretty girl 2. Some pretty college girls 3. The bright day 4. The committee’s report 5. The broadcasting corporation 3. Postmodification, comprising all the items placed after the head-notably prepositional phrases, non-finite clauses, and relative clauses. For examples: 1. The girl in the corner 2. The girl standing in the corner 3. The girl who stood in the corner 4. The boy who was ill 5. The boy eating an apple Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrase is a phrase whose head is preposition. It can be formed by various word classes such as nouns, pronouns, ing-clauses, etc. For examples: 1. over the rainbow 2. in the shop 3. for us 4. by studying hard

Method of Research The method that used in this reseach is qualitative research. The focus investigation of approach is language system, either microlinguistics or macrolinguistics, in a certain period of time; language analysis based on the present. According to Soeparno (2002: 117) the advantage of this approach is objective, and he also states, it is because

8 the motto is“describe the facts, all the facts, and nothing but the facts”. The result of synchronic approach is linguistic descriptive. So, for instance, this research uses descriptive approach. According to the characteristics of qulitative research by Bogdan and Biklen (1992), it is said that a researcher of qualitative research is the key instrument. It means that the researcher plays an important role in decidinh data both to include and to exclude. As outlined in the conceptual framework, researchers use descriptive analysis. Data is purposefully collected to classify, to compare, and to analyze to get deep understanding of the topic about. There are four steps of data collecting, which are conducted during this research. First, the writer collects sentences which contain phrases as subject and as object. The second step, the writer italizes the data and gives information where those data are taken from. The third step, the writer classifies data based on certain characteristics and features as they were needed. Finally, the writer compares and analyzes data morphologically.

The Method and Study Technique The technique of data collecting in this research are sentences and clauses which consist of noun phrases as subject and object as data source to be collected and written. The data will italize completely based on the data sources including pages and paragraphs from novels and other data sources. The data found are finally classifed based on descriptive and so are the whole data. Thes study technique of data collecting is the writer searches and marks analyzed words which consist noun phrases as subject and object and try to explain based on the title that is syntactic and semantic study.

9 Data Source To complete this research, the writer seeks data from novels which are related to the research material. In addition, the writer also seeks other sources from internet at the website:www.linguistics.com. the analysis of data novel The Da Vinci Code, and articles from The Jakarta Post.

Technique of Collecting Data In analyzing data it needs identifying, classifying, interpreting data, and finding conclusion (Troot and Bloomer, 1998: 7-13). For this reason, researcher will take several steps. a. Identification. The first step is identifying the source. b. Classification. The second step is classifying the collected data. c. Interpreting. This third step is finding the word-formation of new words in English and the meaning change as the impact of new formation. d. Describing. The fourth step is describing the ways of forming of new words and the meaning change. e. Conclusion. This last step is finding conclusion to answer the research question demands. This research deals with linguistics. It has several benefits for the language study and people who are interested in studying English. In this thesis we can find the definition of syntax, translation, and semantics. We also find the categories of meaning, such as grammatical, ideomatical, conceptual meaning, contextual meaning, and referensial meaning. Theoretically, the result of this research will enrich the English language study and practically it will be very valuable to thise who have interest in learning English in specific

10 way to get more comprehension in English sentences and clauses especially in recognizing the noun phrase as subject and noun phrase as object. So, those are main source data. Collecting will be reached by reading the sources comprehensively. The researcher will find out the formation of new words.

Result Below are some data that found by the writer. 1. Their agreement was too great for

Persamaan

coincidence. (Page 13; 4th paragraph)

berlebihan

kata-kata untuk

mereka

dianggap

kebetulan

belaka. (Halaman 23; paragraf kedua)

Analysis: Syntactically, the sentence above consists of one NP, their agreement. The head of the NP is agreement which is an abstract noun, this NP is modified by possessive determiner their. Because the modifier is placed before the head, it is called a premodification. Semantically, the noun agreement in the source language (SL) means ‘a promise or a contract made with somebody’ or ‘the state of sharing the same opinion or feeling; (Oxford, 2000; 27) while in the target language (TL) the noun agreement has lexical meaning “persetujuan”. In this case the translator translates agreement into “persamaan kata-kata” in order to make the reader easier to understand the translator’s point of view, although basically “persamaan kata-kata” has equivalent meaning with “persetujuan”. The possessive determiner their in the NP their agreement translated into “mereka”. The translator translates the NP their agreement into “persamaan kata-kata mereka” by using idiomatic translation. We can see from the data above that there is level shift in the NP their agreement. Because two words their and agreement are translated into four words “persamaan”, “kata”, “kata”, and “mereka”.

