Bringing norms to the jungle : normative power vs power politics Zaki Laïdi

Session 2 : Bringing norms to the jungle : normative power vs power politics Zaki Laïdi © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris...
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Session 2 : Bringing norms to the jungle : normative power vs power politics

Zaki Laïdi © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Where Europe stands today • A distribution of world power: % of world GDP 1750

1880 2,8

23,2

24,5

Europe US 32,8

0,1

12,5 Europe

14,7

China India

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

US 61,3

China India

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© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Shares in world trade (in %) 2006

2010

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Regional shares in world merchandise exports, 1996 and 2006

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Representation at the G20 The Americas: • Canada • United States Latin America: • Argentina • Brazil • Mexico Australia

Europe: •Germany •Italy •France •Russia •EU •UK

Asia: • China • Indonesia • Japan • India • Republic of Korea

Middle East: Africa: •Saudi Arabia •South Africa •Turkey © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Voting shares at the IMF - 2010

29,40%

34,25%

2,20% 2,50% 2,60%

16,75% 6,07%

EU 27 USA Japan China India Russia Brazil Rest of the world

6,23% © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Production of public bads Greenhouse gas emissions -2010

24,50% 35,10%

16,39%

9,48% 5,04% 3,39%

6,10% © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

China USA India Russia Japan EU 27 Rest of the world 8

Membership of the Security Council 5 permanent members with veto power: China, France, Russia, UK, USA 10 non-permanent members: Azerbaijan, Colombia, Germany, Guatemala, India, Morocco, Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, Togo. © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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The European dilemma: 1. Europe as a political construction based on a refusal of power politics 2. But the more Europe gets involved in international affairs, the more it faces power politics This is the sense of European dilemma

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Questions 1. What power politics means ? 2. Why Europe refuses power politics ? 3. Is there a substitute to power politics ? Yes : normative power

4. What is a normative power ? 5. Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Power politics : definition and implications It is an interpretation of the international system based on a certain number of assumptions concerning the structure, constraints and behaviour of actors. • Power politics is based on a realistic vision of the world order © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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What is realism ? Hypothesis: 1. The international system is dominated by State actors 2. The dominant factor shaping the international system is the distribution of capabilities among State actors 3. The international system is based on anarchy and not on norms 4. States are driven by survival and not by moral objectives 5. States interests who are stable overtime prevail over processes of socialization, negociations and consultation © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Implications of realism: • States are more prone to conflicts than cooperation • Interstate relations are regulated by force rather than institutions than norms

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Why Europe refuses power politics? 1. Europe is not a State but an unidentified political object: • Europe is more than a regional organization: sovereignty is shared on a significant number of issues • But Europe is also less than a federal State: limited redistributing power of the EU and no legitimacy provided by a central authority © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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• EU budget represents less than 1% of EU GDP

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Why Europe refuses power politics? 2. Europe feels much more comfortable with situations implying cooperation on public goods (environment) than confrontation on security issues (war)

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Why Europe refuses power politics? 3. As Jean Monnet said, Europe aims at MERGING European interests rather than BALANCING them

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Is there a substitute to power politics? • Yes : normative power Power refers to force, and norms to rules

• Force and norms tend to constrain but in different ways : • Power : Robert Dahl’s definition : « A getting B to do something B would otherwise not do » Robert Dahl, ‘The concept of power’, Behavorial Science, 1957

• Norms: based on consent, but once accepted, it becomes the rule of all actors © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Is there a substitute to power politics? • The difference between power and norms lies, not in the level of constraint, but on the degree of legitimacy

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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What is a normative power? • A norm is a social conduct which is sanctioned if not respected i.e. : going regularly to the supermarket is a habit, but paying your taxes is a norm The difference between a habit and a norm, is that a habit which is not respected isn’t sanctioned, whereas a norm which is not respected is sanctioned

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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What is normative power? • Definition: A norm is a standard of behaviour which is sanctioned in case of non-compliance

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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What is normative power? • In IR, a norm requires six conditions: 1. A standard of behaviour which is identifiable 2. Consistent overtime 3. Recognized as such 4. Legitimized by international institutions and binding for all 5. Prescribing conducts 6. Expecting specific outcomes

• A norm is then a standard which entails rights and obligations © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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What is normative power? Norms are of different kinds: • Technical norms • Market norms • Social and political norms

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What is normative power? • Question : how to convert normative power at the external level ? Why Europe prefers norms ? • Norms are what enable nation States to share their sovereignty without abolishing it • Europe is since 1957 a normative construct because it needs binding standards to share sovereignty and guarantee their stability and implementation • For Europe, norms is the only game in town © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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What is normative power? • Challenge : • Norms regarded as illegitimate and constraining the autonomy of nation States • Norms regarded as a limitation to political action at the national level

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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What is normative power? • In Europe, norms tend to overcome political autonomy of State behaviour by stable and predictable standards of behaviour embedded in treaties i.e. : Fiscal treaty. Why defining standards of limited deficits which do no exist out of the Eurozone ? Because there is a gap between the monetary union and fiscal union. The only way to close that gap is to define stringent norms. © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? • The EU tends to develop its global influence in the world through norms. Why ? 1. Because it is basically the sole instrument of power in its hands, as it lacks military power 2. Because in a globalized world, European standards aiming at protecting the Single Market have an outreach beyond European borders © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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3. Because Europe has very high social standards which need to ne protected in the global competition (fear of race to the bottom) 4. Because in a globalized world there is an increasing debate on the hierarchy of norms (trade vs environment standards)

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? • Norms and preferences : • Norms express a certain number of social preferences embedded in European societies. Norms are rarely neutral

• Understanding European normative power means understanding European preferences © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? Three main preferences in Europe : 1. Limiting the effects of power politics in the world system through the use of norms A normative power is a soft power 2. Strong belief in the socializing power of trade 3. Strong belief in the importance of how market values

© Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? • Performances and limits of a normative power: • The EU isn’t the only a normative power. The US is also a normative power. • The EU specificity lies in the fact that norms are the only instrument of leverage: European power is not fungible

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? Performances : 1. Norms are a strong instrument of EU influence in the world because of the size of its market. The power of norms derives from the size of its market. 2. Norms have a strong impact on countries of the neighbourhood who are dependant upon the EU for political and economic support © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? 3. Norms are less effective vis-à-vis countries who have a leverage on the EU, for instance Russia 4. Globalization is making global governance much more difficult and many institutions are in crisis, such as the Security council of the UN, WTO, climate change, disarmament, etc. © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? • Globalization is far from creating a global consensus: 1. Many emerging powers are opposed to the encroachment on their sovereignty for political, economic and social reasons 2. Many emerging powers consider European standards as too high in regard to their own level of development (debate on special and differenciated treatment) © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Can a normative power survive in a world dominated by power politics ? 3. The European free trading approach is constrained by a deep suspicion towards the benefits of free trade in some emerging countries and the US 4. Divisions among European States limit the European leverage on world affairs, such as security, trade, environment and climate change 5. Europe is weakened by its own internal problems © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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Conclusion: • The impact of the European normative power remains strong on some specific areas. But it is declining, because : • They are more players in the game who do not share its preferences • They look at Europe as a weak actor confronted to its internal problems and unable to provide security • There is no collective appetite for working together © Professor Zaki Laïdi's Teaching Material, Sciences Po Paris

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