Notes. Preface. 1 Introduction

Preface 1. R. Evan Ellis, China: The Whats and Wherefores (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009). 2. Ibid. 3. R. Evan Ellis, The Strategic Dime...
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Preface 1. R. Evan Ellis, China: The Whats and Wherefores (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009). 2. Ibid. 3. R. Evan Ellis, The Strategic Dimension of China’s Engagement with Latin America (Washington, DC: Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, 2013).

1  Introduction 1. Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly (Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, September 2013), 23. 2. Ibid. 3. Indeed, China’s diplomatic initiatives toward Latin America at this time may have been motivated, in part, by its desire to secure entry into the WTO. See Alex E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom, “Latin America and China: South-South Relations in a New Era,” in Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations Beyond the Washington Consensus, eds., Alex. E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012). 4. Latin America scholar Dan Erikson argues that it was from this moment that China’s expansion into Latin America began to attract “widespread notice” in the United States. Daniel P. Erikson, “Conf licting U.S. Perceptions of China’s Inroads in Latin America,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 121. See also “Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing Comments on the Fruitful Results of President Hu Jintao’s Trip to Latin America,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. November 26, 2004. http://www.fmprc .gov.cn/eng/topics/huvisit/t172349.htm. 5. Alejandro Rebossio, “La mayor economía de Asia continental se expande fuera de su territorio y de a poco aparecen las verdaderas inver siones chinas,” La Nación, November 14, 2004. http://www.lanacion .com.ar.

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6. Interview with Dr.  Adrian Bonilla, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales. Quito, Ecuador. July 10, 2007. 7. This figure includes both Confucius institutes and Confucius classrooms. See “China to Deepen Ties with Latin-America,” China Daily, January 17, 2012. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012diplomats/2012 -01/17/content_14463885.htm. 8. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean, Working Document (Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2013). 9. In 2009, for example, the Cayman Islands received an estimated $5.3 billion in Chinese foreign direct investment, attributed by one analyst to the “Chinese use of Caribbean tax havens.” Ezra Fieser, “Why Is China Spending Billions in the Caribbean?” Global Post, April 22, 2011, http://www.globalpost.com. 10. “CVRD Develops Brazil-China Ore Shipping Service,” Reuters, May 2, 2007,.http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/05/02/brazil-cvrd-vessels -idUSN0231590420070502. 11. Agnieszka Troszkiewicz and Maria Kolesnikova, “Codelco Expects Decline in Copper Cathode Shipments to China,” Bloomberg, March 6, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-06/codelcoexpects-decline-in-copper-cathode-shipments-to-china.html. 12. “China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean (Full Text),” Government of the People’s Republic of China, November 2008, http:// english.gov.cn/official/2008-11/05/content_1140347.htm. 13. Beyond such investments, China’s accumulated surplus of capital created the potential for much more. As of the end of 2012, the P.R.C.’s sovereign wealth fund, administered by the China Investment Corporation (CIC) was capitalized at a total value of $482 billion. See Nick Edwards and Kang Xize, “China Wealth Fund Eyes Asia as Western Protectionism Rises,” Reuters, November 10, 2012, http://www.reuters.com/article /2012/11/11/us-china-congress-cic-idUSBRE8AA01120121111. 14. Zhou Siyu, “The Ups and Downs of Latin Adventure,” China Daily, July 24, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. See also “Latin America the 2nd Biggest Investment Target for China,” Xinhua, June 18, 2012, http://www.news.xinhuanet.com/english. 15. Matt Ferchen, “China-Latin American Relations: The End of the Honeymoon?” China Brief, January 16, 2012, http://carnegieendow ment.org. 16. Starwood hotels, for example, reported a 364 percent increase in Chinese tourists at its Sheraton hotel in Mexico City, as well as a 260 percent increase in its Park Tower facility in Buenos Aires. Brian Byrnes, “Latin America Lures Chinese Tourists,” CNN, September 27, 2011, http:// www.cnn.com. 17. As the general manager of a Chinese mining firm once noted, “If there are more Chinese people and companies already there, this will attract

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others who will find it easier” with the general manager of a Chinese mining firm. See Ruben Gonzalez-Vicente, “Mapping Chinese Mining Investment in Latin America: Politics or Market?” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 46. 18. Veronica Sanchez, “Llegan más chinos al País,” Reforma, October 9, 2011, http://www.reforma.com. 19. See Ding Qingfen, “Companies Still Drawn to Peru, Despite Obstacles,” China Daily, December 11, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. See also “Hay más de 80 firmas chinas en el Perú,” Gestión, December 11, 2012, http://gestion.pe. 20. Mercedes Alvaro, “Ecuador and China Seek to Strengthen Ties,” Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2014, http://online.wsj.com. 21. “38 empresas chinas están en las areas estratégicas y construcción,” El Universo, June 18, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 22. “Aumenta número de empresas chinas en Perú,” América Economía, February 10, 2014, http://www.americaeconomia.com/economiamercados/comercio/aumenta-numero-de-empresas-chinas-en-peru. 23. See, for example, “China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean (Full Text),” Government of the People’s Republic of China, November 2008, http://english.gov.cn/official/2008-11/05/content _1140347.htm. 24. The role of the community of ethnic Chinese abroad as an important component of Chinese foreign policy was acknowledged by then– P.R.C. foreign minister Yang Jeichi in his forward to the official P.R.C. government reference book China’s Foreign Affairs 2010. Department of Policy Planning, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China (Beijing, China: World Affairs Press, 2010). 25. A. Catalinac, S. Cesarin, J. Corrales, J. Domínguez, S. R. Golob, A. Kennedy, A. Liebman, M. Musacchio-Farias, J. Resende-Santos, and R. Russell, China’s Relations with Latin America: Shared Gains, Asymmetric Hopes, China Working Paper (Washington, DC: InterAmerican Dialogue, 2006). 26. Florencia Jubany and Daniel Poon, “Recent Chinese Engagement in Latin America,” Canadian Foundation for the Americas, March 2006, http://focal.ca/pdf/china_latam.pdf. 27. Daniel Lederman, Marcelo Olarrega, and Guillermo E Perry, “China’s and India’s Challenge to Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?” World Bank, 2009, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEC /Resources/China_India_Challenge_to_LA.pdf. See also Caroline Freund and Caglar Ozden “The Effect of China’s Exports on Latin American Trade with the World,” World Bank, August 2006, http:// siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLACOFFICEOFCE/Resources/ IndustryLevelTradeFlows.pdf. See also “Latin America and the Caribbean’s Response to the Growth of China and India: Overview

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of Research Findings and Policy Implications,” World Bank, August 2006, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLACOFFICEOFCE /Resources/LAC_response_to_China_and_India_Overview.pdf. 28. Kevin Gallagher and Roberto Porzecanski, The Dragon in the Room (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010). 29. Rhys Jenkins and Enrique Dussel Peters, China and Latin America: Economic Relations in the 21st Century (Bonn: German Development Institute, 2009). 30. Ben Laidler, Qu Hongbin, Todd Dunivant, Simon Francis, Thomas Hilboldt, and Andre Loes, South-South Special: What a Globalizing China Means for LatAm (HSBC Global Research, November 2013). 31. Cynthia J. Arnson, Mark Mohr, and Riordan Roett, eds., Enter the Dragon: China’s Presence in Latin America (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Institute, 2008). 32. Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz, China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere: Implications for Latin America and the United States (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2008). 33. A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez, eds., China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011). 34. Gastón Fornés and Alan Butt Philip, The China-Latin America Axis: Emerging Markets and the Future of Globalisation (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012). 35. Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony, eds., From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012). 36. Benjamin Creutzfeldt, ed., China en America Latina: Reflecciones sobre las relaciones transpacificas (Bogota, Colombia: Universidad Externado, 2012). 37. In virtually all of the compiled works published in English on China– Latin America relations prior to 2012, it is Jiang Shixue who is represented as providing the “Chinese perspective.” See, for example, Jiang Shixue, “Three Factors in Recent Development of Sino-Latin American Relations,” in Enter the Dragon: China’s Presence in Latin America, eds., Cynthia Arnson, Mark Mohr, and Riordan Roett (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, 2008), 43–52. See also Jiang Shixue, “The Chinese Foreign Policy Perspective,” in China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere: Implications for Latin America and the United States, eds., Rioardan Roett and Guadalupe Paz (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2008), 27–43. See also Jiang Shixue, “Ten Key Questions,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., Adrian H. Hearn and José Luis León-Manríquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 2011), 51–66. 38. An important work in this regard was China, Latin America, and the United States: The New Triangle, Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson

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Center, 2011. The short work was based on a conference held by the Woodrow Wilson Center on China’s relationship with Latin America, and which consequently published summarized perspectives of the positions of various Chinese scholars previously not widely published in the West, including Sun Hongbo, Philip Yang, and Chai Yu. 39. See, for example, Sun Hongbo, “China’s Benefits in Latin America: American Scholars’ Judgement and Anxiety,” in China-Latin America Relations: Review and Analysis, Vol. 1, ed., He Shuangrong (Reading, MA: Paths International, 2012), 46–55. 40. See, for example, Yang Zhimin, “Policy Choice in China-Latin American Trade Cooperation in Response to the Financial Crisis,” in China-Latin America Relations: Review and Analysis, Vol. 1, ed., He Shuangrong (Reading, MA: Paths International, 2012), 96–106. 41. See, for example, Wang Peng, “China-Venezuelan Relations during the Chávez Reign,” in China-Latin America Relations: Review and Analysis, Vol. 1, ed., He Shuangrong (Reading, MA: Paths International, 2012), 143–149. 42. He Shuangrong, ed., China-Latin America Relations: Review and Analysis, Vol. 1 (Reading, MA: Paths International, 2012). 43. See, Arend Lijphart, “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method,” American Political Science Review, 65(3), September 1971): 682–693.

2  Natural Resource Development—Petroleum, Mining, and Agriculture 1. “Bridas desistió de comprar la cuota de BP en Pan American Energy,” Cronista, November 6, 2011, http://www.cronista.com. 2. “UPDATE 2—Wuhan Talks to Build Brazil Steel Mill ‘Dormant’— LLX,” Reuters, November 8, 2012, http://www.reuters.com. 3. The project reportedly fell victim to multiple changes in management and environmental laws at the state level. Nonetheless, according to recent reports in the Brazilian media, it now appears to have new life. 4. “Proyecto suspendido,” La Nación, November 24, 2011, http://www .lanacion.com.ar. 5. “China pagará 900 millones de dólares para acceder a la Faja del Orinoco,” El Universal, April 20, 2010, http://www.eluniversal.com. 6. Diana Davila, “Ecuador firmará contrato minero con empresa China este lunes,” Confirmado, March 2, 2012, http://www.confirmado.net. 7. This observation was made, for example, by Ruben Gonzalez-Vicente in his analysis of Chinese activities in the Peruvian mining sector. See Ruben Gonzalez-Vicente, “Mapping Chinese Mining Investment in Latin America: Politics or Market?” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

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8. This does not always imply the use of Chinese equipment, however. There are, for example, cases of Shougang and other Chinese construction firms purchasing Caterpillar equipment rather than equipment from Chinese companies where the former appears better suited to the task. Nonetheless, it is believed that Chinese government encourages Chinese contractors to use Chinese equipment. Interview with construction equipment industry executive. 9. According to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), almost 90 percent of Venezuela’s exports are comprised of just three products: Crude petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas. “Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of ): Exports of the 10 leading products (SITC, rev. 1), by their percentage share each year (Leading products).” http://websie.eclac.cl. Accessed January 18, 2013. 10. “Recursos de Venezuela,” Petróleos de Venezuela S.A., accessed January 22, 2013, http://www.pdvsa.com/lexico/venezuela/recursos.htm. 11. The significance of such projects notwithstanding, virtually all of these activities were construction and technical service contracts paid for by the Venezuelan government through loans, and thus resemble more the dynamics of the loan-backed construction projects discussed in chapter 5, rather than the equity-based investments discussed in the present chapter. 12. “Khan reporta avance de acuerdos con China para potenciar Guayana,” El Universal, October 14, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. 13. Ernesto J. Tovar, “China entra al area minera para extraere oro en Las Cristinas,” El Universal, February 25, 2012, http://www.eluniversal. com. 14. “Venezuela Now to Mine Massive Las Cristinas Gold Project with Help from China,” Reuters, February 25, 2002, http://www.reuters.com. 15. “China Railway Won CNY2.6bn Iron Ore Mining Contract,” MENAFN, June 15, 2012, http://www.menafn.com. 16. “Empresa china Citic Group elaborará mapa minero de Venezuela,” El Universal, September 22, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 17. “Nuevo crédito de $5 mil millones recibirá Venezuela de China,” El Universal, September 22, 2013, http://www.eluniversal.com. 18. R. Evan Ellis, China in Latin America: The Whats and Wherefores (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 2009), 129. 19. “Tongling, China Railway Plan to Invest $3 Billion in Ecuador Copper Mine,” Bloomberg, August 13, 2010, http://mobile.bloomberg.com /news/2010-08-13/tongling-china.railway-plan-to-invest-3-billion -in-ecuador-copper-mine. 20. Davila, “Ecuador firmará contrato minero con empresa China este lunes.” 21. “Ocho sectores concentran los mayores planes de inversión,” El Universo, March 10, 2011, http://www.eluniverso.com. 22. “Ecuador Says Mining Reform Will Pave Way for Contracts,” Reuters, August 2, 2012, http://www.miningweekly.com.

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23. Walter Spurrier Baquerizo, “Se acordaron de la minería,” El Universo, November 14, 2010, http://www.eluniverso.com. 24. See, for example, “Bolivian President Applauds China, Russia Ties, Laments Rift with U.S.,” Xinhua, January 7, 2014, http://news.xinhua net.com/english. 25. “Citic financiará exploración de litio en salar de Coipasa,” Business News Americas, September 26, 2011, http://www.bnamericas.com. 26. Carlos Valdez, “China Explores Bolivian Lithium Investments,” Salon, March 19, 2012, http://www.salon.com. 27. “China to Help Install Lithium Battery Plant in Bolivia,” Xinhua, September 2013, http://news.xinhuanet.com. 28. “Prevén que Huanuni genere $us 1,3 milliones,” Los Tiempos, October 13, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 29. “Colquiri aún dialoga y denuncian más tomas,” Los Tiempos, June 9, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 30. “Mutún (en Bolivia) recibe otra propuesta china por US$ 5 mil millones,” Hidrocarburos Bolivia, July 20, 2013, http:/www.hydrocarburos bolivia.com. 31. If the Chinese company Minmetals successfully acquires the Las Bambas project, the total is projected to rise to $19 billion, or one-third of all mining investment in the country. Rachel Chase, “China Could Son Own One Third of Mining Properties in Peru,” Peru This Week, November 8, 2013, http://www.perthisweek.com. 32. “Inversiones chinas aumentan en minería peruana,” Xinhua, September 9, 2010, http://spanish.news.cn. 33. The Peruvian Mines and Energy Ministry (MEM) reported, for example, that during the first four months of 2013, accumulated Chinese investment in the Marcona mine jumped 23 percent to $1.48 billion. “Seven Projects in Peru See Capex Increase in 2013,” Business News Americas, May 28, 2013, http://www.bnamericas.com. 34. “Shougang iniciaría proyecto de ampliación de Mina de Marcona,” Marcona Digital Noticias, July 2, 2011, http://marconadigitalnoticias .blogspot.com. 35. “Nanjinzhao inicia perforación en Pampa del Pongo.” Gestión. Lima, Peru. http://gestion.pe/noticia. September 6, 2010. 36. Elizabeth Huanca Urrutia, “Chinos invierten US$ 200 millones en explorar “Pampa de Pongo,” La Revista, January 3, 2012, http://lare vista.aqpsoluciones.com. 37. “Empresa china invertirá más de $10  milliones en mina de cobre de Arequipa,” Andina, September 6, 2012, http://www.andina.com.pe. 38. “Chinalco obtiene permiso de uso de reserva de agua para proyecto Toromocho,” Gestión, June 7, 2012, http://gestion.pe/noticia. 39. Ryan Dube, “Chinalco Approves $1.32 Billion Expansion of Peru Copper Project,” Wall Street Journal, June 19, 2013, http://online.wsj.com. 40. “Huancayo: pobladores protestaron contra reubicación de Morococha,” El Comercio, November 17, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.pe.

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41. Alex Emery, “Chinalco Starts Up Toromocho Copper Mine in Peru,” BNAmericas, December 12, 2013, http://www.bnamericas.com. December 12, 2013. 42. “Cámara de Comercio: proyecto minero Toromocho impulsará a empresas de Junín en el Perú,” América Economía, December 12, 2013, http://americaeconomia.com/node/106899. 43. “Cartera de proyectos mineros a ejecutar en Perú suma US$ 39,323 millones,” Agencia Peruana de Noticias, July 29, 2010, http://www.andina .com.pe. 44. “La minería peruana crece menos que producción mundial por segundo año,” El Comercio, July 4, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.pe. 45. “Consorcio chino podría pagar US$5.000 mlls. por Las Bambas,” El Comercio, Lima, Peru, January 16, 2014, http://elcomercio.pe/econo mia/negocios/consorcio-chino-podria-pagar-us5000-mlls-bambas -noticia-1703168. 46. Gillian Tan, Alex Macdonald and Cynthia Koons, “Chinese Consortium Is Front-Runner to Buy Peru Copper Mine,” Wall Street Journal, January 15, 2014, http://online.wsj.com. 47. Based on CEPALSTAT database. “2012 Argentina GDP Data,” accessed July 5, 2013, http://interwp.cepal.org. 48. Francisca Pouiller, “Deal Reached in Water-Supply Dispute at Sierra Grande Mine,” Mining Weekly, September 3, 2009, http://www.mining weekley.com. 49. “Anuncian inversions chinas por $140 milliones en minería,” La Nación, January 26, 2010, http://www.lanacion.com. 50. “Anuncian inversions chinas por $140 milliones en minería,” La Nación, January 26, 2010, http://www.lanacion.com. 51. Ibid. 52. Orlando Andrada and Mariela Arias, “Al wok. China saltó al tercer puesto en la inversión extranjera en la Argentina,” La Nación, March 6, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com. 53. Ibid. 54. R. Evan Ellis, “Chinese Investment in Brazil,” Brazil Confidential, September 29 2011: 29, http://www.brazilconfidential.com. 55. “Modernização do setor de logística da CVRD,” Japan Bank for International Cooperation, Accessed January 22, 2013, http://www.jbic .org.br/setor-de-logistica.php. 56. “Ports and Terminals,” Vale Official Website, Accessed January 22, 2013, http://www.vale.com. 57. “China’s ECE to Pay $1.2 Bln for Brazil Miner,” Reuters, March 25, 2010, http://www.reuters.com. See also Fernanda de Biaga, “Chinese Firms Looking to go Solo in Iron Ore Mining—Ibram,” Business News Americas, October 25, 2010, http://www.bnamericas.com/news. 58. “Honbridge Picks Pipeline for Brazil Iron Mine—Paper,” Reuters, July 7, 2012, http://www.reuters.com.

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59. “Chineses querem investir em construção e mineração no Piauí,” 180 Graus, March 15, 2012, http://180graus.com/geral/chineses-querem -investir-em-construcao-e-mineracao-no-piaui-505249.html. 60. Alison Tudor, “China Group Taps Into Brazil Mine,” Wall Street Journal, September 5, 2011, http://online.wsj.com. 61. Diana Kinch, “Chinese Steelmakers Buy into Brazil’s CBMM,” Wall Street Journal, September 2, 2011, http://online.wsj.com. 62. “Codelco Confirms Minmetals Option on Gaby Closed for Good,” Business News Americas, September 29, 2008, http://www.bnamericas. com. 63. “China Minmetals and Codelco to Cooperate in Search for Minerals,” Sinolatin Capital Newsletter, January, 2013, http://www.sinolatincapital .cn. 64. Frik Els, “Phew. Codelco Wriggles Out of 15-year Deal Inked at $1.50 a Pound,” Mining, February 21, 2013, http://www.mining.com /phew-codelco-wriggles-out-of-15-year-deal-inked-at-1-50-a-pound -82202/. 65. “Compañía industrial china invertirá $250 millones de dólares en Chile,” Prensa, August 20, 2011, http://www.prensa.com. 66. Clarise Ardúz, “Compañía china invierte en megapuerto y mina de hierro en Chile,” KHL Magazine, September 3, 2012, http://wwww .khl.com. 67. “El hierro se recupera, pero proyectos siguen estancados,” Mineria Chilena, December 16, 2013, http://www.mch.cl/2013/12/16/el-hierro -se-recupera-pero-proyectos-siguen-estancados/. 68. Walker Rowe, “Chinese Investment in South America,” China US Focus, http://www.chinausfocus.com. 69. “CIEChile Promotes Opportunities in Chile at China’s Most Important Investment Fail,” CIEChile, December 12, 2013, http://www.ciechile. gob.cl/en/ciechile-promueve-oportunidades-de-inversion-en-la-feria -de-inversiones-mas-importante-de-china/. 70. Shoaib-ur-Rehman Siddiqui, “Chile Opens Access to Its Lithium Reserves,” Business Recorder, June 17, 2012, http://www.brecorder .com. 71. Georgina Gasca, “Extraen hasta 100 mil toneladas al mes; planean llegar a las 400 mil toneladas,” El Sol de Morelia, September 30, 2011, http:// www.oem.com.mx/elsoldezamora. 72. Ibid. 73. Jesús Francisco Sánchez, “Invertirá China en Durango 150 mdd: Yuming,” El Sol de Durango, March 9, 2012, http://www.oem.com.mx /elsoldedurango/notas/n2459849.htm. See also “Genera resultados promoción del gobernador Jorge Herrera Caldera,” El Sol de Durango, July 20, 2011, http://www.oem.com.mx/laprensa. 74. “Monica” IMI Gold. Official Website, http://imigold.com.Monicaeng. com.