terlalu

2 2. The frightening image of the curator’s body remained locked in his mind. (Page 15; 4th

Gambar jasad kurator yang menakutkan

paragraph)

tadi masih menancap di otaknya. (Halaman 26; paragraf kedua)

Analysis: Syntactically the NP that functions as subject in the sentence above is the frightening image of the curator’s body. This NP is more complex because it is formed by some modifiers which are placed before and after the head. Image which is a countable noun is the head of the NP. It is modified by definite article the and –ing participle frightening in the front. Besides that, the head is also modified by of phrase, of the curator’s body, which indicates possessiveness. Semantically, the noun image in the SL means ’a picture of somebody/something seen in a mirror, through a camera’; (Oxford, 2000; 675) while in the TL the noun image has lexical meaning “gambaran”. Here, the translator translates image into “gambar”. The adjective frightening in the NP above is formed by –ing participle. In the SL the adjective frightening means “causing fear” while in the TL has lexical meaning “menyebabkan takut”. By the translator, the adjective “frightening” is translated into “yang menakutkan”. Next, the phrase of the curator’s body is translated into “jasad kurator”. The noun body in the TL has lexical meaning “badan” or “mayat”. In this case, the translator prefers to translate the noun body into “jasad” in order to make sounds more polite. The translator translates the NP the frightening image of the curator’s body into “gambar jasad kurator yang menakutkan” by using idiomatic translation to make the reader easier to understand the text. We can see that there is level shift in the NP the frightening image of the curator’s body. Because seven words the, frightening, image, of, the, curator’s, and body are translated into five words “gambar”, “jasad”, “kurator”, “yang”, and “menakutkan”. 3. The

driver

Aringarosa

who from

collected Leonardo

Bishop da

Vinci

Pengemudi Uskup

mobil

yang

Aringarosa

menjemput

dari

Leonardo

Bandara

International Airport pulled up in a small,

Internasional

unimpressive black Fiat sedan. (Page 160; 1st

mengendarai sebuah sedan Fiat kecil

paragraph)

berwarna

hitam

yang

da tak

(Halaman 207; paragraf pertama)

Vinci menarik.

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Analysis: Syntactically, in the sentence above the NP that functions as subject is the driver who collected Bishop Aringarosa from Leonardo da Vinci International Airport. The head of the NP is driver which is a concrete noun. This NP is modified by relative clause. The relative clause is who collected Bishop Aringarosa from Leonardo da Vinci International Airport. Before the noun driver, there is definite article the. The NP above is a postmodification because the modifiers are placed after the head. Semantically, the noun driver in the SL means “person who drives a vehicle” (Oxford, 2000; 406) while in the TL the noun driver has lexical meaning “sopir”. The noun driver is translated into “pengemudi mobil”. Here, the translator translates the noun driver by using idiomatic translation. The relative clause who collected Bishop Aringarosa from Leonardo da Vinci International Airport is translated into “yang menjemput Uskup Aringarosa dari Bandara Internasional Leonardo da Vinci”. The relative pronoun in the TL has lexical meaning “siapa” but here the translator translates the relative pronoun who into “yang”. Next, the verb collected which in the TL has lexical meaning “mengumpulkan” is translated into “menjemput”. In this case, the translator tries to make the reader easier to understand the translator’s point of view by using idiomatic translation, although basically “menjemput” has equivalent meaning with “mengumpulkan”. Based on the data above, we can see that there is no level shift in the NP the driver who collected Bishop Aringarosa from Leonardo da Vinci International Airport. Because twelve words the, driver, who, collected, Bishop, Aringarosa, from, Leonardo, da, Vinci, International, and Airport are translated into twelve words “pengemudi”, “mobil”, “yang”, “menjemput” “Uskup”, “Aringarosa”, “dari”, “Bandara”, “Internasional”, “Leonardo”, “da”, and “Vinci”. In this case, the translator tries to make the reader easier to understand the text by using idiomatic translation. 4. Sixteen separate tracks spread out before them. (Page 165; 2nd paragraph)

Enam belas jalur terpisah berpencaran di depan mereka. (Halaman 213; paragraf kelima)

Analysis:

13 The sentence above consists of 1 (one) NP, which is sixteen separate tracks. Syntactically, the head of the NP tracks, which is a concrete noun, is modified by determiner and adjective. The determiner in this NP is cardinal number sixteen and the adjective is separate. Because the modifiers of the NP are placed in front of the head tracks, it is called a premodification. Semantically, the noun track in the SL means ’a rough path or road’; (Oxford, 2000; 1432) while in the TL the noun track has lexical meaning “jalur”. The translator translates tracks into “jalur”. The suffix -s in the word tracks which indicates that the noun is plural, is not translated because there is a cardinal number sixteen precedes tracks. This cardinal number shows the quantity of the noun track. So, it does not need to repeat the lexical meaning and add the word “para” before its lexical meaning to show that the noun is plural because there is a cardinal number “enam belas”. That is why the translator translates tracks by its lexical meaning in singular form. The word separate in the NP sixteen separate tracks is an adjective. The adjective separate in the TL has lexical meaning “pisah” which is a verb. The translator does not translate separate in verb form but in the same part of speech as in the SL. In order to make “pisah” become an adjective, in Indonesian a prefix ter- is affixed before the word “pisah”. So, the adjective separate is translated into “terpisah”. Because the NP has a cardinal number as one of the modifiers, the NP is translated not from the head first but from the cardinal number followed by the head and other modifier. Based on the data above, the NP sixteen separate tracks is translated into “enam belas jalur terpisah”. The writer uses idiomatic translation to make the reader easier to understand the text. There is level shift in the NP sixteen separate tracks. Because three words sixteenm, separate, and tracks are translated into four worsd “enam”, “belas”, “jalur”, and “terpisah”.

5. The priest who greeted him at the

Pendeta yang menyambutnya di pintu

door looked sleepy. (Page 187; 4th

masuk tampak mengantuk. (Halaman

paragraph)

241; paragraph ketiga)

Analysis: The NP of the sentence above is the priest who greeted him at the door. The head of the NP is priest which is a concrete noun. Syntactically, this NP is modified by determiner

14 and relative clause. In this case the determiner is a definite article the and the relative clause is who greeted him at the door. This NP is a postmodification because the modifiers are placed after the head. Semantically, the noun priest in the SL means ‘a person who is qualified to perform religious duties and ceremonies in Roman Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox’; (Oxford, 2000; 1044) while in the TL the noun priest has lexical meaning “pendeta”. By the translator the noun priest is translated by its lexical meaning into “pendeta”. The relative clause who greeted him at the door is translated into “yang menyambutnya di pintu masuk”. The relative pronoun who in the TL has lexical meaning “siapa”. In this case, the translator translates who into “yang” in order to make the reader easier to understand the translator’s point of view. Next, the verb greeted in the SL means ‘welcome’ (Oxford, 2000; ) while in TL has lexical meaning “memberi salam”. In this case, the translator translates greeted into “menyambut” in order to make the reader easier to understand the translator’s point of view, although basically “menyambut” has equivalent meaning with “memberi salam”. The personal pronoun him in TL has lexical meaning “dia”, by the translator him is translated into “nya” and it is attached to the verb “menyambut”. The translator translates the noun door into “pintu masuk” while in the TL door has lexical meaning “pintu”. In this case, the translator uses idiomatic translation in order to make the reader easier to understand the translator’s point of view, although basically “pintu masuk” has equivalent meaning with “pintu”. We can see from the data above that there is level shift in the NP the priest who greeted him at the door. Because eight words the, priest, who, greeted, him, at, the, and door are translated into six words “pendeta”, “yang”, “menyambutnya”, “di”, “pintu”, and “masuk”.

CONCLUSIONS The conclusions are as follows: 1. The noun phrase (NP) that functions as subject and object can have the same modifiers. They can be modified by determiners, adjectives, participles, prepositional phrases, and relative clauses. 2. Generally, the translation process of NP into the target language (TL) is started with the head. But there is an exception for the NP which is preceded by determiners such as

15 articles, pre-articles, demonstratives, and numbers. The NP which is preceded by determiners is translated from the determiners followed by the head of the NP and other modifiers.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES Azar, Betty Schrampfer. 1993. Understanding and Using English Grammars, Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chaer, Abdul. 1994. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta: PT. Rhineka Cipta. Chalker, Sylvia. 1984. Current English Grammar. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Gaskell, Robin F. 2006. www.glosa.org. House, Homer C. and Harman, Susan Emolyn. 1950. Descriptive English Grammar, Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New. Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Hurford, James R. and Heasley, Brendan. 1983. Semantics: a coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Larson, Mildred L. 1984. Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence. The United States of America, University Press of America, Inc. McManis, C., Stollenwerk, D., and Zheng-Sheng, Z. 1987. Language Files. Ohio: Advocate Publishing Group. Newmark, Peter. 1988. A Text Book of Translation. Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd. Quirk, Randolph and Greenbaum, Sidney. 1973. A University Grammar of English. London: Longman Group Limited. Roberts, Paul. English Syntax, Alternate Edition. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. Widyamartaya, A. 1989. Seni Menerjemahkan. Yogyakarka: Kanisius. www.Wikipedia.org, 2007.

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