MYELOMA CANCER STEM CELL IS TARGETING THE CANCER STEM CELL THE KEY TO CURING CANCER?
Nicolas Padron, M.D. Doctor, and Patient since 2004 [email protected]
What is a stem cell?
Stem cells are the “mother” cells of your body that produce all the functional cells of your body. Stem cells are undifferentiated, meaning they have no function such as nerve cells, muscle cells, etc. Stem cells produce copies of themselves and progenitor cells that then become differentiated or functional cells. Defective stem cells produce defective functional cells. Aging is associated with loss of stem cells.
What is a healthy stem cell and what is a cancer stem cell? Healthy stem cells produce healthy cells in your body Cancer stem cells produce cancer cells.
Why do stem cells become cancerous? Genetic changes due to exposure to chemicals, smoking, spontaneous mutations, loss of cancer immunity, aging factors, or unknown factors
From Cancer stem cell to cancer cell
Myeloma stem cells produce the myeloma cancer cells
Healthy stem cells and cancer stem cells analogy to plants/weeds and roots
The roots of the healthy stem cells and cancer stem cells
Again, the roots grow the plant. Kill only the plant (cancer cells) and the roots (cancer stem cells) re-grow the weed (cancer cells)
So, have researchers been missing the target to cure cancer? Traditional cancer treatments have only focused on the cancer cells, leaving the cancer stem cells behind. This may explain why patients can go into complete remission and later the cancer returns.
Cancer stem cell theory and new discoveries
The cancer stem theory/hypothesis states that cancer stem cells produce copies of themselves, produce the cancer cells, and re-grow the cancer (relapse) Even if you kill all the cancer cells (complete remission) the cancer stem cells left behind will re-grow the cancer. But, if you kill the cancer stem cells, then you eradicate (cure) the patient of his cancer. This concept has been around for over one hundred years. (Beard 1904, primordial cells)
Where are we now on cancer stem cells and myeloma stem cells
Around 1976, a lady researcher named Hamburger (with coresearcher Salmon) was the first to state from her research that myeloma has cancer stem cells. But her research was not taken seriously, and she could not continue, funding was cut. So, in 1994-97, U. of Toronto researchers were the first to actually discover cancer stem cells, in AML (Leukemia), Dr John Dick. His research was not taken seriously either, but since then, the research findings have grown, and now there are over 15 cancers with cancer stem cells discovered. AML, CML, brain cancers, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, osteosarcoma, and myeloma.
Discovery of the myeloma cancer stem cell
In 2003, Johns Hopkins researchers, Dr William Matsui, Dr Richard Jones, et al published a report on their discovery of the mm stem cell! IMF report 2004 on mm csc Again, their report was not taken seriously, but they have continued with their research and have conducted a clinical trial using Retuximab (Rituxan) to eradicate mm stem cells. Results so far are mixed. But Dr Matsui is planning a trial this year using GRN163L
GRN163L targets mm cancer stem cells in preclinical trials. It is a telomerase inhibitor that will go into clinical trials this year at Johns Hopkins. Telomerase is an enzyme in cancer stem cells that keeps these cells immortal by keeping telomeres at the end of our DNA strands long. Inhibiting telomerase causes the telomeres to shorten and the cancer stem cells are killed off. Shortening of telomeres is also involved in aging, and using a telomerase activator in healthy cells may lengthen the telomeres again, somewhat reversing the aging process.
What are telomeres?
Telomeres at the ends of chromosomes are long in youth, but shorten with each division of the cells. (aging process) Over time, the telomeres shorten too much/disappear, and the stem cells stop dividing and die off. This may part of the aging process in normal stem cells. Telomerase keep the telomeres in cancer stem cells long, so the cell becomes immortal. Inhibiting telomerase causes the csc telomeres to shorten and then the cells die off.
Aging process and telomeres In healthy stem cells, the telomeres shorten and the stem cells age. Adding a telomerase activator (TA) can restore the telomere length which reverses the aging process. TA is available. From Astragalus plant. Caution in cancer patients.
Cyclopamine comes from the corn lily plant that grows in the western United States. It attacks myeloma cancer stem cells by causing them to differentiate (mature) into myeloma cells without making new copies of themselves. (Hopkins 2006) In this way the mm stem cells are eliminated. Problem with cyclopamine is large quantities are not available and not very water soluble. Also very expensive. Derivative of cyclopamine may be better, and may be tested in New York. No clinical trials available.
My Cyclopamine Self Trial
Cyclopamine obtained from a lab for my own use. (not FDA approved) Over four (4) cycles, M marker decreased from 1.0 to 0.2 M marker had stayed at 1.0 for 1.5 years despite oral treatment with thalidomide, Revlimid, and steroids. Not absolute proof.
Parthenolide and DMAPT Parthenolide, from the feverfew plant, has been shown by U. Rochester researchers, Drs Jordan and Guzman, to target and eliminate AML stem cells. Parthenolide has effect on mm cells also, but may have effect on mm stem cells. Parthenolide is not very water soluble. (See bottle sample) So, a water soluble version has been made called DMAPT (University of Kentucky) Clinical trials are to start in England this year using DMAPT in AML, then possibly myeloma. With good results, trials are to move to the USA in 6 months.
So, where are we now?
Await these trials to start to see what results we will get. Other trials…….
Wake Forest cancer immunity trial using white blood cells (granulocyte) from cancer immune people to transfer to cancer patients. (high CKA)
SR/CR mice CKA is highest in the summer (April to September) Transfer of these cells may eradicate multiple cancers in patients. Trial may begin next summer when CKA is highest. Dr Cui, based on his mice research since 1999. Approved for 22 patients, but funding is a problem.
ALLOSTIM……. Allostim, from Israel. This uses T cells removed from patients, exposed to Allostim to make them “angry”, then the T cells are put back into the patient, causing a reaction with the body’s immune cells, making them attack the cancer. So, we must find a way to eradicate the cancer stem cell either by direct attack or via immunotherapy.
The missing link or Holy Grail to curing cancer ….Is the cancer stem cell. Eradicate it and may get cures. We await the proof from clinical trials.