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75. Regarding the lack of importance of mining in Central America in general, a report by Oxfam International writes that “Despite its long history in Central America, mining has never played a significant role in the economies of Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Even if all the resources of these nations were developed, revenue from minerals would amount to only a small fraction of their broadly diversified economies.” “Metals Mining and Sustainable Development in Central America: An Assessment of Benefits and Costs,” Oxfam America, February 17, 2009. http://www.oxfamamerica.org/files/metals-mining-and-sustainabledevelopment-in-central-america.pdf. 76. The only Central American government recognized by the P.R.C. is Costa Rica, with which it established diplomatic recognition in 2007. 77. “Honduras adjudicará en cuatro meses concesiones mineras,” America Economia, July 25, 2013, http://www.americaeconomia.com/nego cios-industrias/honduras-adjudicara-en-cuatro-meses-concesiones -mineras. 78. “China’s Bosai Snaps up IAMGOLD’s Omai Bauxite—Guyana,” Business News Americas, February 15, 2007, http://www.bnamericas .com. 79. “China Regulator Approves Bosai Minerals’ Stake Buy in Guyana’s Omai Bauxite.” WorldAl, March 6, 2007, http://www.worldal.com /news/china/2007-03-06/126398431514660.shtmlP.R.C. 80. “Bosai’s Expansion Plans Still On—Persaud,” Guyana Times, June 17, 2013, http://www.guyanatimesgy.com. 81. “Bai Shan Lin Boss Denies Violating Forestry Laws,” Stabroek News, July 14, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 82. Based on interviews with Guyanese politicians and senior officials. Georgetown, Guyana. August 15–20, 2013. 83. “Suriname and China Working on Joint Ventures,” De Ware Tijd, Online English-Language Edition, August 6, 2013, http://www .dwtonline.com. 84. “Pekín y Santo Domingo impulsarán relaciones aún sin vínculos diplomáticos,” El Nuevo Diario, August 2, 2011, http://www.elnuevo diario.com.do. See also “Afirman China y RD desean ampliar nexos,” El Nacional, August 2, 2011, http://www.elnacional.com.do. 85. “Resalta RD liderara captación inversión en el Caribe en 201,” Hoy, August 2, 2012, http://www.hoy.com.do. 86. Tania Molina, “Empresa de China adquiere derecho para explotar minas de República Dominicana,” Diario Libre, July 25, 2013, http:// www.diariolibre.com.do. 87. “Pekín y Santo Domingo impulsarán relaciones aún sin vínculos diplomáticos,” El Nuevo Diario, August 2, 2011. http://www.elnuevo diario.com.do. 88. Subsequently, prices plunged in the international bauxite market, forcing the new Russian owners to shut down its plants in the region in 2009, although the Ewarton plant was reopened in July 2010 following

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the granting of financial inceptives from the Jamaican government. See “Rusal Sets Sight on Jamalco.” Jamaica Gleaner. April 8, 2011. http:// jamaica-gleaner.com. 89. “Venezuelan Ferro-Nickel Project on Track,” Cuba Standard, February 23, 2010, http://www.cubastandard.com. 90. OPEC Official Website, Accessed July 5, 2013,http://www.opec.org /opec_web/en/data_graphs/330.htm. 91. Wan Zhihong, “Venezuela, China ink $16b oil deal,” China Daily, September 18, 2009, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 92. See, for example, Ellis, China in Latin America, 110–115. 93. “Ecuador,” China National Petroleum Company, Accessed March 14, 2013, http://www.cnpc.com.cn/en/cnpcworldwide. See also Javier Corrales, “China and Venezuela’s Search for Oil Markets,” in Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations Beyond the Washington Consensus, eds. Alex. E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012), 126. 94. “Chávez nacionaliza la gigantesca faja petrolífera del Orinoco,” Nación, May 1, 2007, http://www.nacion.com. 95. Pierre Bertrand, “Venezuela to End All Ventures with Exxon Mobil,” International Business Times, March 16, 2012, http://www.ibtimes.com. 96. “Conozca datos sobre los planes impulsados por Pdvsa en la Faja del Orinoco,” Noticias24, October 11, 2010, http://economia.noticias24. com. 97. According to petroleum analyst Thomas O’Donnell, “the Chinese have grown frustrated with the chaos surrounding Chavez.” Anatoly Kurmanev and Stephen Bierman, “Chavez Cancer Freezes Venezuela’s Overseas Oil Funding,” Bloomberg, January 25, 2013, http://www .bloomberg.com. 98. “China operará cuatro nuevos campos petroleos en Venezuela,” El Universal, November 23, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. 99. “CNPC Pumping 200,000 b/d in Venezuela, Targets 800,000 B/D: VP,” Platts Commodity News, June 13, 2012, http://www.platts.com. 100. “PdVSA Picks China, Malaysia, Russia, and Algeria for Offshore Gas Project,” Petroleum World, February 16, 2011, http://www.petroleum world.com/storyt11021601.htm. 101. “Update 1—CNPC to Help Develop Junin 10 Project in Venezuela— Ramirez,” Reuters, September 18, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. See also “SINOPEC Will Help PDVSA Develop Junin 1 Oil Field at the Orinoco Belt,” Petroleum World, September 18, 2013, http://www .petroleumworld.com. 102. “Pdvsa y China invertirán $40 mil millones en la Faja,” El Universal, December 3, 2010, http://www.eluniversal.com. 103. “China invertirá $4.000 millones para elevar producción de Sinovensa,” El Universal, May 16, 2013, http://www.eluniversal.com. See also “Venezuela pagará prestamo de Fondo Chino con petróleo,” El Nacional, November 22, 2013, http://www.el-nacional.com. See also

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R. Evan Ellis, “Are Big Chinese Energy Investments in Latin America a Concern?” The Manzella Report, November 23, 2013, http://www .manzellareport.com. 104. China National Petroleum Company. 105. “Operadoras chinas dominan negocio petrolero ecuatoriano,” El Universo, November 3, 2009, http://www.eluniverso.com. 106. “38 empresas chinas están en las areas estratégicas y construcción,” El Universo, June 18, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 107. “Repsol to Sell Ecuador Oil Affiliate to Sinopec,” Dow Jones Newswires, August 1, 2012, http://www.forbusiness.com/news. 108. Li Jiabao and Lyu Chang, “CNPC Expands in Ecuador,” China Daily, January 23, 2014, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 109. Simon Hall, “China’s CNPC Nears Ecuador Refinery Deal,” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2013, http://online.wsj.com. See also “China y Ecuador firmaron un acuerdo,” Hoy Ecuador, June 13, 2013, http:// www.hoy.com.ec. As of July 2013, the project was reportedly 21 percent complete. “China’s CNPC joins $12bn Ecuador refinery project,” Construction Week Online, July 9, 2013, http://www.constructionweek online.com. July 9, 2013. 110. “Ecuador busca potenciar su matriz productiva gracias a China,” América Economía, February 9, 2014, http://americaeconomia.com /economia-mercados/ecuador-busca-potenciar-su-matriz-productiva -gracias-china. 111. “El Gobierno llega con ventaja al día decisivo para explotación del Yasuní,” El Comercio, Guayaquil, Ecuador, October 3, 2013, http:// www.elcomercio.com. 112. In 2005, the Chinese firm Huanji proposed a $600 million investment project to construct a plant in Bolivia that would liquefy natural gas, but the plans never came to fruition. “Grandes empresas chinas inverter’an en Bolivia,” Portal Minero, January 10, 2006, http://www.portalminero .com. 113. Allison Murray, “Shengli Maintains Investment Plans,” Business News Americas, February 24, 2005, http://www.bnamericas.com. 114. Pablo Poveda, “Bolivia and China: Indirect Relations in a Global Market,” in Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations Beyond the Washington Consensus, eds., Alex. E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012), 164. 115. Katherine Schmidt, “YPFB Eyes Chinese Partner for Sanandita,” Upstream, June 15, 2012, http://www.upstreamonline.com. 116. “YPFB espera ‘supertaladros’ para perforar pozo en La Paz,” Los Tiempos, January 11, 2013, http://www.lostiempos.com. 117. “YPFB compra tres taladros chinos y uno operará en Lliquimuni,” Página Siete, January 11, 2013, http://www.hidrocarburosbolivia.com. 118. China National Petroleum Company. 119. Rubén Berrios, “Bridging the Pacific: Peru and China,” in Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations Beyond the Washington Consensus,

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eds., Alex. E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012), 143. 120. R. Evan Ellis, “U.S. National Security Implications of Chinese Involvement in Latin America,” U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute ( June 2005), http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mi l/pdffiles/pub606.pdf. 121. See Ding Qingfen, “Companies Still Drawn to Peru, Despite Obstacles,” China Daily, December 11, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 122. “Petrobras cerró la venta de sus activos en Perú a CNPC por US$2.600 mlls,” El Comercio, November 13, 2013, http://elcomercio.pe. 123. ”ONGC-Sinopec Acquires Columbian Oil Firm.” The Hindu Business Line, September 21, 2006, http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2006 /09/22/stories/2006092202200200.htm. 124. “Emerald Energy PLC,” Sinochem Official Website, Accessed January 30, 2013, http://www.sinochem.com/g858/s1803/t4345.aspx. 125. “China’s CNOOC expects 69MBoe from Colombia Unit Nexen in 2014,” Business News Americas, January 21, 2014, www.bnamericas .com. 126. “Compañía china de fabricación de equipos para yacimientos petrolíferos se enfoca en Colombia,” América Economía, November 26, 2013, http://americaeconomia.com/node/105749. 127. The cases are thus distinguished from Venezuela, where the Chinese have acquired options for developing oilfields through direct negotiations with the Venezuelan state. 128. One of the earliest major deals was a potential partnership between China Sonangol and the Argentine state oil firm Enarsa, mentioned in a memorandum of understanding signed during Chinese President Hu Jintao’s trip to Argentina in November 2004, contemplating $5 billion in projects including joint oil exploration off the Argentine coast. See “Tratados bilaterales: Republica Popular de China,” Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores Republica de Argentina, Accessed January 1, 2008, http://www.mrecic.gov.ar. See also “Argentine Petroleum Firm Seeks Foreign Help for Oil Exploration,” People’s Daily Online, September 20, 2005, http://english.people.com.cn. 129. Yvonne Lee and Nisha Gopalan, “Cnooc Acquires Argentina Oil Assets,” Wall Street Journal, March 14, 2010, http://online.wsj.com. 130. “Cerro Dragón no recupera el ritmo de producción y PAE frena las perforaciones,” El Cronista, August 22, 2012, http://www.cronista.com. 131. This was prior to prior to the expropriation of Repsol YPF’s assets in Argentina in April 2012. José Calero, “Cristina busca aumentar rápido la producción petrolera, apuesta a un profesional y mira a China,” El Liberal, May 5, 2012, http://www.elliberal.com.ar. 132. BP subsequently sued Bridas in a US federal court in April 2012 over the failed purchase. “La inglesa BP va a la Justicia contra su socia argentina Bridas,” Clarín, April 24, 2012, http://www.ieco.Clarín.com/empresas /inglesa-BP-Justicia-argentina-Bridas_0_688131396.html.

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133. “OXY Argentina Deal Closed,” Sinopec Official Website, http://www .sipc.cn/english/News/news/146.shtml. See also “Sinopec Buys Occidental Unit for $2.45 Billion,” The Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2010, http://online.wsj.com. 134. Ariel M. Slipak, “Por qué China está interesada en YPF,” El Liberal, April 27, 2012, http://www.elliberal.com.ar. 135. Ibid. 136. Ibid. 137. “Los chinos, más cerca de cerrar un acuerdo para inverter en YPF,” Clarín, December 5, 2012, http://www.Clarín.com. 138. “Concedieron áreas a la empresa china JHP,” El Tribuno, November 19, 2012, http://www.eltribuno.info. 139. The deal was announced in February 2009, and sealed during then Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to China during May of the same year. Iuri Dantas and Jeb Blount, “Petrobras Gets $10 Billion China Loan, Sinopec Deal (Update1),” Bloomberg, February 19, 2009, http://www.bloomberg.com. 140. Fabiana Frayssinet, “Brazil and China, Oiling the Wheels of Business,” Asia Times, May 25, 2012, http://www.asiatimes.com. 141. Ibid. 142. “Repsol Sinopec mantendrá las inversiones previstas en Brasil,” América Economía, November 11, 2013, http://www.americaeconomia.com /node/104796. 143. “Sinopec and Galp Close Petrogal Brazil Transaction,” Sinopec Official Website, April 1, 2012, http://www.sinopecgroup.com/english /Sinopecnews/Pages/201204180852.aspx. 144. Frayssinet, “Brazil and China.” 145. Jeff Fick, “Perenco’s Brazil Unit to Sell 10% Stake in Offshore Blocks to Sinochem,” Wall Street Journal Online, January 8, 2012, http://online .wsj.com. 146. Christiane Lucchesi, Zijing Wu, and Peter Millard, “CNPC Said in Talks to Buy Brazil’s Barra for $2 Billion.” Bloomberg, May 8, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com. 147. Jeff Fick, “UPDATE: Brazil’s Barra Energia Suspends Talks to Sell Oil Company,” Wall Street Journal, June 14, 2013, http://online.wsj.com. 148. Andre Soliani and Peter Millard, “Sinopec to Join Petrobras at Offshore Blocks, Gabrielli Says,” Bloomberg, April 11, 2011, http://www .bloomberg.com. See also Frayssinet, “Brazil and China.” 149. Jeff Fick, Paul Kieman, and Luciana Magalhaes, “Brazil Awards Libra Oil Field Rights to Consortium of Petrobras, Total, Shell, Cnooc, CNPC,” The Wall Street Journal, October 21, 2013, http://online.wsj.com. 150. This limitation is not unlike that which has prevented significant Chinese investment in the Chilean mining sector. 151. Anthony Harrup, “Mexico’s Pemex Starts New Round of Integrated Contracts,” Wall Street Journal Online, December 20, 2012, http://online .wsj.com.

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152. “Chinese Oil Companies Interested in Investing in Mexico, Ambassador Says,” Global Post, January 8, 2014, http://globalpost.com. 153. Mao Xianglin, Carlos Alzugaray Treto, Liu Weiguang, and Adrian H. Hearn, “China and Cuba: Past, Present and Future,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 191. 154. “Cuba cifra sus esperanzas petroleras en el Golfo de México,” Nación, March 21, 2007, http://wvw.nacion.com. March 21, 2007. 155. Jeff Franks, “Oil Rig Arrives for Cuba Offshore Exploration Work,” Reuters, January 19, 2012, http://www.reuters.com. 156. Clifford Krauss and Damien Cave, “Cuba’s Prospects for an OilFueled Economic Jolt Falter With Departure of Rig,” New York Times, November 9, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com. 157. Curtis Williams, “NGC: Gas Agreement between Sabic/Sinopec in Three Months,” Trinidad Guardian, April 24, 2012, http://m.guard ian.co.tt/business-guardian. See also “SABIC, Sinopec in Talks with Trinidad over Methanol Plant,” Reuters, February 11, 2012, http:// www.reuters.com. 158. “Press Release,” Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs Government of Trinidad and Tobago, March 14, 2013, http://www.energy.gov.tt/con tent/SABIC_SINOPEC_Deal_Update_.pdf. 159. The Spanish company Repsol was previously involved in exploratory drilling, but left at the end of its concession, apparently because it did not find sufficient oil to continue. 160. “Chinese Oil Major Eyeing Investment Here,” Stabroek News, August 30, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 161. “Major Chinese Offshore Oil Company Expresses Interest in Investing Here,” Guyana Chronicle, August 30, 2012, http://www.guyanachronicleonline.com. 162. “China confirma su interés por el sector agrícola venezolano,” El Universal, July 19, 2013, http://www.eluniversal.com. 163. “Venezuela crea empresa con China para producir alimentos,” La Prensa Grafica, March 7, 2011, http://www.laprensagrafica.com. 164. “Acuerdos de la Comisión Mixta de Alto Nivel Venezuela-China,” El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela, September 24, 2013, http://www.eluni versal.com. 165. “Passed 1.2 Billion for Agricultural Projects,” AVN, June 4 2012, http:// www.avn.info.ve. 166. “Chinese V.P. Views Beijing’s Money at Work in Venezuela,” EFE, May 14, 2013, http://www.globalpost.com. 167. “China impulsa proyectos de producción agrícola en Bolivia,” FM Bolivia, March 27, 2012, http://www.fmbolivia.com.bo. 168. Margaret Meyers, “China Eyes Latin America to Fill Its Kitchen Cupboard,” Caixin Online, January 8, 2014, http://english.caixin .com/2014-01-08/100626498.html.

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169. Rao Aimin, “China, Bolivia Promote Friendly Relations,” Xinhua, December 19, 2013, http://english.people.com.cn. 170. “China desarrollará un centro de investigación agrícola en Perú,” La Republica, April 3, 2013, http://www.larepublica.pe. 171. “China Fisheries Acquires a Fishing Plant and Further Increases Its Fishing Quota in Peru,” China Fisheries Group, November 8, 2011, http://www.chinafisherygroup.com/attachment/2011111012270117_ en.pdf. See also “China Fishery Furthers Strategic Roadmap with New Acquisitions in Peru.” China Fishery Group Ltd., June 4, 2007, http:// www.chinafisherygroup.com/newsroom_press.htm. 172. “Cermaq Agrees to Sell Its Copeinca Shares to China Fishery Group,” Reuters, June 24, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. See also Robert Kozak, “Peru’s Copeinca Chairman Sees China Fishery’s Share Purchase Offer Proceeding,” 4-Traders, Accessed July 16, 2013, http://www.4-traders .com. 173. “Transnacionales asiáticas buscan comprar más pesqueras peruanas,” El Comercio, Lima, Peru, January 27, 2014, http://www.elcomercio.com. 174. “Inversiones de China en nuestro país totalizan 3,000 millones de dólares,” La Republica, April 24, 2012, http://www.larepublica.pe. 175. It should be noted, however that each of the projects face serious challenges in terms of funding, environmental and other sources of opposition, and that Colombia has a long legacy of infrastructure projects which have not been realized. 176. “El presidente Santos llega a China en busca de acuerdos económicos,” El Nacional, May 8, 2012, http://www.elnacional.com.do. 177. “China busca mayor presencia,” El Día, May 6, 2012, http://www .eldia.com.ar. See also “Una empresa china compró extensos campos al norte de Santiago del Estero,” Para El Mundo, May 4, 2012, http:// www.pararelmundo.com. 178. “China Set Eyes on LatAm Agriculture to Promote Cooperation and Food Security,” Mercopress, June 12, 2013, http://en.mercopress.com. 179. Alejandro Rebossio, “Argentina limita la compra de tierras por empresas y Gobiernos extranjeros,” El Pais, December 23, 2011, http://www .internacional.elpais.com/international. 180. Rodrigo Orihuela, “Chinese Agro Giant to Invest $1.5b in Argentina,” China Daily, June 10, 2011, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. See also Paula Lopez-Gamundi and Winston Hanks, “Land-Grab Loopholes in Latin America,” World Press, August 11, 2011, http://www.worldpress.org. 181. Zhou Siyu, “$10m Argentine Farming Deal mulled,” Xinhua, June 30, 2012, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english See also “Molinos Cañuelas explora acuerdo con Chongqing Grain,” Dangdai, July 10, 2012, http:// www.dangdai.com.ar. 182. Andrada and Arias, “Al wok.” 183. Prudence Ho, Isabella Steger, and Shane Romig, “China’s Cofco to Buy 51% of Grain Trader Nidera,” The Wall Street Journal, February 28, 2014. http://online.wsj.com.

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184. Naveen Thukral and Michael Flaherty, “China’s COFCO to Pay $1.5 Billion for Stake in Noble’s Agribusiness,” Reuters, April 2, 2014, http:// www.reuters.com. 185. “China se tornará principal destino agrícola brasileiro,” Em.com.br, November 19, 2012, http:www/em.com.br. 186. “Chinese Capital Eyes Brazil’s High-Tech Sector,” China Daily, July 5, 2011, http://www.china.org.cn. 187. “Chinese Group Chongqing Dragonf ly Oil Sunday in Brazil Lays First Stone of Soy Processing Factory,” MacauHub, June 7, 2011, http://www .macauhub.com. See also “China Plans to Invest 10 Billion USD in Soy Production and Processing in Brazil,” Mercopress, April 11, 2011, http:// en.mercopress.com. 188. “Syngenta’s Latest Plant Aims to Satisfy China’s Increasing Sweet Tooth,” China Daily, June 18, 2012, http://www.chinapost.com. 189. “China Plans to Invest 10 Billion USD.” 190. Gastón Fornés and Alan Butt Philip argue that the cities of Latin America are the “real emerging market” for the Chinese and others. See Gastón Fornés and Alan Butt Philip, The China-Latin America Axis: Emerging Markets and the Future of Globalization (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 42–43. 191. Meyers. 192. “Empresarios chinos interesados en la agroindustria chilena,” Diario Financero, December 7, 2012, http://w2.df.cl. 193. Gastón Fornés and Alan Butt Philip argue that the cities of Latin America are the “real emerging market” for the Chinese and others. See Gastón Fornés and Alan Butt Philip, The China-Latin America Axis: Emerging Markets and the Future of Globalization (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 42–43. 194. Chile was the final stop on a trip for the delegation which also included Ecuador and Brazil. Ironically, according to one account, it was the Chileans who raised the issue of Chinese investment in the Chilean fishing industry. See Analia Murias, “China’s Interest to Invest in Fisheries-Aquaculture Sector,” Fish Information & Services, June 15, 2012, http://www.fis.com. 195. “Principales partidas de las exportaciones de Uruguay con sus principales 3 destinos,” in Informe de comercio exterior de Uruguay Enero–Setiembre 2011, Government of Uruguay, October 3, 2011, http://gp.gub.uy/sites /default/f iles/documentos/informe_de_comercio_exterior_de_uru guay_uruguayxxi_03-10-2011_411.pdf. October 3, 2011. 196. “Uruguay aumenta exportaciones a China de cortes de valor,” Arg food, December 26, 2012, http://argfood.wordpress.com. 197. “Uruguay: Una ley para evitar la extranjerización de la tierra,” Agencia Popular de Noticias Suramericana, August 2, 2012, http://www.apc -suramerica.net/?p=4999. 198. See, for example, “Mexico—Infrastructure, Power, and Communi­ cations,” Encyclopedia of the Nations, Accessed March 4, 2013, http:// www.nationsencyclopedia.com.

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199. “Empresarios Chinos interesados en el campo hidalguense.” 200. “Oil Palm Industry Projected for Nickerie,” Stabroek News, July 30, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 201. Fany Alvarenga, “Chinos comprarán bonos de carbono en Honduras,” La Prensa, December 13, 2012, http://www.laprensa.com. 202. Alicia Dunkley, “Country Sold Short with Sugar Deal, Says Clarke,” Jamaica Observer, May 31, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 203. Camilo Thame, “Chinese Sees Sugar Profit in Year Two,” Jamaica Observer, December 12, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 204. “Pan-Caribbean to Sell Sugar on Behalf of Cane Farmers,” Jamaica Observer, Kingston, Jamaica, January 16, 2014, http://www.jamaicaob server.com. 205. “$400m Plan for Sugar Industry,” Nation News, September 12, 2012, http://www.nationnews.com. 206. “China Wants in on Bajan Sugar Factory,” Stabroek News, March 3, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 207. Although a larger initial proposal was blocked by the resistance of local community activists, the Chinese investors returned with a scaleddown version of the project in 2012, which they were able to take forward. “Oil Palm Industry Projected for Nickerie.” 208. It is not clear whether the action is an attempt to lock-up Surinamese timber resources, a way to get Chinese capital out of the P.R.C., or a ponzi scheme by Sinolumber to lure investors with a superficially large but difficult to exploit overseas resource base. See R. Evan Ellis, “Suriname and the Chinese: Timber, Migration, and the Less-Told Stories of Globalization,” SAIS Review, 32(2), Summer–Fall 2012: 85–97. 209. “Bai Shan Lin sets sights on operating 183,740 hectares of forest here,” Stabroek News, January 20, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 210. “Bai Shan Lin Boss Denies Violating Forestry Laws,” Stabroek News, July 14, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 211. “Chinese Firm Preps Launch of US$500M Venture,” Stabroek News, January 15, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 212. Although the agreement declared that 85 percent of laborers on the site would ultimately be Guyanese, it included an important caveat that a higher percentage of foreign workers could be used in the initial stages if workers with the required skills were not available locally. “Bai Shan Lin Sets Sights.”

