New York City Transit

Subway Operations and Operations Planning Collaborations for Subway Service Improvements at NYC Transit Peter G. Cafiero Chief Division of Operations...
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Subway Operations and Operations Planning Collaborations for Subway Service Improvements at NYC Transit

Peter G. Cafiero Chief Division of Operations Planning

John G. Gaul Vice President & Chief Officer, Service Delivery Department of Subways

New York City Transit

Internal & external factors present a challenging operating environment

Operating conditions

New York City Transit

Key challenges Operating at capacity more frequently

Hurricane Sandy

Harsh winters (10/11 & 13/14)

Aging infrastructure

Increased ridership

Increasing track access required for planned & unplanned work

Increasing delays

Decreasing wait assessment (regularity) Size & complexity

24/7 operations 1

Historically, Operations Planning & Operations tended to operate in silos Operations Planning Planning (long term)

New York City Transit

Operations Schedules & guidance

• Setting service frequency • Scheduling crews/trains

Execution • Daily operations • Maintenance & construction (w/ CPM, etc.)

Planning (short term) • Approve track access requests and create supplemental schedules

Feedback on schedule

Requests for track access

Analysis • Statistics & modeling • Report generation

Performance & incident data

Record keeping • Databases • Hard copy records

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Challenges have prompted investment in bridging Operations Planning and Operations Operations Planning Planning (long term) • Setting service frequency • Scheduling crews/trains

Collaborative efforts Schedule optimization • Revised running times

Special operating plans

Planning (short term) • Approve track access requests and create supplemental schedules

• Special events • Inclement weather

New York City Transit

Operations Execution • Daily operations • Maintenance & construction (w/ CPM, etc.)

System rebuilding • FASTRACK program

Service regulation Analysis • Statistics & modeling • Report generation

• Back to basics • Centralization

Operations analysis

Record keeping • Databases • Hard copy records

• Daily performance feedback • Real-time mgmt. tools

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Collaboration fostered by increased interaction, changing expectations

New York City Transit

Increased interactions

Changing culture & expectations





Jointly accountability for results



A culture of continuing improvement, not “That is how it has always been done” philosophy



Vertical and horizontal communication within and across departments

Collaborative projects and incident critiques



Joint service delivery meetings



Planning analysts temporarily embedded in Rail Control Center

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Schedule Optimization

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Running time adjustments

New York City Transit



First major analysis and changes to schedules since 1996



Numbered line schedule changes completed based on full data from automated data systems – Changes in running time vary by time of day due to differing ridership, congestion and maintenance activity – Changes evened out service which had become uneven due to prior changes to individual lines (flat junctions caused unintended impacts on other lines) – Initial results are positive, showing improved throughput, on time performance, and wait assessment



Lettered line changes in progress, based on data entered by dispatchers, as well as data from programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a modest number of traditional manual observations

The number/letter line breakdown is a general rule, with a few exceptions (e.g., L trains have centralized data). 6

Special Operating Plans

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Barclays Center special event plans

New York City Transit

• Prior to the center opening, Operations Planning and Operations jointly developed plans for additional service after large events, and revised plans based on experience

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Hurricane planning has evolved and improved • Operations Planning and Operations jointly develops plans for: – Evacuation – Closure & protection of system – Restoration and reopening

Hurricane Sandy Service Timeline NYC

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Hurricane Landfall

All NYCT service suspended Operating personnel in safe locations

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• Operations Planning input used to prioritize during the storm – Operations Planning reports and data available to Operations staff – Operations Planning representative providing live support at the Incident Command Center

New York City Transit

NYCT Bus Service begins to curtail

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NYCT Subway Service begins to curtail

-8 -20 -18

NYCT Coastal Storm Service Plan begins

Evacuation!

-18 -42 -30

Mayoral evacuation order issued Evacuation Centers prepare for opening

-42 Timepoints not to scale

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Winter Operations Plans •

Objective: Lay out storm preparation, fighting, and service normalization strategy, including plan for underground fleet storage



Operations Planning and Operations work together to schedule pre-positioning, operations around stored trains, and resumption of normal service

New York City Transit

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System Rebuilding

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FASTRACK

New York City Transit

• Objective: Maximize effectiveness for maintenance activities by removing service from all tracks  Improved safety  Lower cost  Simpler closure definitions (e.g., 10PM – 5AM each day, all tracks)  Minimized substitute bus service  Maximized use of alternative subway options

Example map from FASTRACK poster 12

Service Regulation & Delay Management

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Back to basics

New York City Transit

 Precise dispatching  Continuous headway regulation  Effective delay management  Dwell time control

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Dwell time control

New York City Transit

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Evolving service control organization

Decentralized

New York City Transit

Centralized

Numbered lines: 2006 ATS provided fully centralized monitoring and control

Lettered lines: Centralized monitoring being phased in

The number/letter line breakdown is a general rule, with a few exceptions. L trains have centralized control and 7 trains do not, though centralized 7 train control is planned.

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Evolving service control organization

New York City Transit

Operations Planning/Operations collaborative efforts on:  Organizational change management  Streamlining processes and procedures  Optimizing use of electronic performance data

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Operations Analysis / Capacity Utilization

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Daily performance feedback reports

New York City Transit

More details in next presentation1

Terminal OTP reports shared with Operations daily & interactive dashboard being built to trace individual trains

Illustrative mock ups only – not necessarily representative of actual performance. 1. Facilitating Subway Service Improvements with Near-Real Time Data Visualization and Reporting

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Real-time service management tools: Stringline chart • OP developed stringline chart to visualize service and intervals to help operations better regulate spacing between trains

New York City Transit

Trains held to close gaps

• Senior management and planners found stringlines useful for analysis • Embedded analysts discovered dispatchers found the display too complex for rapid decisionmaking, preferred a simple table

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Real-time service management tools: Largest gaps table

New York City Transit

• Automatically identify and prioritize largest gaps in the system (Adivision) for service managers to target • Currently under pilot testing at the Rail Control Center

Gaps can be filtered by dispatcher territory as well as line/direction

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Stringlines and gap tables are new and improved versions of much older ideas

New York City Transit

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Conclusions

New York City Transit

 Subway service is facing new challenges and NYCT is trying several new initiatives to combat declining performance

 Operations Planning & Operations are working collaboratively to maximize resources and eliminate barriers  Collaborative projects

 Regular OP/Service Delivery meetings & calls

 Extensive coordination and collaboration between groups within NYCT undertaken in a short time frame

 Significant steps taken to take advantage of the data by using it to improve performance  Schedule improvements  Real-time performance tools  Performance assessments

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