Molecular markers pinpoint genes for disease resistance in tomato

20 February 2009 Molecular markers pinpoint genes for disease resistance in tomato trials in October 2007. Hybrids and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ...
Author: Bruno Palmer
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20 February 2009

Molecular markers pinpoint genes for disease resistance in tomato trials in October 2007. Hybrids and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is Hannover and funded by Deutsche inbred lines with multiple TYLCV a high value crop and a valuable Gesellschaft für Technische resistance genes, resistance to BW, source of vitamin A in human diets. Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) we are heat tolerance, and good fruit However, yields in the tropics developing tomato lines for the quality have been under evaluation average less than 15 t/ha, far lower tropics with stable BW and TYLCV in 2008 trials in India, Vietnam, than those in developing countries resistance. We identify and use Cambodia, Thailand, Mali, and in temperate areas. Diseases are a resistance genes from wild and Niger. Additional TYLCV and BW major cause of low tomato yields in cultivated tomato species and we genes for resistance are being the tropics; especially Tomato apply molecular markers to develop mapped for future breeding yellow leaf curl virus activities. (TYLCV) and bacterial wilt (BW). TYLCV is spread by “Improved varieties will the sweet potato whitefly benefit small-scale after it feeds on infected producers and can create plants. Farmers often spray additional employment pesticides to control the opportunities along the disease, causing harm to commodity chain,” says themselves and the Hanson. “Tomato varieties environment. The BW resistant to TYLCV and BW pathogen (Ralstonia will increase yield by 30% solanacearum) lives in the or more and allow farmers soil and infects tomato and to reduce pesticide many other plant species. It applications for whitefly causes plants to wilt and die, Ü In direct comparison: Healthy tomato (left) vs. a TYLCV control, reducing their affected tomato plant (right) often just before harvest. BW production costs and is so severe in some regions improving product and that farmers are not able to grow disease resistant tropical tomato environmental safety.” Rich in tomato at all. varieties.” micronutrients, tomatoes also help improve the nutritional status of “Disease-resistant varieties are the The use of molecular markers consumers in the tropical lowlands most effective, cheapest, and easiest increases the efficiency of plant beyond the typical limits of tomato way to control diseases to benefit breeding for disease resistance by cultivation. The tomato varieties small-scale farmers, but resistance facilitating the selection of multiple developed through the project are is often unstable and does not work resistance genes. Molecular markers international public goods and will equally well against all pathogen have been applied to select tomato be disseminated by AVRDC – The strains or in all environments,” says populations for two TYLCV World Vegetable Center through Dr. Peter Hanson, Tomato Breeder resistance genes. Hybrids with public and private sector and the Center’s Global Theme TYLCV resistance genes from this institutions worldwide. Leader for Breeding. “Together with project demonstrated promising partners from the University of resistance in north India during

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2 THE LIBRARY New publications New books available Koike, S.T., Gladders, P., Paulus, A.O. (2007). Vegetable diseases: a color handbook. Burlington, MA: Academic Press. 448 pp.

Some useful excerpts from this book: Ÿ Brassicaceae , p.155-198. Ÿ Capsicum, p.199-219. Ÿ Cucurbitaceae, p.220-251. Ÿ Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), p.327-367.

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…recent articles requested by staff Holden, C. (2009). Climate change: higher temperatures seen reducing global harvests. SCIENCE 323 (5911):193. Lee, C.F., Cheng, H.T. (2008). The Chrysomelidae of Taiwan I. KANSAS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, JOURNAL 81(3):311-312. Santos, L., Marin, S., Sancis, V., Ramos, A.J. (2008). Capsicum and mycotoxin contamination: state of the art in a global context. FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL 14(1):5-20. Vidavski, F., Czosnek, H., Gazit, S., Levy, D., Lapidot, M. (2008). Pyramiding of genes conferring resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from different wild tomato species. PLANT BREEDING 127 (6):625-531. Turner, P.C., Gong, Y.Y., Diallo, M.S., Sutcliffe, A.E., Hall, A.J., Wild, C.P. (2005). Reduction in exposure to carcinogenic aflatoxins by postharvest intervention measures in west Africa: a community-based intervention study. THE LANCET. 365(9475):1950-1956.

Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York, NY: Free Press. 551 pp.