3  Loan-Backed Construction—The New Model 1. See, for example, Daniel P. Erikson and Janice Chen, “China, Taiwan, and the Battle for Latin America,” The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 31(2), Summer 2007: 69–89. 2. Daniel P. Erikson, “Conf licting U.S. Perceptions of China’s Inroads in Latin America,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory,

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eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 129. Indeed, the number of P.R.C.-funded sports stadiums was so great that the term, “cricket diplomacy” came into use to refer to the construction of cricket stadiums in the region by Chinese companies in the run-up to the 2007 Cricket Cup in the region. See Daniel Erikson and Paul Wander, “China: Cricket ‘Champion’,” Miami Herald, April 28, 2007, http://www.miamiherald.com. 3. Technically, however, Taiwan’s increasing discontent with “checkbook diplomacy” was visible at least a year prior to such developments. In 2007, Taiwan’s Democratic Progressive Party declared that it was ending the practice of “personal donations” to Latin America’s political leaders. Gabriel Aguilera Peralta, “Central America between Two Dragons: Relations with the Two Chinas,” in Latin America Facing China: SouthSouth Relations beyond the Washington Consensus, eds., Alex. E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012), 171. 4. “Presidente electo de Taiwán rechaza ‘diplomacia de la chequera’,” El Mercurio, March 23, 2008, http://www.emol.com. 5. Ralph Jennings, “Taiwan’s Pro-Independence Opposition Gains in Election Campaign,” Voice of America, January 9, 2012, http://www .voanews.com/content/taiwans-pro-independence-opposition-gains -in-election-campaign-136991603/150505.html. 6. Osvaldo Pandolfo, “El Estadio Nacional misión cumplida,” Nación, March 11, 2011, http://www.nacion.com. 7. “Los chinos del Estadio,” Nación, December 5, 2010, http://www .nacion.com. 8. Rodrigo Calvo C., “Símbolos chinos en estadio perdurarán,” Nación, March 20, 2011, http://www.nacion.com. 9. Ibid. 10. “Costa Rica or China Rica?” The Costa Rica News, June 13, 2012, http://thecostaricanews.com. 11. Steve Ercolani, “Costa Rica’s Love Affair with China Now Has a Monument,” Tico Times, October 4, 2012, http://www.ticotimes.net. 12. “China ofrece construir Escuela Nacional de Policía en Pococí,” Nación, August 22, 2012, http://www.nacion.com. 13. Isabella Cota, “China Lends Costa Rica $400 Mln on Xi Visit,” Reuters, June 3, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. 14. Gabriela Contreras, “China donó $16,3 millones más para Escuela de Policía, Canciller dice que aún faltan $14 millones,” Costa Rica Hoy, June 3, 2013, http://www.crhoy.com. 15. Luis Miguel Herrera C., “MOPT da por seguro crédito de China para vía Sarapiquí-Limón,” Nación, June 1, 2013, http://www.nacion.com. 16. Ezra Fieser, “Why Is China Spending Billions in the Caribbean?” Global Post, April 22, 2011, http://www.globalpost.com. 17. “A Chinese Beachhead?” The Economist, March 10, 2012, http://www .economist.com.

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18. “Chinese to Build US$150M Children’s Hospital in Couva,” The Trinidad Express, March 2, 2012, http://www.trinidadexpress.com. 19. Nikita Braxton-Benjamin, “Persad-Bissessar, Xi Visit Hospital Site,” Trinidad Express, June 1, 2013, http://www.trinidadexpress.com. 20. “What’s up with Arima Hospital?” The Guardian, October 13, 2013, http://guardian.co.tt. 21. “US Embassy Cables: U.S. Fears Chinese Investment in Bahamas,” The Guardian, January 13, 2011. http://www.theguardian.com/world /us-embassy-cables-documents/225201. 22. Randal C. Archibold, “China Buys Inroads in the Caribbean, Catching U.S. Notice,” New York Times, New York, April 7, 2012, http://www .nytimes.com. See also “A Chinese Beachhead?” 23. Julian Richardson, “Jamaica, China Sign Four Agreements,” Jamaica Observer, August 22, 2013, http://jamaicaobserver.com. 24. Daraine Luton, “Jamaica-China Agreement to Provide Jobs,” Stabroek News, August 22, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 25. Grenada first diplomatically recognized the P.R.C. in October 1985, ten months after the election of the Grenada National Party government of Herbert Blaize, restoring civilian rule to the island after the 1983 US takeover of the island and a transition government thereafter. 26. Fieser, “Why Is China spending billions?” See also Kenneth Tan, “Grenada Thanks China for New Stadium with a Rendition of Taiwan Anthem,” The Shanghai List, February 8, 2007, http://shanghaiist.com. 27. “China Gives Grenada Stadium Gift,” Nation’s News, December 18, 2006, http://www.nationsnews.com. 28. “Chinese Housing Project Completed,” Spice Grenada, September 9, 2012, http://www.spicegrenada.com. 29. Jaime Daremblum, “Beijing Is Flooding the Region with Investment. Should America Be Worried?” The Weekly Standard, June 18, 2012, http://www.weeklystandard.com. 30. “China and Antigua & Barbuda,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China Official Website, August 26, 2010, http://www.mfa .gov.cn. 31. Fieser, “Why Is China spending billions?” 32. Archibold, “China Buys Inroads.” 33. “Edward Oliver Leblanc Highway Formally Opens; Road Safety Tops Agenda,” Dominica News Online, April 21, 2012, http://dominicanewsonline.com. See also Ronald Sanders, “China’s Presence in Dominica,” Caribbean 360, April 28, 2011, http://www.caribbean360.com. 34. Simon Tomero, “With Aid and Migrants, China Expands Its Presence in a South American Nation,” New York Times, April 11, 2011, A4. 35. As of the time that this book went to press, the promised hospital had not yet been built. “China to Donate Hospital to Suriname,” Starbroek News, August 18, 2011, http://www.starbroeknews.com. 36. “Chinese Ambassador: Suriname/China Presidential Talks Will Strengthen Ties,” DevSur, May 31, 2013, http://www.devsur.com.

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37. “China’s Caribbean March,” BBC, October 20, 2010, http://www.bbc .co.uk. 38. “About Us,” Baha Mar Official Website, Accessed December 20, 2010, http://www.bahamar.com/about-us/. 39. “Bahamas, China Sign Economic Technical Cooperation Agreement,” The Bahamas Investor, September 12, 2011, http://www.thebahamasin vestor.com. 40. “About Us—Partnerships,” Baha Mar Official Website, Accessed December 20, 2012, http://www.bahamar.com/about-us/#!/partnerships/general -contractor. 41. Taneka Thompson, “Wilchcombe Dismisses Hotel Union’s Concerns on GB Jobs,” Nassau Guardian, October 23, 2012, http://www.thenas sauguardian.com. 42. Neil Hartnell, “$6bn Developers Rush to Meet PM Departure Date,” The Tribune, October 29, 2013. 43. Alison Lowe, “Chinese Delegation to ‘Finalize’ Blackwood Project,” The Nassau Guardian, January 28, 2014, http://www.thenassauguardian .com. 44. “Chinese Banks to Finance Dominican Tourism Project,” Latin American Herald Tribune, http://www.laht.com. See also “Afirman China y RD desean ampliar nexos,” El Nacional, August 2, 2011, http://www.elna cional.com.do. “China’s Caribbean March,” BBC, October 20, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk. 45. “China financiará con 460 millones de dólares proyecto turístico,” El Nuevo Diario, October 14, 2010, http://www.elnuevodiario.com.do. See also “Llegan capitales de China,” Hoy, October 14, 2010, http:// www.hoy.com.do. 46. “Apartan al juez de un caso de estafa por parentesco con un querellado,” El Confidencial, April 28, 2013, http://www.elconfidencial.com. 47. “Project Number 20490,” International Finance Corporation, Accessed July 5, 2013, http://ifcext.ifc.org. 48. Normally, such a high percentage of foreign workers would have been a violation of Dominican law, but the project was granted a special exception. 49. Interview with Guyanese businessmen and officials on conditions of anonymity. 50. “Brassington Promises Details on Marriott Financing, Investors,” Stabroek News, July 16, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 51. This information was the consensus of senior political leaders and others interviewed in Guyana for this project. Georgetown, Guyana. August 15–20, 2013. 52. “Marriott Hotel’s Framework to Be Completed by April—President Visits Site,” Government of Guyana, http://www.op.gov.gy/index .php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1657:marriott-hotels -framework-to-be-completed-by-april-president-visits-site&catid =34:world-news.

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53. “Chinese Investors Promise Investment in Grenada,” BBC, May 24, 2011, http://www.bbc.com. 54. “Grenada Resort Obtains Financing,” Caribbean News Now, December 22, 2012, http://www.caribbeannewsnow.com. 55. Ibid. 56. “China and Jamaica to Conclude Harmony Cove Development Talks,” Jamaica Observer, February 11, 2014, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 57. Karyl Walker, “No Special Favours for China Harbour, says PM,” Jamaica Observer, December 6, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 58. “PM Welcomes Plans by CHEC to Establish Offices in Jamaica,” Jamaica Information Service, August 22, 2013, http://www.jis.gov.jm. 59. Indeed, those knowledgeable of the project suggested that China Harbour originally wanted to do the North-South highway as a loanfinanced project as well, and only agreed to build it as a toll-road when the Jamaican government convinced it that there was no other option if it wanted the work. 60. Such observations are, of course, broad generalizations. The inclusion of local contractors and workers in such projects, and requirements to adhere to local labor laws has varied according to the government in question. Smaller states, such as those in the Caribbean, and anti-Western regimes, such as Venezuela, generally tend to negotiate agreements that impose fewer conditions on the Chinese. 61. “Central America-China Ties to Deepen,” Latin America Monitor, May 2011, http://www.latinamericamonitor.com. 62. Tim Rogers, “Nicaragua Taps China for Canal Project,” Nicaragua Dispatch, September 11, 2012, http://www.nicaraguadispatch.com. 63. “UPDATE 3—China’s Wen Offers $10 Billion Latin America Credit Line,” Reuters, June 16, 2012, http://in.reuters.com. 64. “China to Loan Caribbean $1 Billion,” Caribbean Journal, September 13, 2011, http://www.caribjournal.com/2011/09/13/china-to-loan -caribbean-1-billion/. 65. “UPDATE 4—China’s Wen Offers $10 Billion Latin America Credit Line,” Reuters, June 27, 2012, http://in.reuters.com. 66. “China to Provide $2 Billion for Latin America and the Caribbean Co-financing Fund,” InterAmerican Development Bank Official Website, March 16, 2013. 67. Mayela Armas H., “230 mil barriles de crudo al día irán al pago de deuda con China,” El Universal, May 10, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. See also R. Evan Ellis, “China’s Cautious Economic and Strategic Gamble in Venezuela,” China Brief, 11(18), September 30, 2011: 7–11. 68. “Venezuela Says It Receives $5 Billion Promised by China,” The Wall Street Journal, December 28, 2013, http://online.wsj.com. 69. Ernestro J. Tovar, “Envíos a China por acuerdos suman 200 mil barriles al día,” El Universal, February 29, 2012, http://eluniversal.com.

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70. R. Evan Ellis, “China, Russia, India and the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry,” Latin Business Chronicle, December 11, 2013, http://www.lat inbusinesschronicle.com. 71. “Gobierno firma contrato ferrovario con china por $7500 milliones,” El Universal, July 30, 2009, http://eluniversal.com. 72. “Guardia Nacional resguarda construcción de tramo ferroviario TinacoAnaco,” El Periodiquito, December 14, 2011, http://www.elperiodiquito .com. 73. “Envíos a China por acuerdos suman 200 mil barriles al día.” 74. “Venezuela Is World’s Fifth Highest Investor in Energy,” Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in Washington DC Official Website, August 23, 2010, http://venezuela-us.org. 75. “Delegaciones de Venezuela y China realizan inspecciones a Hidroé­ ctrica,” Radio Mundial, June 6, 2012, http://www.radiomundial.com .ve. 76. “Venezuela y China firman acuerdos sobre proyectos eléctricos y petroleros,” El Universal, December 3, 2012, http://www.eluniversal .com. 77. “Venezuela Signs Three New Agreements with China,” El Universal, September 6, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. 78. Ibid. 79. “Venezuela y China firman acuerdo para construir Nuevo Puerto,” El Nacional, October 4, 2011, http://el-nacional.com. 80. “Research and Markets: Venezuela Shipping Report Q1 2012—China to Provide Badly Needed Infrastructure Improvements at Venezuelan Port,” Research and Markets, January 11, 2012, http://www.researchand markets.com. 81. “SANY’s Equipment Used for Construction of Venezuela Ports,” SANY Official Website, July 11, 2013, http://www.sanygroup.com /group/en-us/media/36524_for_news_text.htm. 82. “Chinese V.P. Views Beijing’s Money at Work in Venezuela,” EFE, May 14, 2013, http://www.globalpost.com. 83. “Venezuela y China firman acuerdo para construir plataformas petroleras,” El Universal, February 24, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. The agreement complimented a 2006 agreement with China to purchase petroleum drilling platforms from Chinese companies, but to eventually assemble them in Venezuela. 84. “Acuerdo con China para megacomplejo petrolero en Faja del Orinoco,” Terra, April 28, 2012, http://noticias.terra.com.ar. 85. “China construirá condominios industriales en la Faja,” El Universal, April 29, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 86. See Wei Tian, “Venezuela Seeks to Fuel Oil Links,” China Daily, December 1, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. See also Mayela Armas H., “Venezuela comprará 6.000 maquinarias chinas para viviendas,” El Universal, August 26, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com.

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87. Ana Diaz, “Rechazan contracion de obreros chinos,” El Nacional, June 18, 2012, http://www.el-nacional.com. A separate report referred to $1.5 billion for 13,000 houses in Ciudad Tiuna in Caracas, and other parts of Venezuela, done by CITIC Construction and paid for by ICBC funds; see “Envíos a China por acuerdos suman 200 mil barriles al día.” 88. “Las relaciones con China son excelentes, según el embajador de Ecuador,” Hoy, November 16, 2012, http://www.hoy.com.ec. See also Andrés Reliche, “Inician montajes electromecánicos en proyecto hidroeléctrico Coca Codo Sinclair,” Agencia Publica de Noticias del Ecuador y Suramerica, June 17, 2013, http://www.andes.info.ec. 89. Nathan Gil and Henry Sanderson, “China Development Bank Agrees to Loan Ecuador $2 Billion, Bolstering Bonds,” Bloomberg, June 27, 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com. 90. “Central Coca-Codo Sinclair registra un avance del 22  percent,” El Comercio, December 16, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com. 91. “Con China se oficializa crédito para segunda hidroeléctrica,” El Universal, October 11, 2011, http://eluniverso.com. 92. Jaime Jaramillo, “The Paute-Soplador Hydroelectric Project Advances 28 Percent,” Agencia Pública de Noticias de Ecuador y Suramerica, April 9, 2013, http://www.andes.info.ec. 93. “El financiamiento para Toachi Pilatón tropieza,” El Universo, December 29, 2010, http://eluniverso.com. 94. “Ecuador promueve inversiones, comercio, y turismo en el norte de China,” People’s Daily, June 16, 2012, http://spanish.peopledaily.com .cn. 95. “Cuarta firma china para hidroeléctrica,” El Universo, February 15, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 96. “¿Por qué el gobierno de Ecuador perdonó a Odebrecht?” America Economía, September 18, 2010, http://www.americaeconomia.com. 97. “Cuarta firma china para hidroeléctrica.” 98. “38 empresas chinas están en las areas estratégicas y construcción,” El Universo, June 18, 2012. 99. “Wind Energy in Ecuador: The First Wind Farm Will Make by Chinese Companies,” Revista Eólica y del Vehículo Eléctrico, August 16, 2011, http://www.evwind.es. 100. Ibid. 101. For a discussion of the difficulties with the Project, see “Rio Grande no vende ni compra en cantón Chone,” El Universo, November 12, 2011, http://eluniverso.com. See also “38 empresas chinas están en las areas estratégicas y construcción.” 102. “Ecuador’s Senagua Cancels Chone Project Contract with ChineseLed Consortium,” Business News Americas, June 4, 2013, http://www .bnamericas.com. 103. “38 empresas chinas están en las areas estratégicas y construcción.”

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104. “Embajador ecuatoriano intensifica las relaciones académicas con China, El Comercio, May 11, 2012, http://elcomercio.pe. 105. “Luz verde a Sinopec para explorar el Itaguazurenda,” Los Tiempos, July 1, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 106. “Prevén que Huanuni genere $us 1,3 milliones,” Los Tiempos, October 13, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 107. Dorothy Kosich, “China May Help Bolivia Finance El Mutún,” MineWeb, May 28, 2010, http://www.mineweb.com. 108. See “Exportación de hierro se trunca con salida de Jindal,” Los Tiempos, December 28, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 109. “Bolivia Pursues Hydro-Power Deal with China,” Fox News, July 29, 2012, http://latino.foxnews.com. 110. “Bolivia negocia construcción de hidroeléctrica de 1.300 millioones de dólares,” La Razón, July 11, 2013, http://www.la-razon.com. 111. “YPFB perdió $us 70 millones en la perforación de pozos que ‘fallaron,” Los Tiempos, March 17, 2013, http://www.lostiempos.com. 112. “Bolivia buscará salir al mar ‘casi con autonomia’ por Puerto peruano,” El Comercio, August 6, 2011, http://elcomercio.pe. 113. “Evo quiere aprovechar las costas de Ilo para la construcción de ‘mega puertos’,” La Razón, March 24, 2013, http://www.la-razon.com. 114. “Empresa china CWE asfaltará carretera en Bolivia por 80 mdd,” China. Org, October 22, 2013, http://spanish.china.org.cn. 115. “Una empresa china construirá los dos puentes viales más largos de Bolivia,” El Nacional, January 24, 2014, http://www.el-nacional.com. 116. “Firman contrato para construir ingenio azucarero,” Los Tiempos, March 6, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 117. A. D. Hans Soria O. “Alcanzan 90 percent de avance en reactivación de Papelbol,” Los Tiempos, October 14, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 118. R. Evan Ellis, “Las relaciones China-Colombia en el contexto de la relación estratégica entre Colombia y los Estados Unidos,” In China en América Latina, ed., Benjamin Creutzfelt (Bogota, Colombia; Universidad Externado, 2012), 295–325. 119. Cristian Pardo Quinn, “Hyundai, entre nuevos interesados en manejar Rio Magdalena,” Portafolio, February 13, 2012, http://www.portafolio .com. 120. Juan Andres Abarca, “Colombia’s US$680Mn Magdalena River Project Receives Nine Bids,” Business News Americas, April 9, 2013, http:// www.bnamericas.com. 121. R. Evan Ellis, “Las relaciones China-Colombia en el contexto de la relación estratégica entre Colombia y los EE.UU,” Security and Defense Studies Review, 9(1–2), 2009: 16. 122. “Santos pidió pista en Singapur y va por los inversionistas chinos,” El Colombiano, May 7, 2012, http://www.elcolombiano.com. 123. “China, interesada en construir oleoducto en Colombia,” El Espectador, May 9, 2012, http://www.elespectador.com.

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124. “China and Colombia announce ‘alternative Panama Canal’,” BBC News, February 14, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-1244 8580. 125. “Acuerdo Para Que Llegue Inversión Chino,” El Tiempo, March 30, 2009, http://www.eltiempo.com. 126. “Alcaldesa (e.) ordenó suspender proyecto del metro de Bogotá,” El Tiempo, May 18, 2011, http://www.eltiempo.com. 127. “Colombia y China están cerca de negociar vía ferroviaria en el Pacífico,” Caracol, October 17, 2013, http://www.caracol.com.co. 128. “Colombia y Venezuela construirán oleoducto binacional,” La Opinión, March 29, 2012, http://www.laopinion.com.co. See also Edulfo Peña, “Presidente Santos visita a Gobierno chino, su ‘mejor nuevo socio,” El Tiempo, May 5, 2012, http://www.eltiempo.com. See also Edulfo Peña, “Carbón y petróleo, entre los intereses de China en Colombia” Portafolio, May 9, 2012, http://www.portafolio.co. 129. Peña, “Carbón y petróleo, entre los intereses de China en Colombia.” 130. “China, interesada en construir oleoducto en Colombia.” 131. As this book went to press, the southern interoceanic corridor linking Peru and Brazil was in its final stage of completion. “Interoceanic Highway, Brazil,” Roadtraffic Technology.com, Accessed July 29, 2013, http://www .roadtraffic-technology.com/projects/interoceanichighway/. 132. “Empresarios loretanos paralizan obra de alcantarillado de Iquitos por abuso de empresa china,” La Voz de la Selva, January 11, 2011, http:// Radiolvs.cnr.org.pe/ninterna.html?x=10229. January 11, 2011. 133. “Argentina Gets China Investment,” BBC News, November 17, 2004, http://news.bbc.co.uk. 134. “Qué pasa,” La Nación, February 21, 2008, http://www.lanacion.com. 135. “Cristina regresó de China sin soluciones para la venta de soja,” Clarín, July 17, 2010, http://www.clarin.com. 136. “Argentina y China firmarán millonarios acuerdos, pese a disputa por la soja,” America Economía, July 6, 2010, http://www.americaeconomia .com. 137. “China Agrees to Reopen Market to Argentine Soybean Oil Imports, People Say,” Bloomberg, October 11, 2010, http://www.bloomberg. com. 138. Juan Pablo De Santis, “El Gobierno intervino el Belgrano Cargas,” La Nación, October 26, 2012, http://www.lanacionlcom.ar. 139. Neil Denslow, “China Backs $12 Billion Argentina Rail Projects to Ease Commodity Supplies,” Bloomberg, July, 14, 2010, http://www. bloomberg.com. 140. “China to Invest in Argentine Railways,” Wall Street Journal, July 13, 2010, http://online.wsj.com. 141. Juan Pablo De Santis, “El Gobierno intervino el Belgrano Cargas,” La Nación, October 26, 2012, http://www.lanacionlcom.ar. 142. “Habrá financiamiento chino para el tren Belgrano Cargas,” La Nación, September 10, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com.

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143. Orlando Andrada and Mariela Arias, “Al wok. China saltó al tercer puesto en la inversión extranjera en la Argentina,” La Nación, March 6, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com. 144. Jorge Castro, “El primer ministro chino y una visita clave para el país,” Clarín, June 12, 2012, http://www.Clarín.com. June 12, 2012. 145. Juan Pablo De Santis, “El Gobierno intervino el Belgrano Cargas.” 146. “Estatizan el ferrocarril Belgrano Cargas,” La Nación, May 23, 2013, http://www.lanacion.com.ar. 147. Andres Bermúdez Liévano, “Un gigante chino, interesado en las hidroeléctricas de Santa Cruz,” La Nación, September 28, 2012, http:// www.lanacion.com.ar. 148. “Tras años de promesas, arranca la obra Portezuelo del Viento,” Diario Uno, November 16, 2011, http://www.diariouno.com. 149. Andres Bermúdez Liévano, “Un gigante chino, interesado en las hidroeléctricas de Santa Cruz.” 150. “Cayó el financiamiento para las represas Cóndor Cliff-La Barrancosa. China se negó a asegurar el financiamiento,” OPI Santa Cruz, November 7, 2013, http://opisantacruz.com.ar. 151. “Una petrolera comprometió obras para dar agua a Caleta Olivia y Pico Truncado,” Ahora Calafate, December 20, 2012. http://ahoracalafate. com.ar. 152. “Paco Pérez ahora amenaza a Vale con darle la mina a los chinos,” La Politica, January 28, 2013, http://www.lapoliticaonline.com. 153. “Sinopec Signs Brazil Pipeline Deal with Petrobras,” Downstream Today, January 21, 2008, http://www.downstreamtoday.com. 154. “China State-Run Banks Plan to Invest in Brazil’s High-Speed Train Project,” Bloomberg, September 14, 2010, http://www.bloomberg.com. 155. “Brazil Bullet Train Project Fails to Attract Bidders,” BBC News, July 12, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk. 156. “New Rules for Rio-São Paulo Bullet Train Tender Leave Chinese Contenders Ineligible.” Business News Americas, August 24, 2012, http:// www.bnamericas.com. 157. “Chinese Prime Minister Visits Chile to Boost Transpacific Trade,” The Santiago Times, June 26, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/world /chile-abroad/23982-chinese-prime-minister-visits-chile-to-boost -transpacific-trade. 158. “Chile busca atraer inversiones chinas en transporte y telecomunicaciones,” Peoples Daily Online, December 7, 2012, http://spanish.people daily.com.cn. 159. Karina Albornoz, “Empresarios chinos quieren crear ciudad comercial en San Antonio.” Tierra, March 26, 2012, http://economia.terra.com .ar. 160. “Empresa china interesada en proyectos de infraestructura,” El Espectador, March 7, 2012, http://www.espectador.com. 161. “Uruguay: Mujica on a most ambitious misión to China after investments for ports and railways,” MercoPress, May 22, 2013, http://en.mercopress

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.com. See also “Brasil o China podrían dragar el canal Martin Garcia, dijo Almagro,” El Pais, June 4, 2013, http://www.elpais.com.uy. 162. “China reafirma decisión de invertir en infraestructra en Uruguay,” 180, June 23, 2012, http://www.180.com.uy. See also “Uruguay y China firmarán acuerdo para concretar puerto de aguas profundas,” La Red 21, June 8, 2012, http://www.lr21.com.uy. 163. Julia Reyna Quiroz, “Proyecta China invertir en Mexico,” La Jornada, May 28, 2013, http://www.journada.unam.mx. 164. “Mexico y China firman 12 acuerdos estratégicos,” ADN Político, June 4, 2013, http://www.adnpolitico.com. 165. R. Evan Ellis, “The China-Mexico Strategic Relationship and Its Impact on the U.S.” The Manzella Report, June 2, 2014, http://www .manzellareport.com. 166. Graham Bowley, “Cash Helped China Win Costa Rica’s Recognition,” New York Times, September 12, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com. 167. “País pide a China donación para ampliar ruta Río Frío-Limón,” Nación, August 2, 2010, http://www.nacion.com. 168. Ibid. 169. Vanesa Loaiza N., “Gobierno logra crédito chino de $400 millones para vía a Limón,” Nación, September 26, 2012, http://www.nacion.com. 170. Herrera C., “MOPT da por seguro.” 171. “Sinohydro: Social Responsibility Good for Business,” China Daily, October 11, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 172. China aprueba seguir con plan de refineria con Recope,” Nación, October 10, 2011, http://www.nacion.com. 173. “Costa Rica and China Agree to Seek Financing for Joint Oil Refinery,” Costa Rica Star, June 11, 2012, http://news.co.cr. 174. Eugenia Soto Morales, “Construcción de nuevo muelle petrolero en Moín recibe luz verde,” El Financiero, February 29, 2012, http://www .elfinancero.com. 175. Isabella Cota, “Costa Rica Halts Chinese-Backed Plan for Refinery Upgrade,” Reuters, June 20, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. 176. The higher-end estimate comes from off-the-record interviews in 2013 with engineers in the commercial sector who had done a detailed analysis of the cost of various canal routes. 177. Rogers, “Nicaragua Taps China.” 178. Ivan Castro, “Nicaraguan Assembly Oks $40 Billion Chinese Canal to Rival Panama’s,” Reuters, June 13, 2013, http://www.reuters.com /article/2013/06/13/us-nicaragua-canal-idUSBRE95C1HI20130613 179. Tim Rogers, “Can China Finally Make the Nicaragua Canal Dream Happen?” Christian Science Monitor, July 24, 2013, http://www.csmonitor .com. 180. “El canal chino de Nicaragua: una gigantesca estafa,” Semana, July 3, 2013, http://www.semana.com. 181. On the basis of multiple off-the-record conversations by the author with persons associated with, or investigating, the project during 2013 and early 2014.

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182. Patrick Boehler, “Revealed: China State-Owned Contractor Involved in Nicaragua Canal Project,” South China Morning Post, July 12, 2013, http://www.scmp.com. 183. “Nicaragua congressional committee OKs giving Chinese Company Concession to Build, Run Canal,” Washington Post, June 10, 2013, http://www.washingtonpost.com. 184. Patricia Rey Mallén, “Chinese Workers Arrive in Nicaragua to Do Viability Studies for Controversial Canal,” IBI Times, December 12, 2013, http://ibitimes.com. 185. “HKND anuncia empresas que realizarán estudios de factibilidad,” La Prensa, Managua, Nicaragua, February 4, 2014, http://www.laprensa .com. 186. “Canal en Nicaragua iniciará obras a finales de 2014 o inicio de 2015,” América Economía, January 5, 2014, http://americaeconomia.com/negocios -industrias/canal-en-nicaragua-iniciara-obras-finales-de-2014-o-inicio -de-2015. 187. Vladimir Vásquez, “Canal sin ruta, tampoco estudio,” La Prensa, Managua, Nicaragua, February 4, 2014, http://www.laprensa.com. 188. Rezaye Alvarez M, “Canal ‘sí va’ a finales de 2014,” La Prensa, Managua, Nicaragua, January 8, 2014, http://www.laprensa.com. 189. Tim Rogers, “Nicaragua Canal: Bonanza or Boondogle?” Nicaragua Dispatch, July 10, 2013, http://www.nicaraguadispatch.com. 190. For a more in-depth analysis of this issue, see R. Evan Ellis, “El canal de Nicaragua y de América Latina,” InfoBAE, June 26, 2013, http:// opinion.infobae.com. 191. Patrick Boehler, “Nicaraguan Canal Team Quietly Visit Mainland,” South China Morning Post, October 29, 2013, http://www.scmp.com. See also Russell Flannery, “Nicaraguan President’s Son Laureano Ortega Discusses $40 Bln Canal During China Visit,” Forbes, October 31, 2013, http://www.forbes.com. 192. “Chinos construirán mega refinería en Nicaragua,” El Comercio, April 27, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com/mundo. 193. Vladimir Vásquez, “Refinería a cuentagotas,” La Prensa, Managua, Nicaragua. February 4, 2014, http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2014/02/04 /ambito/181036-refineria-a-cuentagotas. 194. In 2002, China Harbour was awarded the contract for Port of Balboa Container Terminal Development Phase 3. China Harbour Engineering Company Official Website, Accessed June 9, 2014, http://www.checlatin. com/index.php/panama. See also Gabriel Aguilera Peralta, “Central America between Two Dragons: Relations with the Two Chinas,” 174. 195. See “ACP adjudica licitación de diseño y fabricación de draga,” La Estrella, April 14, 2011, http://www.laestrella.com. 196. Shen Qing, “Panama Canal Expansion Stalled over Cost Overrun Dispute,” Xinhua, February 6, 2014, http://news.xinhuanet.com/eng lish/world/2014-02/06/c_133094613.htm.

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197. “Honduras firma convenio por USD 50,5 millones con China para hidroeléctrica,” Nación, August, http://www.nacion.com. 198. “Honduras firma convenio con China para hidroeléctrica,” La Tribuna, April 17, 2011, http://www.latribuna.hn. 199. Sinohydro won the work after the initial bidder, a Taiwanese firm could not meet the terms insisted upon by the Honduran government. See “Honduras firma convenio con China para Patuca III,” La Prensa, April 17, 2011, http://archivo.laprensa.hn. 200. “Estancadas las obras en la represa hidroeléctrica Patuca III en Honduras,” La Prensa, June 9, 2013, http://www.laprensa.hn. 201. “Injupemp dispone de $200 millones para Patuca III,” La Prensa, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, November 12, 2013, http://www.laprensa .hn/economia/421379-98/injupemp-dispone-de-200-millones-para -patuca-iii. 202. Chris Davis, “Chinese Dam Business in South America on the Rise,” China Daily, January 20, 2014, http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn. 203. “Chinos Interesados en Palmerola y El Tablón,” El Heraldo, May 22, 2013, http://www.elheraldo.hn. 204. “Jumping on the Inter-Oceanic Bandwagon,” LA News, June 27, 2013, http://www.lanews.com. 205. “Honduras pide a ONU intervenir en disputa con El Salvador por un islote,” People’s Daily Online, September 11, 2012, http://spanish.peo pledaily.com.cn. 206. “AEI’S Jaguar Energy Begins Construction of 300 MW Power Plant in Guatemala,” Business Wire, May 7, 2010, http://www.businesswire .com. 207. Urias M. Gamarro and Byron Dardon G., “Carbonera Jaguar buscará mejorar cobertura eléctrica,” Prensa Libre, August 17, 2009, http:// www.prensalibre.com. 208. Andres Oppenheimer, “Does Central America Need Three Inter-oceanic Corridors?” Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, July 31, 2013, http://www .miamiherald.com/2013/07/31/3535059/andres-oppenheimer-does -central.html. 209. Davis, “Chinese Dam Business.” 210. R. Evan Ellis, China in Latin America: The Whats and Wherefores (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009), 237. 211. Chinese credits for Cuba’s purchase of Chinese goods were renewed and extended during Chinese President Hu Jintao’s trip to the island in November 2008. See “El president chino visita a Fidel Castro,” El Nuevo Herald, November 19, 2008, http://www.elnuevoherald.com. 212. “China, Cuba Agree on Refinery Project, New Loans,” Cuba Standard, June 6, 2011, http://www.cubastandard.com. 213. Jeff Franks, “Amid Uncertainties, Cuba Seeks Funding for Refinery Expansion,” Reuters, February 10, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. 214. Randal C. Archibold, “China Buys Inroads.”

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215. Krystel Rolle, “Challenges Delay Airport Gateway Project,” The Nassau Guardian, May 18, 2013, http://www.thenassauguardian.com. See also “Bilateral Relations,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. Official Website for Relations between the P.R.C. and the Bahamas, August 26, 2010, http://www.mfa.gov.cn. See also Aranaud de Borschgrave, “China Wins Friends at Breakneck Speed,” Trade Reform, April 21, 2011, http://www.tradereform.org/2011/04/chinawins-friends-at-breakneck-speed/. See also Daniel Erikson, “China in the Caribbean: The New Big Brother,” Presentation to the Jamestown Foundation, December 16, 2009, http://www.jamestown.org. 216. “Chinese Contractor for Timehri Airport Racking up Procurement Concerns across Caribbean,” Starbroek News, May 7, 2012, http://www .stabroeknews.com. 217. “Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping Attended the Ground-Breaking Ceremony of Montego Bay Convention Center Project,” Complant Official Website, Accessed April 1, 2013, www.complant.com. 218. “Gov’t Secures $6-B Funding from China for Pallasadoes,” Jamaica Observer, February 3, 2010, http://jamaicaobserver.com. 219. Ingrid Brown, “Palisadoes Road Work Now Set to Start in October,” Jamaica Observer, August 13, 2010, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 220. Garfield Meyers, “JDIP Will Boost Economy—Golding,” Jamaica Observer, September 13, 2010, http://jamaicaobserver.com. 221. “Chinese Contractor for Timehri Airport.” 222. Anthony Lewis, “Poor Supervision Undermined JDIP,” Jamaica Observer, July 4, 2013, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 223. “Gov’t Signs $423-Million Economic Agreement with China,” Jamaica Observer, August 23, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 224. Al Edwards, “China Harbour Engineering Company: Building a Better Jamaica,” Jamaica Observer, September 2, 2011, http://www.jamaicaob server.com. 225. “COMPLANT to Build Jamaican Homes Backed by J$6.5B Chinese Loan,” The Jamaica Gleaner, December 5, 2010, http://jamaica-gleaner .com. 226. “Chinese to Build Homes for Tourism Workers,” The Jamaica Gleaner, May 15, 2012, http://jamaica-gleaner.com. 227. Kimone Thompson, “10,000 Jobs from Goat Islands Port,” Jamaica Observer, January 22, 2013, http://jamaicaobserver.com. Accessed January 22, 2014. 228. Julien Neaves, “Chinese Firm Wins $500M UWI Contract,” Trinidad Express, May 18, 2012, http://www.trinidadexpress.com. 229. “Govt, China Sign $1.8B Deal,” Caribbean 360, March 18, 2012, http:// www.caribbean360.com. 230. Joshua Goodman, “China’s Xi Offers Caribbean Nations $3 Billion in Loans,” Bloomberg, June 3, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com. 231. Lesley Anderson, “China-Antigua Agreements Strengthen Relations,” Antigua News, January 1, 2011, http://www.caribarena.com.

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232. “Antigua: PM Spencer Praises China EXIM Bank for Partnering With Government,” Antigua Observer, April 15, 2011. See also “‘Lone Wolf ’ gives Chinese ultimatum,” Antigua Observer, http://www.antiguaob server.com. 233. “Chinese Offers No Guarantee for US$47M Antigua Power Plant,” Kaieteur News Online, July 10, 2012, http://www.kaieteurnewsonline. com. See also Martina Johnson, “We Will Fight Charges All the Way— Lone Wolf,” Antigua Observer, January 24, 2013, http://www.antiguaob server.com. 234. “Chinese Almond,” Barbados Today Online, July 18, 2013, http://cdn .barbadostoday.bb. 235. James Pall, “China’s Princelings Storing Riches in Caribbean Offshore Haven,” The Guardian, January 21, 2014, http://www.theguardian. com/world/ng-interactive/2014/jan/21/china-british-virgin-islands -wealth-offshore-havens. 236. “China Harbour Is ‘deeply disappointed’,” Cayman Net News, November 8, 2012, http://caymannetnews.com. 237. “More Dominicans to Be Employed on State House Project,” Dominica News Online, August 9, 2011, http://dominicanewsonline.com. 238. “New Dominica State College to Aid in Achieving Education for All,” CaribSeek News, December 19, 2012, http://news.caribseek.com. See also “Bilateral Relations,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, Official Website for Relations between the P.R.C. and Dominica, August 22, 2010, http://www.mfa.gov.cn. 239. “New Dominica Sate College to Aid in Achieving Education for All,” Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica, December 18, 2012, http://news.gov.dm/index.php/news/4-headline-news/488-new -dominica-state-college-to-aid-in-achieving-education-for-all. 240. “Chinese Contractors Impact Local Techniques,” Dominica News Online, April 23, 2012, http://dominicanewsonline.com. 241. “No Chinese Warranty for ‘Botched’ Skeldon Sugar Factory,” Kaieteur News, June 26, 2012, http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com. See also “Bilateral Relations,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China Official Website for Relations between the P.R.C. and Guyana, August 26, 2010, http://www.mfa.gov.cn. 242. “IDB, China to Finance Amaila Falls,” Kaiteur News, November 19, 2009, http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com. November 19, 2009. 243. “Chinese Company that Bungled US$200M Skeldon Plant Given US$48M GPL Contract,” Kaieteur News, March 27, 2012, http://www .kaieteurnewsonline.com. 244. “Chinese Contractor for Timehri Airport.” 245. “China Bankrolls $150 Million Upgrade of Guyana’s International Airport,” Baltimore Post Examiner, June 17, 2013, http://bantimore postexaminer.com. 246. “Amaila Hydro-Project Construction Agreement Signed in China,” Stabroek News, September 12, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com.

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247. Under the plan, Sythe Global would provide $150  million of the $840 million project cost, in return for a 60 percent initial stake in the project. “More Hydro Questions,” Kaiteur News, July 26, 2013, http:// www.kaieteurnewsonline.com. 248. Abena Rockcliffe, “President Consulting with Opposition Leader to Save Amaila,” Kaiteur News, August 12, 2013, http://www.kaieteur newsonline.com. 249. Interview with Guyanese government officials. Georgetown, Guyana, August 18, 2013. 250. “China Likely to Fund Guyana-Suriname Bridge,” Kaieteur News. February 4, 2014. http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com. 251. See R. Evan Ellis, “Suriname and the Chinese: Timber, Migration, and the Less-Told Stories of Globalization.” SAIS Review, 32(2), Summer– Fall 2012: 85–97. 252. Paul Tjon Sie Fat, Chinese New Migrants in Suriname: The Inevitability of Ethnic Performing (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009). 253. In 1980, a military coup led by then Sergeant Major Desi Bouterse put an end to Suriname’s elected post-independence government. In December 1982, 15 members of the opposition were arrested on charges of plotting against the new military government, and killed in detention under mysterious circumstances, including allegations that two of the victims were personally shot by Bouterse, currently the president of the country. Although Bouterse was never judged criminally responsible for the killings, he was separately convicted in absentia in 1999 by a Dutch court on narcotrafficking charges. With the return of Bouterse to power in 2010, the Netherlands cut off aid to the country, while the United States and other countries have adopted a very cautious posture toward the new regime. “Bouterse heeft Daal en Rambocus doodgeschoten,” Starnieuws, March 23, 2012, http://www.starnieuws.com. 254. Ellis, “Suriname and the Chinese.” 255. “China Bank Approves US$50M for Suriname Houses,” Stabroek News, April 28, 2012. 256. “China Has No Concrete Plans with Suriname Yet on Mega Projects,” Stabroek News, August 7, 2011, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 257. Mark McGowan, “Suriname’s Deep Sea Port, Road and Rail Link to Brazil Challenge Guyana’s Bid to Become Brazilian Gateway,” Stabroek News, December 12, 2010, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 258. At the time that this book went to press, the project had not gone forward, nor had the location of the port been specified, although experts on the subject in Suriname believed that such a port, if built, would be located at the mouth of the Commewijne, Coppename, or Corentyne Rivers. See Ellis, “Suriname and the Chinese.” 259. “Suriname Not Borrowing from China Without Thinking, Lackin Says,” Stabroek News, July 27, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 260. “China Has Solar and Hydroelectricity Projects in Store for Suriname,” De Ware Tijd, June 29, 2013, http://www.dwtonline.com.

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4  Retail Outlets, Distribution Networks, and Manufacturing Centers 1. The planned (but subsequently cancelled) JAC automobile factory in Brazil was an example of this approach. See “China’s JAC Motors to Build Plant in Brazil,” Reuters, October 7, 2011, http://www.reuters .com. 2. In Mexico, manufacturers may be exempted from paying taxes on cars that they import into the country for the first three years, given that they are working toward the establishment of a production facility there. Enrique Dussel Peters, “The Auto Parts-Automotive Chain in Mexico and China: Co-operation Potential?” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 91. 3. “Programa Mi Casa Bien Equipada ha vendido 850 mil equipos,” El Universal, February 7, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 4. Francisco Javier Arias R., “Con tecnología china, salen al mercado las motos AKT,” El Colombiano, April 11, 2013, http://www.elcolombiano .com. 5. Sinatex, S.A., de C.V. Official Website, Accessed April 4, 2013, http:// www.sinatexonline.com. 6. “Golden Dragon logra la mayor inversión china en México,” China Daily, October 29, 2010, http://www.chinadaily.com. See also Adrian H. Hearn, Alan Smart, and Roberto Hernández Hernández, “China and Mexico: Trade, Migration, and Guanxi,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 142. 7. “Venezuela y China suscriben más acuerdos en energia y agro,” El Universal, November 24, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. See also “Gobierno firma acuerdos con empresa china Haier,” El Universal, May 14, 2010, http://www.eluniversal.com. 8. Mireya Tabuas and Maria Alesia Sosa, “No es un cuento chino,” El Nacional, April 15, 2012, http://el-nacional.com. 9. “3 millones de equipos chinos para ‘Mi casa bien equipada,” El Universal, July 6, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. As of February 2011, the government had received 1.4  million of the appliances, and had sold 850,000 of them. See “Programa Mi Casa Bien Equipada ha vendido 850 mil equipos.” 10. “China’s Major Municipal Port Ready to Build Linkages with Guyana,” Office of the President of Guyana, June 11, 2012, http://opnew.op.gov.gy. See also “Haier’s Overseas Expansion,” October 25, 2011, www.cnc world.tv. 11. Haier Guyana Official Website, Accessed April 4, 2013, http://www.hai erguyana.com. 12. Interview with Haier sales personnel. Georgetown, Guyana. August 20, 2013.

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13. Mao Xianglin, Carlos Alzugaray Treto, Liu Weiguang, and Adrian H. Hearn, “China and Cuba: Past, Present and Future,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 191. 14. “TLC hace más atractivo producir en Colombia,” El Tiempo, Portafolio, May 28, 2012, http://www.portafolio.co/economia/tlc-hace-mas -atractivo-producir-colombia-0. 15. “Bolivia Seeks Investment from China,” Xinhua, November 28, 2012, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english. 16. See, for example, “Eruviel Ávila anuncia inversiones para generar empleos en Zumpango,” El Sol de Toluca, July 31, 2013, http://www .oem.com.mx/elsoldeleon. See also Juan Guízar, “Fuerte Inversión de Asia viene a Tijuana,” El Sol de Tijuana, June 28, 2013, http://www .oem.com.mx/elsoldetijuana. See also Paloma Anguiano, “Descartan autoridades y empresarios sea competencia,” El Sol de León, June 5 2013, http://www.oem.com.mx/elsoldeleon. See also “República China interesada por inversiones en Durango,” El Sol de la Laguna, July 26, 2012, http://www.oem.com.mx/noticiasdelsoldelalaguna. See also José Mercado, “Poderoso consorcio chino desea invertir en Mexicali,” El Voz de la Frontera, February 19, 2011, http://www.oem.com.mx /lavozdelafrontera. See also “Primera inversión de la República Popular China en Aguascalientes,” El Sol del Centro, February 2, 2011, http:// www.oem.com.mx/elsoldelcentro. 17. Tracy Wilkinson, “Foes in Cancun See a Fire-Breathing Dragon Mart,” Los Angeles Times, June 1, 2013, http://articles.latimes.com. 18. Hu Yuanyuan, “Plans Afoot to Open Second ‘Dragon Mart’ Commercial Center in Mexico,” China Daily, February, 2012, http://www.china daily.com.cn. 19. “Dragon Mart in Dubai,” Dubai City Website, Accessed April 4, 2013, http://www.dubaicity.com/dubai-dubai-dragon-mart/. 20. Jesús Vázquez, “Relanzarán el Dragon Mart Cancún,” El Economista, June 11, 2012, http://eleconomista.com.mx. 21. Maickol Tamayo, “Proposed Chinese Dragon Mart Complex Raises Eyebrows in Cancun, Mexico,” PVAngels, January 10, 2013, http:// pvangels.com/news-mexico/5068/chinese-dragon-mart-complex -raises-eyebrows-in-cancun. 22. “Celebrarán freno a Dragon Mart Cancún,” El Informador, April 27, 2013, http://www.informador.com.mx/. 23. “Nueva fábrica de motos en Cali,” El Tiempo, May 16, 1997, http:// www.eltiempo.com. 24. “Jincheng: 15 años de operaciones en Colombia,” www.publimotos .com, November 5, 2012. See also “Nuestra compañía,” Jialing Colombia Official Website, Accessed June 22, 2012, http://www.motosjialing.com /nuestra_compania.php?id=4. 25. Rafael Miotto, “Alta do IPI de motos faz Shineray repensar fábrica de R$ 100 milhões,” Globo, September 3, 2012, http://g1.globo.com.

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26. “China’s Shineray Motorcycle Company starts assembling motorcycles in Brazil,” MacauHub, January 28, 2013, http://www.macauhub.com. mo. 27. “38 empresas chinas están en las areas estratégicas y construcción,” El Universo, June 18, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 28. Indeed, by 2010, China was producing 23.5 percent of all cars manufactured throughout the world, the single largest global producer. Peters, “The Auto Parts-Automotive Chain.” 29. Interview with Enrique Dussel Peters, Head of the China-Mexico studies Institute (CECHIMEX) at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Berkeley, California. May 22, 2012. 30. “Giant Motors presenta camiones,” El Sol del Hidalgo, June 23, 2011, http://www.oem.com.mx. 31. “Foton, autorizado para vender camiones Daimler en México,” T21Mex, June 18, 2013, http://t21.com.mx. See also R. Evan Ellis, “The ChinaMexico Strategic Relationship and Its Impact on the U.S.” The Manzella Report, June 2, 2014, http://www.manzellareport.com. 32. Emmanuel Moreno, “La empresa china Geely se instalará en León,” El Sol de Bajio, July 11, 2008, http://www.oem.com.mx, See also Hearn, Smart, and Hernández Hernández, “China and Mexico.” 33. “La china Lifan compra la urugyaya Effa,” Reuters, August 3, 2012, http://www.reuters.com. 34. “Uno de cada cuatro autos vendidos en Uruguay es chino,” América Economía, October 8, 2013, http://americaeconomia.com/node/102543. 35. Such plans were accelerated when the Brazilian government raised taxes on imported cars by 30 percent in September 2012. 36. “Brazilian company Effa Motors to manufacture vehicles of China’s Harbin HF Automobile Industry Group Co., in Brazil,” Macau Hub, April 27, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com.mo. 37. Eleonora Gosman, “China amplía en US$68.400 milliones su inversion en Brazil,” Clarín, November 23, 2012, http://www.Clarín.com. 38. The plant would reportedly have an initial capability to assemble 50,000 cars per year “Chinesa Changan pode ter fábrica em Goiás,” Estadao. com.br, May 29, 2012, http://www.estadao.com.br. 39. Gosman, “China amplía en US$68.400  milliones su inversion en Brazil.” See also “Shineray anuncia fábrica em Permambuco e mostra tres motos,” UOL Carros, October 4, 2011, http://carros.uol.com.br. 40. Li Fangfang, “Local Car Producers Looking to Brazil for Growth,” China Daily, January 6, 2014, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 41. The plant, which would be JAC’s first “full manufacturing operation outside China” would reportedly have the capacity to produce 100,000 cars per year. Sheena Rossiter, “Brazil Sees Auto Plant Boom as Vehicle Importers Rethink Strategies,” Wards Auto, May 21, 2013, http://ward sauto.com. See also “Navistar International signs deal with China’s JAC for sale of trucks in Brazil,” Macau Hub, April 25, 2012, http:// www.macauhub.com. See also “China’s JAC Motors to Build Factory

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in Brazil, Hoping to Avoid Higher Import Taxes,” Mercopress, October 9, 2011, http://www.mercopress.com. 42. Fangfang, “Local Car Producers.” 43. In August 2012, the project was temporarily postponed because JAC could not structure a deal in such a way that the production of the plant would not be subject to the newly imposed Brazilian “industrial products tax.” Luciani Otoni, “UPDATE 2—Brazil to Boost Import Taxes Again to Help Local Industry,” Reuters, September 4, 2012, http:// www.reuters.com. 44. Fangfang, “Local Car Producers.” 45. Roberto Deniz, “Ejecutivo prevé ensamblar 5,000 autos en empresa mixta,” El Universal, August 16, 2011, http://www.eluniversal. 46. Roberto Deniz, “Gobierno prevé importer más si se incumplen precios de Sundecop,” El Universal, February 12, 2012, http://www.eluniversal .com. 47. “Venezuela to Assemble and Export Exclusive Chery cars to Mercosur,” El Universal, November 12, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 48. Simon Romero, “With Brazil as Advocate, Venezuela Joins Trade Bloc,” New York Time, July 31, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com. 49. “Venezuela y empresa china buscan mayor producción de vehículos,” América Economía, December 4, 2013, http://americaeconomia.com /node/106341. 50. “Venezuelan Consumers Line up to Buy China’s Locally Assembled Chery,” China Post, March 12, 2012, http://www.chinapost.com.tw. 51. “Suvinca suspendió la venta de vehículos importados,” El Universal, January 23, 2013, http://www.eluniversal.com. 52. Since Foton in China would make changes to its models during different years, Corbeta faced inherent challenges with ensuring that it had the right parts to support the right models in Colombia. 53. Orlando Andrada and Mariela Arias, “Al wok. China saltó al tercer puesto en la inversión extranjera en la Argentina,” La Nación, March 6, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com. 54. “Ni altos aranceles pararon importación de autos chinos,” El Portfolio. Bogotá, Colombia, December 21, 2011, http://www.portafolio.co/detalle _archivo/DR-31815. 55. “El primer vehículo “made in Paraguay,” ABC, September 7, 2012, http://www.abc.com.py. 56. “Chinese Construction Machinery Company to Invest in Brazil,” Macau Hub, February 23, 2010, http://www.macauhub.com.mo. 57. Ibid. 58. “The First Excavator Rolled off the Production Line in Sany Brazil,” Sany, Inc. Official Website, February 25, 2011, http://www.sanygroup .com. 59. “Brazilian Subsidiary of Chinese Group Sany Plans to Increase Turnover in Brazil,” Macau Hub, September2, 2011, http://www.macauhub.com .mo.

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60. “Sany comenzara a producer en Brasil en 2013,” Cpampa, August 20, 2012, www.cpampa.com. 61. “China’s Xuzhou Construction Machinery Group to open branch in Brazil,” Macau Hub, February 24, 2011, http://www.macauhub.com .mo. 62. “Chinese Giant XCMG Takes German Schwing,” Construction Week Online, April 24, 2012, http://www.constructionweekonline. 63. “Chinese Group XCMG to Invest in Brazilian State of Minas Gerais,” Macau Hub, May 17, 2011, http://www.macauhub.com.mo. 64. Li Fangfang, “Zoomlion Speeds up Overseas Expansion,” China Daily, September 28, 2012, http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn. 65. Clarise Ardúz, “Zoomlion Cifa anuncia inicio de sus operaciones en Brazil y inaguración de fabrica,” KHL, September 17, 2013, www.khl .com. 66. Murray Pollok, “GJJ plans assembly plants in India and Brazil,” Access International, December 20, 2012, http://www.khl.com/magazines/access -international. 67. Kenneth Rapoza, “China to Build Trains in Rio de Janeiro,” Forbes, June 21, 2011, http://www.forbes.com. 68. Tabuas and Sosa, “No es un cuento chino.” 69. Colum Murphy and Rogerio Jelmayer, “Chinese Auto Maker BYD Eyes $100 Million Investment in Brazil Plant,” Wall Street Journal, January 15, 2014. 70. PdVSA, “Balance de la Gestión Social y Ambiental Año 2011,” El Universal, April 17, 2012, http://www.static.eluniversal.com. April 17, 2012. 71. “Pdvsa construye 20 taladros con apoyo de China,” El Universal, September 18, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. See also R. Evan Ellis, “China-Latin America Military Engagement: Good Will, Good Business and Strategic Position,” US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, August 25, 2011, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army. mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubid=1077. 72. “Venezuelan acude a China e Italia para elevar producción de aluminio,” El Universal, March 11, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 73. “Ecuador busca potenciar su matriz productiva gracias a China,” América Economía, February 9, 2014, http://americaeconomia.com /economia-mercados/ecuador-busca-potenciar-su-matriz-productivagracias-china. 74. Oliver Galak, “Invierten 1000 millones de dólares para fabricar úrea,” La Nación, January 14, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com.ar. 75. “Comenzó la construcción de la planta petroquímica de Shaanxi en Tierra del Fuego,” Petroquimica, April 28, 2012, http://revistapetro quimica.com/comenzo-la-construccion-de-la-planta-petroquimica -de-shaanxi-en-tierra-del-fuego/. 76. Indeed, the role of Chinese companies and labor in the project became the subject of a public dispute in April 2012 when the Argentine

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government prevented a ship containing workers and materials for the project from the P.R.C. from entering the country. See Zhou Siyu, “The Ups and Downs of Latin Adventure,” China Daily, July 24, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. See also “Latin America the 2nd Biggest Investment Target for China,” Xinhua, June 18, 2012, http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english. In the end, the ship was forced to divert to Chile at great cost, pending the resolution of the dispute. “Se va a Chile: El barco chino descargará su material en el Puerto de Punta Arenas,” Sur 54, May 9, 2011, http://sur54.com.ar. 77. Barbara Hogenboom, “Mexico vs. China: The Troublesome Politics of Competitiveness,” in Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations beyond the Washington Consensus, eds., Alex. E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012), 61. 78. “Monterrey sera centro técnológico estratégico en México,” Lenovo Official Website, February 18, 2009, http://www.lenovo.com. 79. “Lenovo’s Mexican Computer Factory Starts Production,” China Tech News, February 23, 2009, http://www.chinatechnews.com. See also Jeremy Kirk, “Lenovo Opens Manufacturing Plants in Mexico and India,” PCWorld, July 26, 2007, http://www.pcworld.com. 80. Eleonora Gosman, “China amplía en US$68.400  milliones su inversion en Brazil.” See also Juro Osawa, “Lenovo executive: Firm eyes acquisitions in Brazil,” Wall Street Journal, May 28, 2012, http://www .marketwatch.com. 81. Loretta Chao, “Chinese Tech Titans Eye Brazil,” Wall Street Journal Online, January 8, 2013, http://online.wsj.com. 82. Andrada and Arias, “Al wok.” 83. Nuria Rebon, “Lenovo empezó a fabricar notebooks en Tierra del Fuego,” El Cronista, August 25, 2011, http://190.2.45.93/nego cios/Lenovo-empiezo-a-fabricar-notebooks-en-Tierra-del-Fuego -20110825-0066.html. 84. “Chávez celebra el lanzamiento del ‘Vergatario,” El Universal, May 10, 2009, http://www.eluniversal.com. 85. “Presidente anuncia operación de fábrica de celulares Orinoquia,” El Universal, May 9, 2010, http://www.eluniversal.com. 86. “Gobierno destaca alta producción de celulares y computadoras,” El Universal, December 19, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 87. In the Project, TCL is operating in partnership with the local company Radio Victoria Fueguina. Andrada and Arias, “Al wok.” 88. Alejandro Alfie, “La china ZTE fabricará celulares para Movistar,” Clarín, July 27, 2011, www.Clarín.com. In addition, the Taiwanese company HTC, which specializes in smartphones, announced its establishment of a production facility in Tierra del Fuego in March 2012, “Llega otra marca china al Sur,” La Nación, March 9, 2012, http://www.lanacion.com.ar. 89. “Empresa china confirmó inversiones en Tierra del Fuego y tiene previsto fabricar 500 mil celulares,” El Surenio, July 9, 2011, http://www .surenio.com.ar.

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90. The facility was built by renovating an electronics plant run on the site by the company Celestica until it closed in 2009. 91. “Huawei Kicks off Smartphone Production in Brazil,” ZDNet, June 24, 2013, http://www.zdnet.com/huawei-kicks-off-smartphone-production -in-brazil-7000017219. 92. “Huawei inagura centro de distribucion de US$61,5mn,” Business News Americas, May 31, 2012, http://www.bnamericas.com. 93. Thiago Tanji, “Huawei fabricará smartphones no Brasil,” Exame, June 24, 2013, http://exame.abril.com.br/tecnologia/noticias/huawei-fabricara -smartphones-no-brasil. 94. “Huawei analiza instalar una fabrica en Peru,” El Comercio, February 6, 2012, http://elcomercio.pe. 95. “China Huawei inicia producción de teléfonos inteligentes en Brasil,” Terra, August 13, 2013, http://noticias.terra.com.co. 96. “ZTE Begins Brazil Expansion.” Business Monitor Online. August 15, 2011. 97. Leonel Araiza, “Llega China con 20 mmdd,” El Sol de Leon, November 12, 2012, www.oem.com.mx. 98. Josué Reyes, “Construirán en Centro Fox un mega edificio,” El Sol de Leon, November 24, 2013, http://www.oem.com.mx/elsoldeleon /notas/n3202759.htm.

5  Commercial Service Offerings—Telecom, Electricity, Logistics, and Banking 1. “Full Text: China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean,” People’s Daily Online, November 6, 2008, http://english.people.com.cn. 2. “Latinoamérica, uno de los mercados en mayor crecimiento para Huawei,” EFE, October 29, 2012. 3. Huawei Official Website, Accessed February 4, 2013, http://www.hua wei.com/worldwide/index.htm. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. “Latinoamérica, uno de los mercados en mayor crecimiento para Huawei.” 7. In Chile, for example, ZTE was among the first to offer such products to the market. “Telefónica confía en América Latina para implementar su sistema móvil de bajo costo,” El Mercurio, October 8, 2012, http:// www.emol.com. 8. The projects are described in general terms, in the websites of both companies. See, for example, “Huawei America Latina,” http://www.hua wei.com/es/catalog.do?id=343. See also Janie Hulse, “China’s Expansion into and U.S. Withdrawal from Argentina’s Telecommunications and Space Industries and the Implications for U.S. National Security,” in US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute (September 2007).

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9. “Teléfono celular de marca blanca llegará a Ecuador,” El Universo, February 17, 2010, http://www.eluniverso.com. 10. “Telefónica and ZTE to Strengthen Smartphone Offer in Latin America with Launch of Movistar Prime,” ZTE Official Website, February 17, 2011, http://www.zte.com.cn. 11. “China’s Huawei invests US$300 million in research centre in Brazil,” MacauHub, April 12, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com. 12. “Huawei inaugura centro de distribución de US$61,5mn,” Business News Americas, May 31, 2012, http://www.bnamericas.com. 13. “NII Holdings has Selected Huawei as UMTS Supplier in Mexico and Brazil,” Press Release. Huawei Official Website, Accessed February 5, 2013, http://www.huawei.com. 14. In discussing Huawei’s establishment of a technology center in Sao Paolo State, Brazilian Communications minister Paulo Bernardo expressed his hope that the center would help Huawei to implement its new 4G network across the entire country, including providing new coverage to rural areas, then use its base in Brazil as a launching point for deploying its networks more broadly in the region. “Chinese telecom company can have technology center in Brazil,” Folha, July 11, 2010, http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/mercado/1118691-empresa-chinesa -de-telecomunicacao-pode-ter-centro-tecnologico-no-brasil.shtml. 15. “ZTE Completes First Phase of Ultra Broadband Project for TIM Brazil,” ZTE Official Website, October 15, 2012, http://www.zte.com .cn. 16. Yun-Hee Kim, “ZTE to invest in high-tech industrial park in Brazil,” ZTE Official Website, April 13, 2011, http://www.zte.com.cn. See also “China invertirá en alta tecnología en Brasil,” La Nación, July 5, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com.py. 17. “Acuerdan instalación de parque industrial de tecnología china en Brasil,” Xinhua, March 28, 2011, http://spanish.news.cn. 18. “Chinese Telecom Firms to Expand in Latin America,” Xinhua, June 12, 2012. 19. “China Telecom sets up unit in Brazil,” Global Telecom Business, June 14, 2012, http://www.globaltelecombusiness.com. 20. Damián Kantor, “Cuáles son las rutas posibles para la telefonía móvil estatal,” Clarín, October 21, 2012, http://www.ieco.Clarín.com. See also Jorge Oviedo, “¿Cual es el limite de la aspiradora de dólares?” La Nación, October 21, 2012, http://www.lanacion.com.ar. 21. Huawei reportedly registered $200  million in sales in Chile in 2010, less than a tenth of its activities in Brazil. “Tecnológica china Huawei proyecta alza de 50 percent de ventas en Chile,” El Mercurio, June 13, 2011, http://www.emol.com. 22. Ibid. 23. “Chile y China empujan inversión y proponen duplicar comercio en visita de Wen,” EFE, June 26, 2012.

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24. “ZTE, Universidad de Chile to Open Innovation Center,” ZTE Official Website, July 12, 2012, http://wwwen.zte.com.cn. 25. “Chile busca aumentar inversión extranjera directa china en sector de telecomunicaciones,” Business News Americas, December 10, 2012, http://www.bnamericas.com. 26. “Premier Wen Vows to Further Ties with Uruguay,” China.org, June 23, 2012, http://www.china.org.cn. 27. Industry analysts note that ZTE is a leader in implementing the technology involved, the next generation “Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON), and will have a major role in building and maintaining similar architectures not only in Uruguay, but potentially throughout the region. See “ANTEL Selects ZTE for Uruguay National GPON Project,” ZTE Official Website, October 10, 2012, http://www.zte.com .cn. See also “Antel Selects ZTE for GPON Network,” Business News Americas, September 22, 2011, http://www.bnamericas.com. 28. Mireya Tabuas and Maria Alesia Sosa, “No es un cuento chino,” El Nacional, Caracas, Venezuela, April 15, 2012, http://el-nacional.com. 29. “Venezuela CANTV Selected Huawei Technologies to Upgrade Its Optical Fiber National Backbone Network,” Huawei Official Website, December 31, 2004, http://www.huawei.com. December 31, 2004. In addition, evidence suggests that Huawei has been contracted by the Venezuelan government to implement a command and control system for the Venezuelan defense organization DICOFAN. See for example, Monica Suinaga. Huawei Design Engineer, Online Resume, http:// ve.linkedin.com/pub/monica-suinaga/3/996/111. 30. “ZTE proveerá televisión IP en Venezuela,” El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela, April 26, 2009, http://www.eluniversal.com. 31. “Créditos pactados con China ascienden a $30 millardos,” El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela, November 25, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. 32. “Inside Telecom,” El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela, March 4, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 33. “El futuro de la telefonía,” El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela, July 10, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 34. “Empresa china ZTE ayudará con automatización de Sidor y FMO,” Business News Americas, November 25, 2011, http://www.bnamerocas .com. 35. “Venezuela implantará sistema chino de monitoreo en minas,” Xinhua, November 24, 2011, http://spanish.news.cn. 36. “La empresa china Huawei se adjudicó proyecto TCT de Entel,” Jornada, October 8, 2009, http://www.jornadanet.com. See also “ENTEL ejecutará proyecto Territorio con Cobertura Total en 2010,” Jornada, December 5, 2009, http://www.jornadanet.com. 37. Ibid. 38. “Oruro es declarado ‘Territorio con cobertura total’,” Jornada, February 9, 2010, http://www.jornada.com.

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39. “Multan con $us. 8 millones a china Huawei por incumplir contrato,” Jornada, December 22, 2010, http://www.jornadanet.com. 40. “Evo Morales pide a los empresarios chinos mayor inversion en Bolivia,” EFE, August 11, 2011, http://www.efe.com. 41. “Bolivia y China firman 6 acuerdos de cooperación,” Los Tiempos, September 23, 2011, http://www.lostiempos.com. 42. “Anuncian entrega de 40 cámaras de seguridad,” Los Tiempos, January 21, 2013, http://www.lostiempos.com. 43. Jeeyla Benitez, “Dos dragones chinos pelearon por jugosos contratos de la CNT,” El Comercio, January 16, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com. 44. Ironically, Huawei’s closest competitor in the bid was ZTE. “Alcatel y Huawey logran adjudicacion para instalar red 3G.” El Universo. Guayaquil, Ecuador. http://www.eluniverso.com. July 25, 2011. 45. “CNT Picks Huawei for 4G Network Deployment in Ecuador,” Telecom Paper. http://www.telecompaper.com. May 16, 2013. 46. “Movistar traerá a Ecuador nuevos dispositivos móviles.” El Comercio. Quito, Ecuador. February 17, 2010. 47. “Desde Guayaquil se empezará a ensamblar celulares a fin de mes.” El Universo. Guayaquil, Ecuador. http://www.eluniverso.com. October 4, 2010 48. “El Ecuador se dirige a fabricar celulares.” El Comercio. Quito, Ecuador. April 13, 2010. 49. Benitez, “Dos dragones chinos.” 50. “Huawei apuesta por 4G como su ‘negocio del año’,” La República, March 8, 2013, http://www.larepublica.com.co. 51. Ibid. 52. “Nextel Peru Unveils World’s First W-CDMA Network with Push-toTalk Services,” September 30, 2011, http//www.huawei.com. 53. This work reportedly included the installation of a new core network replacing Telefonica’s legacy switched system. See “ZTE IMS to Update Telefónica Group in Perú Fixed Network,” ZTE Official Website, April 23, 2012, http://www.zte.com.cn. 54. “Peru’s First 4G Wireless Network Set for Success,” Telecommunications Insight, August 2011, http://www.telecomsinsight.com. 55. “ZTE se adjudica proyecto de red inalámbrica nacional 2G/3G con Viettel,” Business News Americas, July 11, 2012, http://www.bnamericas .com. 56. See, for example, “Huawei Deploys WiMAX Network in Trinidad and Tobago,” Caribbean Information Society Portal, Accessed June 15, 2011, http://www.carib-is.net/news/huawei-deploys-wimax-network -trinidad-and-tobago. 57. “Huawei and Digicel Deliver Seamless 3G Network in the Caribbean,” Huawei Press Release, March 14, 2007, http://www-ctc .huawei.com/ilink/en/about-huawei/newsroom/press-release/HW _089379?KeyTemps=News.

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58. “ZTE to Roll out 3G Networks in French Caribbean and Indian Ocean,” ZTE Press Release, February 24, 2009, http://wwwen.zte .com.cn/en/press_center/press_clipping/200902/t20090223_171128 .html. 59. “Moving Towards 3G with ZTE’s All-IP CDMA2000,” ZTE Press Release, Accessed June 15, 2011, http://wwwen.zte.com.cn/en/solu tions/wireless/cdma2000/200709/t20070919_157315.html. 60. Mark Lyndersay, “TSTT Announces Mobile Broadband Strategy,” Trinidad Guardian, April 26, 2012, http://guardian.co.tt. 61. Mark Lyndersay, “Bmobile Goes to Bat for 4G,” Trinidad Guardian, November 13, 2012, http://guardian.co.tt. 62. “Tricom implementará nueva red móvil 4g-LTE,” El Caribe, July 2, 2012, http://www.elcaribe.com.do/2012/07/02/tricom-implementaranueva-red-movil-4glte.v. 63. Amilicar Nevar, “Empresa china tras mercados desde RD,” El Caribe, September 6, 2012, http://www.elcaribe.com.do/2012/09/06/empresachina-tras-mercados-desde. 64. “Huawei Marine and Global Marine Systems Complete Construction of the Suriname-Guyana Submarine Cable System,” Huawei Official Website, May 28, 2010, http://www.huawei.com/en. 65. “Gov’t Sells GT&T Shares to Chinese Company for US$30M,” Stabroek News, April 6, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 66. “GT&T Shares Buyer Linked to Chinese Military,” Kaieteur News Online, April 13, 2012, http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com. See also “Guyana, China Sign Bilateral Cooperation Projects Deal,” Guyana Times International, January 3, 2013, http://www.guyanatimesinternational.com. 67. “First Phase e-Governance Initiative 85  percent Complete,” Guyana Chronicle Online, March 6, 2012, http://www.guyanachronicleonline. com. 68. Adrian Hearn, “Cuba and China: Lessons and Opportunities for the United States,” Florida International University, June 2009. 69. “Cuba Gets Fiber-Optic Cable Link to Venezuela,” Reuters, February 10, 2011, http://www.reuters.com. 70. “Cuba, Venezuela Link Via Undersea Cable,” The Right Perspective, January 23, 2011, www.therightperspective.org. 71. Mileika Lasso, “Huawei presenta gama ADSL y 3G,” La Estrella, July 19, 2011, http://www.laestrellaonline.com. 72. “Preocupados trabajadores por possible privatizacion de Hondutel,” La Tribuna, October 23, 2010, http://www.latribuna.com. 73. “China’s Xinwei to Launch Phone Service in Nicaragua,” Reuters, January 11, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. 74. “El canal chino de Nicaragua: una gigantesca estafa,” Semana, July 3, 2013, http://www.semana.com. 75. “Xinwei hasta el próximo año,” La Prensa, Managua, Nicaragua, November 5, 2013, http://www.laprensa.com.ni.

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76. The penetration of Huawei in selling cell phones through different providers to the Costa Rican and other telecommunications markets was illustrated dramatically in February 2013 when the company accidentally shipped a case of 1,000 phones purchased by the Costa Rican telecommunications agency ICE, bearing the logo of its competitor, Movistar. See “Huawei se disculpa con ICE por confusión con logo de celulares,” Nación, February 8, 2013, http://www.nacion.com. 77. Huawei Official Website, Accessed February 5, 2013, http://www.hua wei.com.en/about-hauwei/newsroom/resources/latin_america/index .htm. 78. Ulises Díaz, “Avanza Huawei en México,” Reforma, August 17, 2013, http://www.reforma.com. 79. Huawei reportedly invested $20 million to establish the center in 2006. See “China Huawei invierte 20 milliones de dólares en México,” Terra, November 14, 2006, http://www.terra.com. 80. “Espera México recibir hasta 900 mdd de inversions chinas,” El Sol del Bajío, July 11, 2008, http://www.www.oem.com.mx/elsoldelbajio. 81. Ulises Díaz, “Avanza Huawei en México,” Reforma, August 17, 2011, http://www.reforma.com. 82. “NII Holdings Has Selected Huawei.” 83. “Total Play descarta sinergias en servicios con Cablevisión,” El Universal, June 1, 2011, http://www.eluniversal.com. 84. “AM Launches Mexico’s First Commercial LTE Network with Huawei,” Huawei Official Website, November 15, 2012, http://m.hua wei.com/enmobile/news/hw-197173.htm. 85. W. David Gardner, “China’s ZTE To Build Massive Wi-Fi Network For Mexico City,” Information Week, April 3, 2007, http://www.infor mationweek.com. 86. “Movistar y Mozilla lanzan los smartphones Firefox OS en México,” La Prensa, Mexico City, October 31, 2013, http://www.oem.com.mx /laprensa/notas/n3177462.htm. 87. Richard Fu, “State Grid Powers on by Buying 7 Brazilian Firms,” Shanghai Daily, December 12, 2010, http://www.shanghaidaily.com. 88. Asher Levine and Guillermo Parra-Bernal, “Brazil May Oppose Neoenergia, China Deal—Report,” Reuters, May 14, 2012, http://www .reuters.com. 89. “Cuarta firma china para hidroeléctrica,” El Universo, February 15, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 90. “Ecuador promueve inversiones, comercio, y turismo en el norte de China,” People’s Daily, June 16, 2012, http://spanish.peopledaily.com.cn. 91. “38 empresas chinas están en las areas estratégicas y construcción,” El Universo, June 18, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 92. “Retrasos y negligencia en el sector electric,” El Comercio, May 4, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com. In addition to Goldwind, the firm Hydrochina also submitted a bid in response to the August 2011 solicitation by the Ecuadoran government.

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93. “El proyecto eólico Villonaco se inaugurará el miércoles en Loja,” El Comercio, December 30, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com. 94. Patrick Smith, “Bolivia’s First Wind Farm Opened,” WindPower Monthly, January 3, 2014, http://www.windpowermonthly.com. 95. Jose Santamarta, “Wind Energy in Bolivia: China Will Give Funding for the First Wind Farm,” Reve, December 18, 2011, http://www .evwind.es. See also “Arce: Bolivia teme al acuerdo entre China y Perú,” Los Tiempos, January 17, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 96. “Empresas de nuestro país y China invertirán 3.500 millones de dólares en una central eólica en Gastre,” El Chubut, July 9, 2012, http://www .elchubut.com.ar. 97. Progress on the project was highlighted by Argentine Minister of the Economy Axel Kicillof following a trip from Beijing in December 2013. See “Empresarios chinos confirmaron millonarias inversiones en Argentina,” América Economía, December 9, 2013, http://ameri caeconomia.com/economia-mercados/f inanzas/empresarios-chinos -confirmaron-millonarias-inversiones-en-argentina. 98. “China captura cuota del mercado eólico latinoamericano con préstamos baratos,” Economía y Negocios, November 20, 2012, http://www .economiaynegocios.cl. 99. “China Development Bank Funds Sinovel Wind in Brazil,” Sinocast, September 11, 2012, www.sinocast.com. See also, “Sinovel Delivers 23 Wind Turbines to Brazil,” Renewable Energy Focus, September 29, 2011. http://www.renewableenergyfocus.com. 100. According to the article, work was begun on the project in March 2013. See “Compañia china Goldwind construira dos parques eólicos en Chile,” Xinhua, February 12, 2013, http://www.spanish.news.cn. See also “Eólica en Chile: aerogeneradores chinos para un parquet eólico en Bío Bío,” Reve, February 5, 2013, http://www.evwind.com. 101. “Compañia china Goldwind construira dos parques eólicos en Chile.” See also “China y su apuesta por la energiaeólica,” Biblioteca Nacional de Chile, February 27, 2012, http://www.asiapacifico.bcn.cl. 102. “Empresa irlandesa logra financiacion para un parquet eólico,” Power Engineering, February 1, 2013, http://www.powerengineeringint .com. 103. “China, Chile Aim to Double Bilateral Trade by 2015,” The Globe and Mail, June 26, 2012, http://www.theglobeandmail.com. 104. “China’s Trina Solar Sets up Shop in Chile to Tap South America,” Recharge, September 5, 2012, http://www.rechargenews.com. In early 2013, Sky Solar announced it was increasing its investment in Chile to $1.36 billion. “Firma china Sky Solar amplía a US$ 1.360 millones la inversión en Chile,” Emol, January 25, 2013, http://www.emol.com. 105. Mercedes Agüero, “Chinos usarán luz solar de Guanacaste para generar energía,” La Nación, August 14, 2012, http://www.nacion.com. 106. “Empresa china instalará planta de energía solar,” El Sol de Sinaloa, October 27, 2011, http://www.oem.com.mx/elsoldesinaloa.

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107. Jesús Francisco Sánchez, “Invertirá China en Durango 150 mdd: Yuming,” El Sol de Durango, March 9, 2012, http://www.oem.com.mx /elsoldedurango/notas/n2459849.htm. 108. Pilar Perez, “Podría China financiar proyecto de energía solar,” El Sol de Puebla, April 16, 2013, http://www.oem.com.mx/elsoldepuebla. 109. Jesus Manuel Ruiz, “Producirá Chihuahua energía eléctrica mediante granjas solares,” El Mexicano, January 3, 2014, http://www.oem.com .mx/elmexicano. 110. “China’s State Grid Corp Plans to Invest US$5 Billion in Brazil by 2015,” MacauHub, September 4, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com. 111. “China State Grid Awarded Tender for Construction of Power Lines in Brazil,” MacauHub, December 27, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com .mo. 112. “China State Grid partners Companies in Brazil to Build Power Transmission Line,” MacauHub, February 10, 2014, http://www.macau hub.com.mo. 113. “Contrato (en Ecuador) por US$ 632 millones para empresa Harbin de China,” El Comercio, July 27, 2013, http://www.elcomercio.com. 114. “Más gestión china en electricidad,” El Comercio, December 12, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com. 115. Abelardo Pachano, “Inquietudes nacionales,” El Comercio, December 15, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com. 116. Indeed, in the case of the Hong Kong–based company HutchisonWhampoa, there has been some debate with respect to whether Hutchison should legitimately be considered a “Chinese company” or not. 117. Indeed, during this period, if US politicians and senior officials were aware of one detail of P.R.C.’s then nascent involvement in Latin America, it was that a Chinese company had “control” of both sides of the Panama Canal. See, for example, Steven Mufson, “In Panama: Ports in a Storm; GOP Critics Decry Hong Kong Firm’s Role at Each End of Canal,” Washington Post, December 8, 1999, http://www.washington post.com. 118. “Freeport Container Port,” Hutchison Port Holdings Official Website, Accessed March 4, 2013, http://www.hph.com/globalbusiness/busi ness.aspx?gid=59. 119. Ianthia Smith, “Gov’t Told ‘Block Hutchison,” Jones Bahamas, October 29, 2009, http://www.jonesbahamas.com. 120. See Anastacia Stubbs, “Freeport Container Port to speak to New Providence businesspersons,” Bahamas Weekly, October 17, 2008, http:// www.thebahamasweekly.com. 121. Smith, “Gov’t Told ‘Block Hutchison.” 122. “Ecuador buscará reemplazo a Hutchison para operar puerto de Manta,” El Universo, March 19, 2009, http://www.eluniverso.com. 123. Reportedly, part of the reason was concern that with its presence in Freeport, Colon, and Cristobal, Hutchison already had too significant

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of a presence in the region, generating political resistance to the project within Panama. Panamanian logistics executives, speaking off the record, argued, for example, that Panamanian authorities came to believe that Hutchison would not dedicate adequate resources to the new facility. 124. “Empresa china, lider en construcción de astilleros y puertos se interesa por inverter en Ecuador,” Ecuador Inmediato, August 7, 2012, http:// www.ecuadorinmediato.com.See also “Gobernador insiste en concesionar el Puerto,” El Comercio, January 2, 2013, http://www.elcomercio .com. 125. “Air China plans to increase frequency of f lights between China and Brazil,” December 19, 2012, MacauHub, http://www.macauhub.com .mo. 126. China Airport Holdings is an entity commercial constituted in Colombia representing the operator of 39 different airports in the P.R.C., including the international airports in Beijing and Shanghai. 127. On the basis of off-the-record interviews with Colombian businessmen close to the deal. Medellín, Colombia, March 2013. 128. Ibid. 129. The Colombian government further required that the partner used to meet the operational experience requirements (the Chinese in this case) have at least a 10 percent stake in the overall investment. This requirement was met by China Airport Holdings having a 52  percent stake in CAH Colombia, and CAH Colombia, in turn, having a 20 percent stake in Air Plan. The Chinese met the 10 percent requirement, but just barely. 130. Interview with Air Plan personnel, Medellín, Colombia, March 2013. 131. The Chinese sovereign wealth fund will hold a 34.2 percent stake in the portfolio, which includes 34 assets, approximately 88 percent of which are located in the Sao Paolo and Rio de Janeiro areas. See Pooja Thakur, “GLP Ties up with Funds to Buy 2.9 Billion Real of Brazil Assets,” Washington Post, November 14, 2012, http://washpost.bloomberg.com. 132. Chen Jia, “Companies Keep Eyes on Market in Brazil,” China Daily, November 27, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 133. “China Construction Bank Negotiates Acquisition of a Bank in Brazil,” MacauHub, January 17, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com. 134. “China Telecom Acts to Gain Brazil Foothold,” Financial Times, June 13, 2012, http://www.ft.com. 135. “Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Opens in Brazil in 2013,” MacauHub, December 28, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com.mo. 136. “El ICBC abrió sus puertas en Perú.” Peru21. Lima, Peru. http://peru21 .pe. November 28, 2012. 137. Land of opportunity,” China Daily, May 24, 2012, http://www.china daily.com. 138. “ICBC Bank facilitará operaciones de comercio exterior entre Perú y Asia,” América Economía, January 30, 2013, http://www.americaeconomia

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.com/economia-mercados/finanzas/icbc-bank-facilitara-operaciones -de-comercio-exterior-entre-peru-y-asia. 139. See, for example, R. Evan Ellis, “China, Russia, India and the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry,” Latin Business Chronicle, December 11, 2013, http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com. 140. “38 empresas chinas están.” 141. Carlos Lara, “Se reunió Peña Nieto con banqueros chinos,” La Prensa, November 23, 2012, http://www.oem.com.mx/laprensa. See also Alejandro Colón, “Pronto, subsidiaria del banco chino en nuestro país,” La Prensa, November 23, 2012, http://www.oem.com.mx/laprensa. 142. Juan Guizar, “Invertiría China en Tijuana para Banco y ferrocarril,” El Sol de Tiajuana, July 26, 2013, http:// www.oem.com.mx/elsoldeti juana. 143. “ICBC Sets Up Branch in Brazil.” ICBC Company Website, January 23, 2013, http://www.icbc.com.cn/icbc/newsupdates/icbc%20news /ICBC%20Sets%20up%20Branch%20in%20Brazil.htm. 144. “Standard Bank: el BCRA aprueba la venta al chino ICBC pero pide que lo conduzca un argentino,” Crash Noticias, August 14, 2012, http:// www.crashnoticias.com.ar/shop/detallenot.asp?notid=98679. 145. “Aprueban el ingreso chino al Standard,” Clarín, November 12, 2012, http://www.Clarín.com. 146. Marcela Pagano, “Standard Bank: los chinos hacen pie y ya preparan el cambio de nombre,” Clarín, November 30, 2012, http://www.Clarín. com. 147. “China Construction Bank Negotiates Acquisition of a Bank in Brazil,” MacauHub, January 17, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com. 148. “China Construction Bank Negotiates Entry into Brazilian Market,” MacauHub, May 12, 2012, http://www.macauhub.com. 149. Isabella Steger, “Mizuho Buys Brazil Bank From Ailing WestLB,” Wall Street Journal, June 20, 2012, http://blogs.wsj.com. 150. Cristiane Lucchesi, Dakin Campbell, and Giulia Camillo, “Construction Bank Agrees to Buy Majority of Brazil Bank,” Bloomberg, November 1, 2013, http:// http://www.bloomberg.com/.

6  Addressing the New Challenges 1. See, for example, Amos Irwin and Kevin P. Gallagher, “Chinese Investment in Peru: A Comparative Analysis, Discussion Paper No. 34,” Tufts University (2012), http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/DP34Ir winGallagherDec12.pdf. 2. A 2007 study by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences indicated that the general Chinese public knows very little about the region. See Simon Shen, “Online Chinese Perceptions of Latin America: How They Differ from the Official View,” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss

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and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 160. 3. Enrique Dussel Peters, Presentation to the Latin American Studies Association Annual Meeting, May 25, 2012, San Francisco, California. 4. Indeed, one analysis of Chinese engagement with Latin America notes that big Chinese firms have made significant progress by recruiting top graduates from not only Chinese universities, but from local ones as well, operating truly like multinational companies. 5. See Ding Qingfen, “Companies Still Drawn to Peru, Despite Obstacles,” China Daily, December 11, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 6. For a discussion of these concerns, see Rhys Jenkins and Alexandre de Freitas Barbosa, “Fear for Manufacturing? China and the Future of Industry in Brazil and Latin America,” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 59–81. 7. David Shambaugh, “Foreword,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), xv. Indeed, a 2012 Latin Business survey identified Argentina as the most protectionist nation in the world. See “Argentina with the Largest Number of Protectionist Measures Worldwide,” Mercopress, June 19, 2012, http://en.mercopress. com. See also Tom Miles and Hugh Bronstein, “Argentina Accused of ‘Protectionism’ at WTO, Strikes Back,” Reuters, August 21, 2012, http://www.reuters.com. See also Zhou Siyu, “Trade with Argentina ‘Hit by Protectionism,’” May 23, 2012, China Daily. http://www.china daily.com.cn. 8. “China Continues to Face Increasing Trade Friction in 2014,” PriceWaterhouseCooper, Official Website, September 13, 2013, http:// pwccn.com/home/eng/pr_160913.html. See also, “Exporters to Face More Trade Friction,” Xinhua, August 17, 2013, http://news.xinhuanet. com/english/china/2013-09/17/c_132727591.htm. 9. Hu Yifan, “Pitfalls on the Road to Superpower Status,” China Daily, May 4, 2012: 9. 10. See, for example, “China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean (Full Text),” Government of the People’s Republic of China, November 5, 2008, http://english.gov.cn/official/2008-11/05 /content_1140347.htm. 11. Peruvian scholar, Rubén Gonzalez-Vicente notes, for example, that Chinese mining executives interviewed consistently have shown a “sincere concern about the adaptation of Chinese businesses to Latin American contexts.” See Rubén Gonzalez-Vicente, “Mapping Chinese Mining Investment in Latin America: Politics or Market?” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.).

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1. “Noranda Ends Exclusive Period of Talks with China Minmetals,” CBC News, November 16, 2004, http://www.cbc.ca. 2. “Why China’s Unocal Bid Ran out of Gas,” Businessweek, August 3, 2005, http://www.businessweek.com. See also Isabela Steger, “Cnooc’s Unocal Lessons,” Blog, Wall Street Journal, July 23, 2012, http://blogs .wsj.com. 3. David Renwick, “A Chance for Petrotrin,” Trinidad Express, October 2, 2012, http://www.trinidadexpress.com. 4. “Valero to Transform Aruba Refinery—Analyst Blog,” NASDAQ, September 4, 2012, http://www.nasdaq.com. 5. Rodrigo Orihuela, “BP’s $7.1 Billion Sale of Pan American to Cnooc Group Scrapped,” Businessweek, November 7, 2001, http://www.business week.com. 6. Steven Mufson, “In Panama: Ports in a Storm; GOP Critics Decry Hong Kong Firm’s Role at Each End of Canal,” Washington Post, December 8, 1999, http://www.washingtonpost.com. 7. “Saudi Petrochemical Giant Sabic Halts Plans to Build $5.3 Billion Methanol Complex in Trinidad,” Fox News, March 3, 2013, http:// www.foxnews.com. 8. Curtis Williams, “NGC: Gas Agreement between Sabic/Sinopec in Three Months,” Trinidad Guardian, April 26, 2012, http://m.guardian .co.tt/business-guardian/2012-04-24/ngc-gas-agreement-between -sabicsinopec-three-months. See also “SABIC, Sinopec in Talks with Trinidad over Methanol Plant,” Reuters, February 11, 2012, http:// www.reuters.com. 9. “SABIC Project May Not Gain Traction, says Methanex Boss,” Trinidad Guardian, May 11, 2012, http://guardian.co.tt/business/2012-05-11 /sabic-project-may-not-gain-traction-says-methanex-boss. 10. Brent Fuller, “China Harbour Berthing Project Talks Extended,” Cay Compass, April 2, 2012, http://www.compasscayman.com. 11. Norma Connolly, “Cruise Lines Want to Build Cayman’s Berths,” Caymanian Compass, March 5, 2013, http://www.compasscayman. com/caycompass/2013/03/05/Cruise-lines-want-to-build-Cayman-s -berths/. 12. “China Harbour Is ‘Deeply Disappointed’,” Cayman Net News, November 8, 2012, http://caymannetnews.com. 13. “Standard Bank: el BCRA aprueba la venta al chino ICBC pero pide que lo conduzca un argentino,” Crash Noticias, August 14, 2012, http:// www.crashnoticias.com.ar/shop/detallenot.asp?notid=98679. 14. Simon Rabinovitch and Paul Davies, “ICBC Closes in on Standard Bank Deal,” Financial Times, August 7, 2013, http://www.ft.com. 15. Zhou Siyu, “The Ups and Downs of Latin Adventure,” China Daily, July 24, 2012, http://www.usa.chinadaily.com.cn.

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7  The Struggle to Acquire Companies and Win Project Work in Latin America

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16. Written correspondence with Carlos García Martínez, November 2012. 17. “Otro capítulo del cuento chino,” El Diario del Fin del Mundo, July 10, 2012, http://www.eldiariodelfindelmundo.com. 18. Caspar W. Weinberger, “Panama, the Canal and China,” Forbes, October 4, 1999, http://www.forbes.com. 19. Manuel Luna, “Megapuerto de Farfán naufragó,” La Estrella, November 28, 2008, http://www.laestrella.com.pa/online/impreso/2008/11/28 /megapuerto-de-farfan-naufrago.asp. 20. “Introduction,” Lázaro Cardenas Terminal Portuaria de Contenedores., 2005, http://www.lctpc.com.mx/ingles/index.htm. 21. Interview with Enrique Dussel Peters, Head of the Mexico–China Studies Center (CECHIMEX) at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Berkeley, California, May 22, 2012. 22. See, for example, the Hutchison Port Holdings Official Website, Accessed January 31, 2013, http://www.hutchison-whampoa.com/en /businesses/global.php. 23. Ianthia Smith, “Gov’t Told ‘Block Hutchison’,” Jones Bahamas, October 29, 2009, http://www.jonesbahamas.com. 24. Enrique Ahumada Benítez, “China y Chile llegan a acuerdo sobre propiedad de mina Gaby,” Library of the Chilean National Concress—Asia -Pacific, September 24, 2008, http://www.asiapacifico.bcn.cl. 25. See “The New Chinese Engagement with Latin America: Understanding Its Dynamics and the Implications for the Region,” Uni­versity of Miami Center for Hemispheric Policy, March 3, 2006, https://www6.miami. edu/hemisphericpolicy/EllisTheNewChineseEngagementWithLatin America030306.pdf. See also Rodrigo Cárdenas, “Licitación de Gaby estará lista a inicios de 2008,” El Mercurio, February 23, 2006, http:// www.emol.com. 26. “Contrato de Coca Codo evita licitación,” El Universo, April 3, 2009, http://www.eluniverso.com. 27. “38 empresas chinas están en las aéreas estratégicas y construcción,” El Universo, June 18, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 28. This was particularly attractive given that Ecuador’s ability to obtain financing in international credit markets was severely restricted in light of its 2008 default on debt obligations to international lending institutions. See “Bancos de Ecuador temen que ‘default’ afecte créditos,” El Universo, December 14, 2008, http://www.eluniverso.com. 29. “Estado, garante de préstamo para Coca Codo,” El Universo, April 2, 2009, http://www.eluniverso.com/2009. 30. President Correa declared that the conditions were an insult to Ecuador, and that the IMF had never imposed conditions as abusive as those that the Chinese were attempting to impose. See “Correa dice que Ecuador ha sido maltratado por China,” El Universo, December 1, 2009, http:// www.eluniverso.com. 31. “38 empresas chinas están.”

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32. The suspension was not the first delay in the project. “China-Funded Costa Rica Refinery Still Being Negotiated,” Reuters, August 15, 2012, http://in.reuters.com. 33. Isabella Cota, “Costa Rica Halts Chinese-Backed Plan for Refinery Upgrade,” Reuters, June 20, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. 34. Evan Ellis, “Costa Rica at Crossroads in Courtship with Beijing,” China Brief, Vol. 14, Issue 10, http://www.jamestown.org. 35. “Decreto aguardado pela JAC Motors para instalação de fábrica está garantido, diz governo,” Correio, July 31, 2012, http://www.correio 24horas.com.br. 36. Jesús Vázquez, “Relanzarán el Dragon Mart Cancún,” El Economista., June 11, 2012, http://eleconomista.com.mx. 37. Maickol Tamayo, “Proposed Chinese Dragon Mart Complex Raises Eyebrows in Cancun, Mexico,” PVAngels, January 10, 2013, http:// pvangels.com/news-mexico/5068/chinese-dragon-mart-complex -raises-eyebrows-in-cancun. 38. Amy Guthrie, “China Plan Raises Ire in Mexico,” Wall Street Journal, January 17, 2013, http://online.wsj.com. 39. “Dragon mart rejected,” LatinNews, April 25, 2013, http://www.latin news.com. 40. Tracy Wilkinson, “Foes in Cancun See a Fire-Breathing Dragon Mart,” LA Times, June 1, 2013, http://articles.latimes.com. 41. Alberto Escenario, “Chinese Retailer “DragonMart” Fights and Wins a Spot on Mexican Soil,” Mexican Law Blog, October 9, 2013, http:// mexicanlawblog.com/chinese-retailer-dragonmart-fights-and-wins-a -spot-on-mexican-soil/. 42. “Contrato de Coca Codo.” 43. See Julien Neaves, “Chinese Firm Wins $500m UWI Contract,” Trinidad Express., May 18, 2012, http://www.trinidadexpress.com. 44. Mercedes Agüero, “Contraloría frena megared de Internet veloz del ICE,” Nacion, San Jose, Costa Rica, August 30, 2013, http://www .nacion.com. 45. Gerardo Ruiz Ramón, “Comisión extendió plazo para estudiar crédito chino para ampliar vía a Limón,” Nación, December 3, 2013, http:// http://www.nacion.com/. 46. “CJIA Expansion Works to Await Review of World Bank Sanction,” Starbroek News, June 23, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 47. Fernando Villavicencio V., Ecuador Made in China, second edition, Miami, FL: InterAmerican Institute for Democracy, January 2013. 48. “MTOP defiende contratación de empresa china,” El Universo, June 8, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 49. “Fate of CJIA Expansion in Limbo,” Stabroek News, June 23, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 50. “Govt. Defends $424,000 Toilet Bowls for CJIA,” Stabroek News, July 4, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. In the end, however, the primary argument for killing the project was that it was not justified by

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the amount of traffic using the airport. On the basis of multiple offthe-record interviews with political leaders in Guyana, August 15–20, 2013. 51. Abena Rockcliffe, “President Consulting with Opposition Leader to Save Amaila,” Kaieteur News, August 12, 2013, http://www.kaieteur newsonline.com. 52. “Sithe Global Pulls Out of Amaila,” Stabroek News, August 9, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 53. “Amaila: False Dilemma,” Kaieteur News, August 12, 2013, http://www .kaieteurnewsonline.com. 54. “Brassington Promises Details on Marriott Financing, Investors,” Stabroek News., July 16, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 55. “Desmond Trotman Moves to Block Transfer of Marriott Hotel Land,” Stabroek News, June 29, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 56. “President Pleased with Marriott Hotel Construction,” Stabroek News, January 6, 2014, http://stabroeknews.com. 57. Margaret Meyers, “China Eyes Overseas Agriculture to Achieve Food Security,” Caxin Online. January 7, 2014, http://www.thedialogue.org /page.cfm?pageID=32&pubID=3479. 58. Alexei Barrionuevo, “China’s Interest in Farmland Makes Brazil Uneasy,” New York Times, May 27, 2011, http://www.newyorktimes .com. 59. “Chinese Investment in Argentina Continues to Grow,” The Debts of a Nation, June 17, 2011, http://debtsofanation.blogspot.com/2011/06 /chinese-investment-in-argentina.html. 60. “Uruguay quiere impedir la venta de tierras a Estados extranjeros,” InfoBae, Buenos Aires, Argentina, November 12, 2013, http://www .infobae.com/2013/11/12/1523199-uruguay-quiere-impedir-la-venta -tierras-estados-extranjeros. 61. In the election, Carlos Soria, the candidate of the ruling national coalition Frente para la Victoria defeated the governor who had previously signed the accords, César Barbeito. See “Triunfó el kirchnerismo en la ciudad de Bariloche,” La Nación, October 3, 2011, http://www.lana cion.com.ar. Soria was shot to death in January 2012, just 21 days after taking office. “A un año de su trágica muerte, homenajearon a Carlos Soria,” La Nación, February 1, 2013, http://www.lanacion.com.ar. 62. “Proyecto suspendido,” La Nación, November 24, 2011, http://www .lanacion.com.ar. 63. “Derogación de Ley 72 publicada en Gaceta Oficial,’’ La Estrella, October 29, 2012, http://www.laestrella.com.pa. 64. Correspondence with Carlos Garcia Martinez, October 29, 2012. 65. Krystel Rolle, “8,000 Jobs in Jeopardy?” The Freeport News, November 20, 2010, http://freeportarchive.nassauguardian.net. 66. “Chinese Contractor for Timehri Airport Racking up Procurement Concerns across Caribbean,” Starbroek News, May 7, 2012, http://www .stabroeknews.com.

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67. Dixie-Ann Dickson, “At What Cost, Chinese Labour?” The Guardian, June 7, 2012, http://www.guardian.co.tt/business-guardian/2012 -06-06/what-cost-chinese-labour. 68. “Chinese Investor to Breathe New Life into Palm Oil Industry,” DevSur, May 3, 2011, http://www.devsur.com/chinese-investor-to-breathe -new-life-into-palm-oil-industry/2011/05/03/. Despite these concerns, however, a scaled down version of the project was successfully introduced in 2012. See “Oil Palm Industry Projected for Nickerie,” Stabroek News, February 13, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 69. On the basis of interviews with multiple Guyanese politicians for this study. Georgetown, Guyana. August 15–20, 2013. 70. “Rio Grande no vende ni compra en cantón Chone,” El Universo, November 12, 2011, http://eluniverso.com. 71. Juan Bosco Zambrano, “Notifican fin de contrato a empresa china a cargo de proyecto multipropósito en Chone,” El Universo, Guayaquil, Ecuador, June 1, 2013, http://www.eluniverso.com/noticias/2013/06/01/nota /977491/notifican-fin-contrato-empresa-china-cargo-proyecto-multi proposito. 72. “Brazil: Indian Activist Occupy Belo Monte Hidroelectric Dam,” The Huffington Post, October 27, 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com. 73. Belo Monte was to be the third largest hydroelectric project in the world. Song Shengxia, “China Seals Brazil Dam Deal,” Global Times, April 15, 2011, http://business.globaltimes.cn. 74. “China afirma tras protesta en Quito que sus inversions benefician al Ecuador,” El Universo, March 7, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 75. “Marcha avanzó a Latacunga y está a 75 kilómetros de Quito,” El Universo, March 20, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 76. “IMC, la segunda firma minera en despedirse del Ecuador este año,” El Comercio, December 4, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.com. 77. “ECSA pagó $ 40 millones por regalía minera,” El Universal, Guayaquil, Ecuador, December 28, 2012, http://www.eluniverso. com/2012/12/28/1/1356/ecsa-pago-40-millones-regalia-minera.html. 78. Aldo Miguel, “Expulsan pobladores de Zautla a mineros chinos,” El Sol del Puebla, November 22, 2012, http://www.oem.com.mx. 79. In 2006, the firm Barrack Gold similarly was forced by local residents to abandon plans to develop the mine. “Continuará el corte de vecinos en Famatina,” No a la Mina, June 23, 2012, http://www.noalamina.org. 80. Orlando Andrada and Mariela Arias, “Al wok. China saltó al tercer puesto en la inversión extranjera en la Argentina,” La Nación, March 6, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com. 81. See, for example, “Acusan al alcalde de Sapalache de apoyar violencia contra Río Blanco,” El Comercio, November 23, 2011, http://www. elcomercio.pe. 82. Community leaders who were seen as “troublemakers” had been detained by local police, and there had been extrajudicial killings in the nearby town of Huancabamba. The mine was also located in the

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vicinity of poppy growing areas, creating the rumor, which was never well-substantiated, that the growing and harvesting of poppies for heroin production by local criminal groups was a factor in the difficulties of the mine. See Marco Aquino, “Peru Mine Killings Work of Drug Trade: Businessmen,” Reuters, November 3, 2009, http://www.reuters .com. 83. Rio Blanco also illustrates how opposition to projects on environmental grounds may be intertwined with other problems. Two of the key players in the deal, the Peruvian ambassador to the P.R.C., Luis Chan, and the British ambassador to Peru, Richard Ralph, both left their posts to assume positions on the board of directors of Monterrico Metals. Ralph was subsequently found guilty by a British court and fined $118,000 pounds for insider trading involving the project. See Julia Kollewe, “Former British Ambassador Fined £118,000 for Insider Trading,” The Guardian, November 13, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk. 84. See, for example, “Acusan al alcalde de Sapalache de apoyar violencia contra Río Blanco.” 85. Felicity Lawrence, “Global Food Crisis: China Land Deal Causes Unease in Argentina,” The Guardian, June 1, 2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk. 86. “Colombia: policía contra defensores del río Magdalena,” La Pluma, August 15, 2012, http://www.es.lapluma.net. 87. Celestine Nixon, “Baha Mar Eases Fears over Beach Construction Work,” Tribune, June 8, 2012, http://www.tribune242.com. 88. “Honduras Dam Project Shadowed by Violence,” al Jazeera, December 24, 2013, http://www.aljazeera.com. 89. Tamayo, “Proposed Chinese Dragon Mart.” 90. “Indígenas anticipan movilizaciones si Gobierno decide explotar el Yasuní,” El Universo, August 14, 2013, http://eluniverso.com. 91. Julian Richardson, “Gov’t Admits Goat Islands under ‘Serious Consideration’ for Trans-shipment hub,” Jamaica Observer, August 22, 2013, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 92. “Wuhan Steel Halts $5 Billion Brazil Plant Project,” MarketWatch, November 9, 2012, http://www.marketwatch.com. 93. “UPDATE 2—Wuhan Talks to Build Brazil Steel Mill ‘Dormant’— LLX.” Reuters. http://www.reuters.com. November 8, 2012. 94. Ibid. 95. See “Acumula México proyectos fracasados de autos chinos,” El Financiero, June 3, 2013, http://www.elfinanciero.com.mx. See also “Marcha atrás a planta armadora de autos de la FAW en Michoacán,” Cambio de Michoacán, April 13, 2009, http://www.cambiodemichoacan. com.mx/vernota.php?id=99078. 96. “China, Cuba Agree on Refinery Project, New Loans,” Cuba Standard, June 6, 2011, http://www.cubastandard.com. 97. Jeff Franks, “Amid Uncertainties, Cuba Seeks Funding for Refinery Expansion,” Reuters, February 10, 2013, http://www.reuters.com.

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98. “Exclusivo: se cayó el financiamiento para las represas de Santa Cruz,” La Política, November 6, 2013, http//lapoliticaonline.com. 99. “Chinese ‘Face’ and Soft Power in Argentina,” The Manzella Report, January 1, 2014, http://www.manzellareport.com. 100. “Estancadas las obras en la represa hidroeléctrica Patuca III en Honduras,” La Prensa, June 9, 2013, http://www.laprensa.hn. See also “Con $300 millones se concluirá Patuca III,” La Tribuna, June 1, 2013, http://www. http://www.latribuna.hn. 101. “Congreso de Honduras aprueba préstamo por L6,258 millones para Patuca,” La Prensa, December 6, 2013, http://www.laprensa.hn.

8  Day-to-Day Management Challenges Faced by Chinese Companies in Latin America 1. The dispute involved a question of Petroriental’s compliance with a 2006 commitment to employ 80  percent local workers in its operations in the region. “Heridos 24 militares en incidentes en protestas en Orellana,” El Universo, July 5, 2007, http://www.el-universo.com. 2. Kimmo Matthews, “Angry Protesters Demand Jobs on Palisadoes Project,” Jamaica Observer, September 22, 2010, http://www.jamaicaob server.com. 3. “Opposition Pickets Marriott over Hiring Practices,” Stabroek News, February 14, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. Indeed, in the case of Shanghai Construction Group, the Guyana Trades Union Congress threatened to take legal action against because of alleged “discrimination” in hiring practices, although it ultimately did not do so. See “Chinese Ambassador Appeals for Positive Media Coverage on Guyana /China Relations,” Guyana Chronicle, March 5, 2013, http://www.guy anachronicleonline.com. 4. As if to dispel concerns over the large number of Chinese workers, the Bahamian government also emphasized that during the period, the ratio of Bahamian to foreign contractors had been 3:1 Ironically, as of June 2012, only 1,000 Chinese had been employed. Neil Hartnell, “Baha Mar ‘Close’ To $150m Spend on Bahamians,” Tribune 242, June 12, 2012, http://www.tribune242.com. 5. “Envíos a China por acuerdos suman 200 mil barriles al día,” El Universal, February 29, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 6. Mialgros Salazar, “Social Responsibility Missing in Growing Trade Ties,” Inter Press Service, February 3, 2010, http://www.ipsnews.net /news.asp?idnews=50206. 7. William Neuman, “Hundreds in Peru Balk at Relocation from Site of Mine,” New York Times, January 6, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com. In November 2012, dozens of Morococha residents opposed to the relocation took their protests to the archbishop of Huancayo, where a dialogue was being held regarding the move. See “Huancayo: pobladores

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protestaron contra reubicacion de Morococha,” El Comercio, November 17, 2012, http://www.elcomercio.pe. 8. Jorge Lanta in his television program “Periodismo Para Todos,” which received significant coverage by the Argentine print media, argued, however, that the Chinese were simply assembling appliances from kits brought in from the P.R.C., with very little value added. “Un cuento chino: la ‘industria nacional’ de Tierra del Fuego bajo la lupa de Lanata,” Clarín, June 11, 2012, http://www.Clarín.com. See also “La industria Argentina de Cristina se fabrica en China: lo mostró Lanata,” June 11, 2012, http://www.contexto.com.ar. 9. “Surge in Chinese Investment in Latin America,” The Argentina Independent, June 14, 2011, http://www.argentinaindependent.com. See also “Celulares: China también arma en Tierra del Fuego,” Clarín, September 7, 2011, http://www.ieco.Clarín.com. 10. “Cristie at Odds with PM over Six Planned Hotels,” The Tribune, November 8, 2010, http://www.tribune24.com. See also Brent Dean, “Political Parties Quiet on Baha Mar Chinese Labour Issue,” The Freeport News, April 7, 2010, http://freeport.nassauguardian.net. 11. “China Presents the Bahamas with Multi-million Dollar Gift,” The Bahamas Investor, 2011, http://www.thebahamasinvestor.com. 12. “DNA Blasts Government on Budget for Opening of National Stadium,” Nassau Guardian, March 3, 2012, http://freeport.nassauguardian.net /national_local/302259441163328.php. 13. Randal C. Archibold, “China Buys Inroads in the Caribbean, Catching U.S. Notice,” New York Times, April 7, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com. 14. “Cámara denuncia desvío de recursos del Estadio Nacional,” Nación, March 7, 2010, http://www.nacion.com. 15. Alonso Mata B, “Constructora china cancela operaciones comerciales en el país,” Nación, July 1, 2010, http://www.nacion.com. 16. “Brutal represión en Morococha en nombre de Chinalco,” YouTube, February 1, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9Uqrvck3dk. 17. Interview with Cynthia Sanborn, Director, Centro de Investigaciones Universidad del Pacifico, September 21, 2012. 18. See Ding Qingfen, “Companies Still Drawn to Peru, Despite Obstacles,” China Daily, December 11, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. 19. Jiang Shixue “Ten Key Questions,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 62. 20. “Ecuador,” China National Petroleum Company, Accessed March 14, 2013, http://www.cnpc.com.cn/en/cnpcworldwide. 21. Ibid. 22. Shixue, “Ten Key Questions.” 23. “AmericasBarometer.” Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP), 2012, www.LapopSurveys.org. 24. As Cynthia Sanborn notes, to some degree, the Marcona miners were already relatively radicalized at the time that Shougang acquired

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the company from the Peruvian government in 1993. Written correspondence, June 22, 2012. 25. “Protestan fuera del Coliseo de Ica mientras congresistas debaten,” El Comercio, September 8, 2011, http://elcomercio.pe. 26. “Ica: Mineros de Marcona exigen aumentos salariales,” RPP, October 15, 2012, http://www.rpp.com.pe. 27. “Ica: obreros de la minera Shougang marcharon por la Panamericana Sur,” El Comercio, Lima, Peru, September 3, 2013, http://www.elcom ercio.com.pe. 28. Balford Henry, “China Harbour/Union Dispute Brewing,” Jamaica Observer, December 16, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 29. Toh Han Shih, “Chinese Dam Builders Rush to Latin America,” South China Morning Post, January 6, 2014, http://www.scmp.com. 30. “Trabajadores de proyecto hidroeléctrico Toachi–Pilatón reclaman aumento de utilidades,” El Universo, April 16, 2013, http://www.eluni verso.com. 31. Danela Luces, “Paralizaron construcción del tramo Tinaco-Anaco,” El Tiempo, August 23, 2011, http://ciberprotesta.over-blog.com/article -paralizaron-construccion-del-tramo-tinaco-anaco-82257033.html. 32. Interview with Enrique Dussel Peters, Head of the Mexico–China Studies Center (CECHIMEX) at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), May 22, 2012. 33. Khrisna Virgil, “PM Hits Out at Baha Mar,” Tribune, February 12, 2013, http://www.tribune242.com. 34. “Empresarios loretanos paralizan obra de alcantarillado de Iquitos por abuso de empresa china,” La Voz de la Selva, January 11, 2011, Radiolvs. cnr.org.pe/ninterna.html?x=10229. 35. Alicia Dunkley-Willis, “Feud Quashed, JDIP Restarts,” Jamaica Observer, September 24, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 36. Balford Henry, “PAAC to Summon CHEC on Debts Owed to JDIP Contractors,” Jamaica Observer, July 25, 2013, http://www.jamaicaob server.com. 37. Keino Swamber, “Chinese Firm, Local Company Try to Settle Lawsuits,” Trinidad Express, May 22, 2012, http://www.trinidadexpress.com. 38. Alison Lowe, “No Impact on Future Chinese Investment from Road Destruction,” The Nassau Guardian, July 29, 2013, http://www.thenas sauguardian.com. 39. “Chubut: Pan American Energy dijo que acudirá a la conciliación con los ‘Dragones’,” Clarín, July 5, 2012, http://www.ieco.Clarín.com. 40. “’Los Dragones’ y la PAE vuelven a negociar hoy,” TN, July 19, 2012, http://tn.com.ar. 41. Pablo Rossi, “Chery evalúa cerrar su planta en Uruguay por trabas de Argentina,” El País, July 20, 2012, http://www.elpais.com.uy. 42. Ernesto J. Tovar Miram Rivero, “Petroleros paralizaron 30 taladros por pagos atrasados,” El Universal, August 10, 2012, http://www.eluniversal .com.

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43. Mireya Tabuas and Maria Alesia Sosa, “No es un cuento chino.” El Nacional. Caracas, Venezuela. http://el-nacional.com. April 15, 2012. 44. Ingrid Brown, “Bridging the Language Divide,” Jamaica Observer, June 11, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 45. Ibid. 46. “An Eye-Opener for the Chinese at the Sierra Grande Mine,” No a la Mina, April 6, 2010, http://www.noaqlamina.org. 47. Tabuas and Sosa, “No es un cuento chino.” 48. On the basis of numerous off-the-record conversations between the author and Latin American businessmen over the course of 2011–2012. 49. Robin Emmott, “Peru Miners Feel Oppressed by China’s Shougang,” Mines and Communities, July 21, 2005, http://www.minesandcommuni ties.org. 50. Yanela Pimentel, “Demandan a Minera Cerro de Maimón por contaminación y apropiación de terrenos,” Noticias Sin, September 25, 2012, http://www.noticiassin.com. 51. “La difícil experencia china en la mina de Sierra Grande,” La Nación, March 21, 2010, http://www.lanacion.com.ar. 52. “Chinalco obtiene permiso de uso de reserva de agua para proyecto Toromocho,” Gestión, June 7, 2012, Lima, Peru. 53. “Un total de treinta y cuatro contratos petroleros están inactivos,” El Comercio, Lima, Peru, January 2, 2014, http://www.elcomercio.com. pe. 54. Indeed some experts have suggested that the deepwater drilling being conducted by the Chinese and others off the coast of Brazil may be an environmental disaster waiting to happen, which could implicate the Chinese or other companies because of the possibilities for accidents, and the difficulty of sealing off such a well, were an accident to occur and safety cutoffs fail. See, for example, James Bosworth, “Chevron Oil Spill Hints at Risks of Brazil’s ‘Moonshot’ Deep Water Drilling,” Christian Science Monitor, November 21, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com. 55. Jeff Franks, “Oil Rig Arrives for Cuba Offshore Exploration Work,” Reuters, January 19, 2012, http://www.reuters.com. 56. “Bosai Must Fund Lab, Treatment Facility for Dust Emission—Gordon,” Stabroek News, October 17, 2008, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 57. “Bosai’s Dust Collection System at Linden to be Commissioned Today,” Guyana Chronicle, September 27, 2012, http://www.guyanachronicle online.com. 58. See Ding, “Companies Still Drawn to Peru.” 59. In 2012 there was an average of one violent protest per week in the country. See “Peru Announces 28Bn Dollars in Mining Projects despite Growing Social Unrest,” Merco Press, June 18, 2012, http:// en.mercopress.com. 60. “Jiangxi Copper recién iniciaría mina en el Perú entre el 2014 y el 2016,” Semana Económica, March 28, 2012, http://semanaeconomica. com.

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61. See Ruben Gonzalez-Vicente, “Mapping Chinese Mining Investment in Latin America: Politics or Market?” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 40. 62. “El grupo Brescia adquiere proyecto Mina Justa a China CST Mining Group,” EL Comercio, April 24, 2012, Lima, Peru, http://elcomercio .pe. 63. “Chinese Company Loses Millions as Protest Continues in Guyana,” Stabroek News, August 7, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. See also “Hamstrung by Linden Unrest, Bosai Fears Loss of Markets,” Stabroek News, August 8, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 64. Recognizing the need for such services, however, there is small but growing private security industry in China, focused on supporting Chinese companies doing business abroad, populated principally by retired People’s Liberation Army (PLA) officials. Song Xiaojun, “Will China Send Forces to Somalia?” Blog commentary, December 1, 2008. See also R. Evan Ellis, “China-Latin America Military Engagement: Good Will, Good Business and Strategic Position,” US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, August 25, 2011, http://www.strategic studiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubid=1077. 65. Rodrigo Calvo C., “Símbolos chinos en estadio perdurarán,” Nación, March 20, 2011, http://www.nacion.com. 66. See Devis Ramirez Miranda, “Grupo armado amordazó y asaltó a ocho ingenieros chinos en el Tuy,” El Universal, March 16, 2012, http://www .eluniversal.com. See also Tabuas and Sosa, “No es un cuento chino.” 67. 650,000 bolivares represented, at the time, about $100,000 at the official rate of exchange. 68. “Ladrones cargaron con Bs 650 mil de empresa china en Venezuela,” El Universal, December 16, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 69. Myers, Garfield, “China Harbour Employee Beaten with Spade,” Jamaica Observer, May 16, 2012, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com. 70. Sue-Ann Wayow, “Chinese National Kidnapped,” Trinidad Express, April 7, 2012, www.trinidadexpress.com. 71. “Kidnapped Chinese Businessman Released,” Trinidad Express, April 9, 2012, www.trinidadexpress.com. 72. “Petrolera china desestima que protesta en Tarapoa haya afectado sus intereses,” El Universo, November 14, 2006, http://www.eluniverso .com. 73. The dispute was over Petroriental’s compliance with a 2006 promise to employ 80 percent local workers in its operations in the region. “Heridos 24 militares.” 74. “La violencia en Bagua deja hasta el momento 22 policías muertos,” El Comercio, June 6, 2009, http://elcomercio.pe/peru. 75. “Chinalco obtiene permiso de uso de reserva de agua para proyecto Toromocho.”

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76. “Empresa china invertirá más de $10 millones en mina de cobre de Arequipa,” Andina, September 6, 2012, http://www.andina.com.pe. See also “Compañía minera china Las Mellizas invertirá US$10 millons durante el 2012,” La Republica, September 7, 2012, http:// http://www .larepublica.pe. 77. See “Acusan al alcalde de Sapalache de apoyar violencia contra Río Blanco,” El Comercio, November 23, 2011, http://www.elcomercio .com.pe. 78. Jorge Loayaza, “Premier anuncia que instalarán base militar en Río Blanco,” La República, November 5, 2009, http://www.larepublica.pe. 79. “Colquiri aún dialoga y denuncian más tomas,” Los Tiempos, June 9, 2012, http://www.lostiempos.com. 80. “Gushers and guns: A boom, and threats to it,” The Economist, March 17, 2012, http://www.economist.com. 81. “Colombian ‘Farc rebels’ blow up bridge in San Vicente,” BBC News, July 20, 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk. 82. “Emerald Energy suspends operations in southern Colombia following rebel attacks,” Colombia Reports, March 6, 2012, http://colombiareports. com. 83. “Vicepresidente les exige a las Farc liberar a tres cuídanos chinos,” El Tiempo, June 10, 2011, http://www.eltiempo.com. 84. Ibid. 85. “Gushers and guns: A boom, and threats to it.” 86. The released workers were the last hostages believed to be held by the FARC. “Liberados por las Farc viajarían a China el lunes,” El Tiempo, November 22, 2012, http://www.portafolio.co. 87. David Graham, “Chinese iron trade fuels port clash with Mexican drug cartel,” Reuters, January 1, 2014, http://www.reuters.com. 88. “Medio: Secuestros Chinos,” El Universal, November 29, 2011, http:// runrun.es/runrunes/30237/runrunes-el-universal-29-11-11.html. 89. “Guardia Nacional resguarda construcción de tramo ferroviario TinacoAnaco,” El Periodiquito, December 14, 2011, http://www.elperiodiquito. com. 90. “Estancadas las obras en la represa hidroeléctrica Patuca III en Honduras,” La Prensa, June 9, 2013, http://www.laprensa.hn. See also “China-Peru military ties growing stronger,” Washington Times, May 27, 2012, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/may/27. 91. “Estancadas las obras en la represa hidroeléctrica Patuca III en Honduras.” 92. See “Liberan a 29 trabajadores chinos secuestrados en Sudán,” El Universal, February 7, 2012, http://www.eluniversal.com. 93. Stephen Haggard, Pathways from the Periphery (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990) 94. See Ding Qingfen, “Companies still drawn to Peru, despite obstacles.” 95. Lucien O. Chauvin, “Hierro Peru: China’s footprint in the Andes,” China Dialogue, December 1, 2006, http://www.chinadialogue.net.

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96. The company was reportedly granted the concession to mine and transport laterite in order to use it to repair a road that its trucks had damaged. The government claimed that, of the 144 truckloads of laterite that Bai Shan Lin had mined, only 10 had been used to repair the road, while the rest had been used to build access roads on its own properties. See Jeff Trotman, “Linmine withdraws bridge concession to Bai Shan Lin,” Stabroek News, July 4, 2013, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 97. Marco Antonio Gonzalez, “Multan Con $476 Mills. a Nokia, Ericsson y Huawei Por ‘Manipulación’ al ICE,” Prensa Libre, July 11, 2012, http:// www.prensalibre.cr. 98. Huawei won the contract with bid that came in at 159 percent of the cost of what the government had calculated the project should cost. See Cristian Leandro Córdoba, “Contraloría congela bienes de 12 altos funcionarios del ICE,” Prensa Libre, August 6, 2012, http://www.pren salibre.cr. See also “Empresa china cobra 159 percent más por instalar red celular,” Nación, August 5, 2008, http://www.nacion.com. 99. “Orimulsion Product in Venezuela,” Oil and Gas Industry Articles, September 4, 2006, http://www.oilgasarticles.com/articles/442/1 /Strategic-Associations-in-Venezuela/Page1.html. 100. See Javier Corrales, “China and Venezuela’s Search for Oil Markets,” in Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations Beyond the Washington Consensus, eds., Alex. E. Fernandez Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012), 128. 101. “Venezuela ceases ormulsion production,” El Universal, September 26, 2006, http://www.eluniversal.com. See also “No Orimulsion Means More Coal Power Plants in China,” Energy Tribune, October 18, 2007, http://www.energytribune.com. 102. Corrales, “China and Venezuela’s Search for Oil Markets.” 103. See R. Evan Ellis, “China, S.A. como empresa local en America Latina,” Temas de Reflexión, Centro de Pensamiento Estratégico, Univerisad EAFIT. No. 7 (May 2013). 104. “Petrobras renegociará contrato de crudo con Ecuador,” El Universo, October 2, 2007, http://www.eluniverso.com. 105. “EE.UU. empieza retirada militar de la base de Manta,” El Universo, July 16, 2009, http://www.eluniverso.com. 106. The action by the Ecuadoran government, to some extent, also paralleled the government of Panama’s selection of Hutchison to operate the ports of Cristobal and Balboa as the United States withdrew from the Panama Canal Zone less than earlier decade ago. 107. “Empresa de Hong Kong abandona proyecto en Manta acusando al Gobierno ecuatoriano,” Hoy, February 6, 2009, http://www.hoy.com .ec. 108. “Hutchison may lose Ecuador port project—report,” Reuters, January 4, 2009, http://www.reuters.com. 109. “Equipos de TIDE pasarán al Estado tras salir de Manta,” El Universo, February 8, 2009, http://www.eluniverso.com.

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110. “Menos carga mueve el puerto de Manta,” El Universo, April 9, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 111. “Sin ofertas el Puerto de Aguas Profundas,” El Universo, November 7, 2012, http://www.eluniverso.com. 112. Laura Benitez, “Government Takes Over Belgrano Cargas Railway,” The Argentina Independent, February 5, 2013, http://www.argentinain dependent.com. 113. Benitez, “Government Takes Over.” 114. Antonio Rossi, “Intervienen la operadora del ferrocarril Belgrano Cargas,” Clarín, October 26, 2012, http://www.clarín.com. Some analysts in Argentina suggested that the case was complicated because the local partner of the concession in question, Franco Macri, was not only a wealthy businessman, but a political rival to the Argentine President Cristina Fernandez. 115. “Con la intervención del Belgrano Cargas, el Gobierno cortó otro vínculo con Macri,” La Nación, October 25, 2012, http://www.lanacion .com. 116. Zhou Siyu, “The Ups and Downs of Latin Adventure,” China Daily, July 24, 2012, http://www.usa.chinadaily.com.cn. 117. Pablo Gonzalez, “Argentina Increases Oil Exporters Cash Payment by 67%,” Bloomberg News, January 7, 2013, http://www.businessweek.com. See also “Argentina Cuts Oil Export Tax as It Seeks to Lure Investment,” Reuters, January 7, 2013, http://www.reuters.com. 118. “Chinese Builders of Troubled Skeldon Factory to Leave Next Month,” Stabroek News, August 31, 2012, http://www.stabroeknews.com. 119. “Privatising Sugar,” Kaieteur News, July 29, 2013, http://www.kaieteur newsonline.com. 120. “No Chinese Warranty for ‘Botched’ Skeldon Sugar Factory,” Kaieteur News, June 26, 2012, http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com. 121. “Chinese Offers No Guarantee for US$47M Antigua Power Plant,” Kaieteur News Online, July 10, 2012, http://www.kaieteurnewsonline .com. 122. “Fiscalía exige 19 años de prisión para Yván Vásquez,” El Comercio, Lima, Peru, October 25, 2013, http://www.elcomercio.com.pe. 123. In the end, part of how the United States interprets such moves will depend on how the Chinese government is concurrently using its security forces in other parts of the world, and thus how the United States interprets China’s development of new security relationships globally. Chinese naval deployments in Asia, for example, may impact such US interpretations, as might the deployment of new weapons platforms by the P.R.C., including new anti-satellite weapons. Similarly, US interpretation of Chinese behavior in the Latin American space and telecom sector could be inf luenced by US perceptions that the P.R.C. is engaged in cyber attacks against US government and commercial targets elsewhere.

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1. For a detailed account of anti-Chinese laws and discrimination in Mexico during the revolutionary period, see Robert Chao Romer, The Chinese in Mexico, 1882–1940 (Scottsdale, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2010.) 2. Based on not-for-attribution interviews with businessmen and political figures in Georgetown Guyana. August 15–20, 2013. 3. In the decade that I have traveled in Latin America studying Chinese activities there, I have frequently observed that Latin Americans from taxi drivers to white-collar businessmen, in talking about “the Chinese” commonly move uncritically from characterizations of visiting Chinese construction workers to the quality of imported Chinese products, to the work ethic of the Chinese community, many of whom have lived their entire lives in that Latin American country. 4. Adrian H. Hearn, “Harnessing the Dragon: Overseas Chinese Entre­ preneurs in Mexico and Cuba,” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 112. 5. In Mexico, for example, Adrian Hearn speaks of new generations of Chinese shopkeepers in Mexico, relatively disconnected from the Mexican society in which they find themselves, whose activities include importing and retailing low-cost Chinese consumer goods. Hearn, “Harnessing the Dragon.” 6. For a discussion of the process by which a group such as the Chinese comes to be defined and perceived as “different” from, and even a threat to other parts of the population, see Donald L. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkley: University of California Press, 1985). 7. Simon Romero, “With Aid and Migrants, China Expands Its Presence in a South American Nation,” New York Times, April 11, 2011, http:// www.nytimes.com. 8. Omar Santana, “Protestan contra nuevos comerciantes chinos,” Diario Libre, July 30, 2013, http://www.diariolibre.com. 9. In 2012, for example, the head of the business federation in Táchira gained national attention when he denounced the expansion of Chinese businesses in his state, referring to it as a “silent invasion.” See “Proliferan en el Táchira tiendas y resturantes chinos.” La Nacion, Caracas, Venezuela, December 3, 2012, http://www.lanacion.com.ve. 10. “Proliferan en el Táchira tiendas y restaurantes chinos,” La Nación, December 3, 2012, http://www.lanacion.com.ve. 11. Hearn, “Harnessing the Dragon.” See also Adrian H. Hearn, Alan Smart, and Roberto Hernández Hernández, “China and Mexico: Trade, Migration, and Guanxi,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 139.

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12. Interviews off-the-record of Guyanese businessmen, analysts, and political figures. Georgetown, Guyana. August 15–20, 2013. 13. Yolanda Ojeda Reyes, “Ciudanos chinos reciben protección,” El Universal, November 11, 2004, http://www.eluniversal.com. 14. “Los camioneros ratifican el boicot a los súper y autoservicios chinos,” Clarín, June 26, 2006, http://www.Clarín.com. 15. Amy Li, “Chinese Shop Owners in Argentina Arm Themselves with Guns amid Violent Looting,” South China Morning Post, December 13, 2013, http://www.scmp.com. 16. See R. Evan Ellis, “Suriname and the Chinese: Timber, Migration, and the Less-Told Stories of Globalization.” SAIS Review, 32(2), Summer– Fall 2012): 85–97. 17. “Empresarios chinos, afectados por violencia en Venezuela,” Informador, March 23, 2011, http://www.informador.com.mx. 18. Hearn, Smart, and Hernández Hernández, “China and Mexico.” 19. H. G. Helps, “Chinese under Siege—Criminals, Cops Extort, Rob Businessmen at Will,” Jamaica Observer, July 14, 2013, http://www .jamaicaobserver.com. 20. Interviews with multiple political and business figures in Guyana. Georgetown, Guyana. August 15–20, 2013. Helps, “Chinese under Siege.” 21. “Police to Ramp up Security Measures for Chinese Community in Jamaica,” Go Jamaica, August 27, 2013, http://go-jamaica.com. 22. R. Evan Ellis, “Chinese Organized Crime in Latin America.” Prism, 4(1), December 1, 2012: 67–77. 23. “Aislados por el miedo a la violencia,” La Nación, October 11, 2011, http://www.lanacion.com.ar. 24. “Investigarán la mafia china en Argentina,” Diario Uno, December 24, 2011, http://www.diariouno.com.ar. 25. “Mafia china en Argentina . . . ‘70 mil dólares o te matamos’,” September 23, 2011, http://www.pdegdigital.com. 26. “Un nuevo golpe de la ‘mafia china’,” Clarín, October 2, 2011, http:// www.Clarín.com. 27. Alejandro Gamero, “La mafia china arribó a Mendoza e intimida a los comerciantes,” Diario Uno, August 21, 2011, http://www.diariouno .com.ar. 28. The Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, established by what is today the government of the Republic of China to oversee issues of “overseas Chinese ranks Peru as the country in the hemisphere with the largest Chinese population. It puts the number of Chinese in the country as a whole at 1.3  million persons. See “Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission.” http://www.ocac.gov.tw/english/public/public.asp?seln o=1163&no=1163&level=B.” 29. “Ciudadano chino cayó cuando iba a matar a su cuarta víctima,” El Comercio, June 22, 2010, http://elcomercio.pe. See also “Balacera en

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chifa alarmó a vecinos del Rímac,” El Comercio, January 21, 2011, http:// elcomercio.pe. 30. “Mafia china lanzó bomba a chifa chalaco,” Trome, May 8, 2011, http:// trome.pe. 31. “El 95% de las llamadas de extorsión sale de las cárceles de Lima,” El Comercio, January 28, 2012, http://elcomercio.pe. 32. Juan Carlos Leal, “Caen cuatro chinos,” La Prensa, April 10, 2010, http://laprensalara.com.ve. 33. “Denuncian la presencia de ‘mafia china’ en el país,” El Universo, September 8, 2009, http://www.eluniverso.com. 34. See, for example, Rafáel Rodríguez, “Cárcel para miembros de la ‘mafia china’,” La Estrella, November 9, 2008, http://www.laestrella.com.pa. 35. Ana-Lisa Paul, “Police deny Chinese Singled out for Criminal Attack,” The Guardian, July 19, 2012, http://www.guardian.co.tt/news. 36. For an example of this problem in Venezuela, see Jhonathan Raul Segovia, “Cicpc desmantela mafia China en Carora,” Diario de los Andes, April 11, 2010, http://diariodelosandes.com. 37. “La mafia china trafica cocaína en Peru,” Peru 21, August 13, 2010, http://www.peru21.com. 38. This specific language was used by a government official, speaking with the author in Paramaribo, Suriname in July 2012, but similar responses have appeared in numerous other sources. In addition, one Trinidadbased journalist, for example, refers to the “fears about the . . . arrival of the ‘Chinese mafia’ and the facilitation of human trafficking.” Wesley Gibbings, “Caribbean Nerves over Chinese Business Settling,” The Trinidad Guardian, February 7, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.tt. 39. Hearn, Smart, and Hernández Hernández, “China and Mexico.” 40. Gonzalo Sebastian Paz, “China and Venezuela: Oil, Technology, and Socialism,” in China Engages Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory, eds., A. H. Hearn and José Luis León Marquez (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011), 233. 41. Ezra Fieser, “Why Is China Spending Billions in the Caribbean?” Global Post, April 22, 2011, http://www.globalpost.com. 42. Thomas Fontane, “Dominica and the Growing Chinese Involvement in the Caribbean,” The Dominican, July 8, 2012, http://www.thedomini can.net. 43. “Proliferan en el Táchira tiendas y restaurants chinos,” La Nación, December 3, 2012, http://www.lanacion.com.ve. 44. Randal C. Archibold, “China Buys Inroads in the Caribbean, Catching U.S. Notice,” The New York Times, April 7, 2012, http://www.nytimes .com. 45. “Mas evidente presencia de migrantes de otros continentes en Latinoamérica: ONU,” Milenio, February 1, 2012, http://www.milenio .com. 46. Sam Logan, “Ecuador: China’s Human Trafficking Backdoor to the USA,” ISN Security Watch, February 2, 2009.

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47. Ellis, “Chinese Organized Crime in Latin America.” 48. “Operan en la Ciudad mafias internacionales,” Reforma, October 8, 2007, http://www.gruporeforma.com. 49. “Deportaciones y expulsiones de ciudadanos chinos se dispararon en 2008, según datos del DAS,” El Tiempo, December 21, 2008, http:// www.eltiempo.com. The surge in Chinese also created a financial and administrative crisis for Colombian authorities, who lacked the resources to deport the enormous quantity of Chinese which the DAS had detained. See “Otro grupo de chinos trató de utilizar a Colombia como trampolín para llegar ilegalmente a E.U.,” El Tiempo, May 11, 2007, http://www.eltiempo.com. 50. “China complacida por lucha del tráfico de personas en Ecuador,” El Universo, November 14, 2008, http://www.eluniverso.com/. 51. Manuel Pascual, “Funcionarios de RENIEC peruana implicados con mafia china que trafica personas,” La Gran Época, July 31, 2011, http:// www.lagranepoca.com. 52. “Red de 22 empleados del Reniec implicados en tráfico de chinos.” El Comercio. Lima, Peru. http://www.elcomerciolcom.pe. July 25, 2011. 53. Ibid. See Pascual, “Funcionarios de RENIEC peruana implicados con mafia china que trafica personas.” 54. “Detuvieron a dos paraguayos acusados de traficar chinos,” La Nación, January 8, 2012, http://www.lanacion.com.py. 55. “Como opera en el país la mafia china,” Clarín, May 12, 2002, http:// www.clarín.com. 56. “Descubren asiáticos con estadía irregular en el país,” Los Tiempos, February 2, 2007, http://www.lostiempos.com. 57. “Con trabajo en equipo se destapó el caso de las visas,” La Razón, December 13, 2006, http://www.la-razon.com. 58. “Capturan a traficante de chinos,” Reforma, October 23, 2010, http:// gruporeforma.com. 59. “Borrando las huellas,” La Estrella, April 26, 2011, http://www.laest rella.com.pa. See also “Tráfico de chinos en el gobierno del cambio,” La Estrella, April 25, 2011, http://www.laestrella.com.pa. 60. José Meléndez, “La mafia china aumenta el tráfico de personas en AL,” El Universal, May 10, 2007, http://www.eluniversal.com.mx. 61. “Llegan a costa costarricense 61 inmigrantes dejados a la deriva,” Nación, April 23, 2007, http://www.nacion.com. 62. Meléndez, “La mafia china aumenta el tráfico de personas en AL.” 63. Ernesto U. Savona. “Case Studies of Organized Crime.” 64. Carlos Devers, “Apresan los primeros 15 chinos trataban de salir por Manzanillo; aumenta tráfico de ilegales—Rep. Dominicana,” El Nuevo Diario, March 22, 2012, http://www.diariof27.com /articulo,3765,html. 65. See, for example, “EE.UU. acusa a Venezuela de no combatir el tráfico de personas,” Clarín, May 6, 2006, http://edant.clarin.com.

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66. Frank López Ballesteros, “La diáspora china en Venezuela acelera su relevo generacional,” El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela, July 8, 2013, 67. Sailú Urribarrí Núñez, “Desmantelan banda que traía ilegalmente chinos,” El Universal, April 20, 2007, http://www.eluniversal.com. 68. German Dam V. “Desmantelan red de tráfico de chinos en Puerto Ordaz,” La Patilla, http://www.lapatilla.com. 69. “Chinos ahora nos usan para llegar a Venezuela,” El Tiempo, July 28, 2013, http://www.eltiempo.com/justicia/ARTICULO-WEB-NEW _NOTA_INTERIOR-12953671.html. 70. “Chinese Triad Expands in T&T,” May 18, 2011. 71. Ibid. 72. Based on not-for-attribution interviews with Guyanese officials, Georgetown, Guyana. August 15–20, 2013. 73. “Cops Link Chinese to Organized Crime—Trinidad & Tobago,” The Guardian, May 16, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.tt. 74. “Operan en la Ciudad mafias internacionales.” 75. Dam V., “Desmantelan red de tráfico.” 76. For more on this phenomenon, see Donald L. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.).

10  What It All Means 1. “China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean (Full Text),” Government of the People’s Republic of China, November 2008, http:// english.gov.cn/official/2008-11/05/content_1140347.htm. 2. See “China’s Initiation of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, November 17, 2000, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn. 3. For a good discussion of China’s application of China’s evolving application of foreign policy principles in the Latin American context, see Julia Strauss, “Framing and Claiming: Contemporary Globalization and ‘Going Out’ in China’s Rhetoric Toward Latin America,” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 134–156. 4. “Venezuela Ceases Ormulsion Production,” El Universal, September 26, 2006, http://www.eluniversal.com. 5. “Petrobras renegociará contrato de crudo con Ecuador,” El Universo, October 2, 2007, http://www.eluniverso.com. 6. “Is Argentina Penny-wise and Pound Foolish with Its Trade Policies?” Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, June 16, 2010, http://www .wharton.universia.net. 7. See, for example, “China Soya Ban Angers Argentina,” BBC News, April 6, 2010, http://www.bbcnews.com.

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8. See also R. Evan Ellis, “Beyond ‘Win-Win’ and the Menacing Dragon: How China is Transforming Latin America,” Center for Hemispheric Policy Working Paper, January 31, 2013, https://umshare.miami.edu/web/wda /hemisphericpolicy/Task_Force_Papers/Ellis-GlobalizationTFPaper .pdf. 9. See, for example, Peter Ritter, “Taiwan’s Leader Keeps Low Profile Abroad,” Time, August 11, 2008, http://content.time.com. 10. See Ellis, “Beyond ‘Win-Win’ and the Menacing Dragon.” 11. As noted previously, for example, the Hong Kong–based firm Hutchison Whampoa pulled out of the Port of Manta before its programmed investments to expand the capacity of the port had been completed. 12. “Evo anuncia reunión con Humala sobre megapuertos,” Los Tiempos, Cochabamba, Bolivia, February 13, 2013, http://www.lostiempos .com. 13. “Senador Daniel Ávila pide a Profepa evaluar impacto ambiental de Dragon Mart,” La Prensa, Mexico City, Mexico, October 2, 2013, http://www.oem.com.mx. 14. See Ellis, “Beyond ‘Win-Win’ and the Menacing Dragon.” 15. In smaller Caribbean basin countries such as Guyana and Suriname, an additional change is that Chinese merchants occupy an increasingly visible position in the retail sector. 16. See Ellis, “Beyond ‘Win-Win’ and the Menacing Dragon.” 17. See, for example, Carlos Salinas Maldonado, ““Tener un canal es un interés estratégico de China,” El Confidencial, June 17, 2013, http:// www.elconfidencial.com.ni. 18. Carl Mecham and R. Evan Ellis, “La Alianza del Pacífico y los éxitos que los países pueden alcanzar individualmente,” El Pais, May 23, 2013, http://internacional.elpais.com. 19. Indeed, in January 2014, the second annual CELAC summit formally established a China-CELAC forum as a vehicle for the region as a whole to relate to the P.R.C. without the presence of the United States, paralleling the establishment of FOCAC in Africa. “CELAC Confirmed as an Interlocutor in the Region with the World,” Prensa Latina, January 31, 2014, http://www.plenglish.com. 20. Charley Keys, “Clinton warns of Iranian, Chinese gains in Latin America,” CNN, May 1, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com. 21. Arturo Valenzuela, “China ‘Not a Threat’ in L. America,” People’s Daily Online, August 19, 2010, http:// english.peopledaily.com.cn. Similarly, during his April 2004 testimony to Congress, for example, then– Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Rogelio Pardo-Maurer testified that there was “no evidence that Chinese military activities in the Western Hemisphere, including arms sales, pose a direct conventional threat to the United States,” yet warned that “this is not to say that there are no concerns.” US House International Relations Committee, Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere, Hearing on “China’s

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Inf luence in the Western Hemisphere,” Serial No. 109–63, April 6, 2005. 22. In a November 2009 speech at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, then–Deputy Assistant Secretary for Defense for the Western Hemisphere Dr. Frank Mora said that it was his view that China’s deepening engagement in the hemisphere could play a productive role in ameliorating challenges affecting the region, but expressed concern over the transparency of Chinese activities in the region. Frank. O. Mora, Presentation to the Conference “Strategic Implications of China’s Evolving Relationship with Latin America,” Fort Lesley J. McNair. Washington, DC, November 6, 2009. 23. R. Evan Ellis, “The United States and China in Latin America: Cooperation and Competition,” Security and Defense Studies Review (Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies), 12 (1 & 2), Fall–Winter 2011: 37–44. 24. “The First Presidential Debate: Transcript,” New York Times, September 26, 2009. 25. Gonzalo Sebastian Paz, “China, the United States and Hegemonic Challenge in Latin America: An Overview and Some Lessons from Previous Instances of Hegemonic Challenge in the Region,” in From the Great Wall to the New World: China and Latin America in the 21st Century, eds., Julia C. Strauss and Ariel C. Armony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 18–34. 26. For a review of US policy toward China in Latin America during the past decade, see Ellis, “The United States and China in Latin America.” 27. “China’s Latin America Presence Not a Threat: U.S. Official,” Xinhua, November 13, 2013, http://news.xinhuanet.com/. 28. John Kerry, “Remarks on U.S. Policy in the Western Hemisphere,” US Department of State, November 18, 2013, http://www.state.gov /secretary/remarks/2013/11/217680.htm. 29. See, for example, R. Evan Ellis, “U.S.-China Competition Heats Up as Chinese President Xi Tours Latin America,” The Manzella Report, June 7, 2013, http://www.manzellareport.com. 30. For a more in-depth treatment of this topic, see R. Evan Ellis, “Chinese Organized Crime in Latin America,” Prism, 4(1), December 1, 2012: 67–77. 31. US House of Representatives, 112th Congress (October 8, 2012), Investigative Report on the U.S. National Security Issues Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE. See also R. Evan Ellis, “The Strategic Dimension of Chinese Activities in the Latin American Telecommunications Sector,” Revista Científica “General José María Córdova,” ed., Jesús Alberto Suárez Pineda, 11(11), January–June 2013: 121–140. 32. Indeed, various scholars have noted the interdependence between the perceptions and actions of actors on the Chinese side, within the United

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States, and within Latin America, referring to the relationship as a “triangle.” The first major reference to such a “triangular relationship” appeared in the 2007 essay by Juan Gabriel Tokatlian, “Latin America, China, and the United States: a Hopeful Triangle,” Open Democracy, February 9, 2007. It was however, arguably Barbara Stallings’ 2008 article, “The US-China-Latin America Triangle: Implications for the Future,” that most definitively introduced the concept. Barbara Stallings, “The US-China-Latin America Triangle: Implications for the Future,” in China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere, eds., Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.) Since that time, the term has been used in other significant works on China’s engagement with the region, including the January 2011 study China, Latin America, and the United States: The New Triangle (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, 2011.) See also R. Evan Ellis, “The United States, Latin America and China: A ‘Triangular Relationship’?” Working Paper Series, InterAmerican Dialogue (Washington DC, May 2012.) See also China and the New Triangular Relationships in the Americas: China and the Future of US-Mexico Relations (Mexico City: Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, 2013.).

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