Cai, Z., Cheung, C.Y., Ma, W.T., Au, W.M., Zhang, X.Y., Lee, A. (2004). Determination of two intact glucosinolates in vegetables and Chinese herbs. ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 378 (3):827-833. Kamchan, A., Puwastien, P., Sirichakwal, P.P., Kongkachuichai, R. (2004). In vitro calcium bioavailability of vegetables, legumes and seeds. JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS 17(3/4):311-320. Kashina, B., Mabagala, R., Mpunami, A.A. (2004). Evaluation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes for resistance to the Tomato yellow leaf curl Tanzania virus. ARCHIVES OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY AND PLANT PROTECTION 37(1):1-8. Jabbar, M.A., Saleem, M.A.M., Gebreselassie, S. (2003). Role of knowledge in the adoption of new agricultural technologies: an approach and an application. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES, GOVERNANCE AND ECOLOGY 2(3/4):312-327.

Chen, C.H., Wang, T.C., Seo, M.J. (2009). First report of soybean pod and stem blight caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae in Taiwan. PLANT DISEASE 93 (2):202. Hulugalle, N.R., Jaya, R., Luther, G.C., Ferizal, M., Yatiman, S.D., Yufniati, I.Z.A., Tamrin, F.F., Han, B. (2009). Physical properties of tsunami-affected soils in Aceh, Indonesia: 2 years after the tsunami. CATENA. (online). Tsai, W.S., Shih, S.L., Green, S.K., Lee, L.M., Luther, G.C., Ratulangi, M., Sembel, D.T., Jan, F.J. (2009). Identification of a new begomovirus associated with yellow leaf curl diseases of tomato and pepper in Sulawesi, Indonesia. PLANT DISEASE 93(3):321. — Fang-chin Chen, Editorial and Library

3 FOCUS: AFRICA AVRDC tomato lines released in Tanzania and Malawi tomato, growing to a height of 120200 cm. The fruits are round and firm, with an attractive color. In Malawi, AVRDC released tomato line ARP 366-4-23. This indeterminate tomato, growing to a height of 95-100 cm, produces

round, large (100-125 g) fruit that is very firm and red at maturity. ARP 366-4-23 is resistant to tomato mosaic virus and Fusarium wilt. ARP 366-4-23 was released under the commercial name ‘Phindu,’ which means “profits” in Chichewa (the national language of Malawi).

Ü Kiboko: The best of its kind!

Late blight-resistant line LBR 442 was released in Tanzania as a new cultivar in December 2008 and registered under the trade name ‘Kiboko,’ which means “the best of its kind” in Kiswahili. LBR 44-2 is a high-yielding indeterminate

Ü Phindu: A profitable performer.

Rockefeller Project seeds progress Technology Transfer of Promising Vegetable Lines through Sustainable Seed Production in East Africa (September 2005 to September 2008) This project aimed to increase agribusiness opportunities and improve household food security of resource-poor farmers through sustainable vegetable seed production, distribution, and marketing in East Africa. To achieve this goal, the Regional Center for Africa engaged several seed companies to promote and market quality vegetable seed. The project started with ten seed companies. Capacity building for seed company personnel on vegetable seed production and marketing was conducted to promote and institutionalize seed production and supply.

Several improved lines of nightshade, Ethiopian mustard, vegetable cowpea, tomato, spider plant, okra, mungbean, African eggplant, jute mallow and amaranth were either formally or informally released by the project. Seed multiplication, bulking, and commercialization of some of the varieties have taken place in East and Southern African due to the effort and initiative of project participants. The project helped to scale up the seed production, processing, and commercialization of previously released AVRDC tomato lines. More seed companies are now producing and selling seed of these varieties throughout East and Southern Africa. Seed Companies: In Uganda, the Victoria Seed Company

released okra line ARP-1 (RCA-1) named ‘Spear Clemson’ for commercialization (to replace commercial variety ‘Clemson Spinelaro’). In Kenya, the Simlaw Seed Company released nightshade line SS52 (‘Alro Lagioted’) and cowpea ‘Tumaini.’ Contract farming: In Tanzania, 40 new contract growers have been recruited by the Alpha Seed Company. In Kenya, 12 seed growers (Vagrotheck) registered with the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) for cultivated nightshade seed. The short growing cycle of indigenous vegetables has brought about good seed production efforts in Uganda. — Gloria Sikustahili, Regional Center for Africa

4 HAPPENINGS AVRDC project on indigenous vegetables gets support from COA and USDA

First row (L to R): Ms. Joanny Chyoung-Ni Lee, Specialist, Department of International Affairs, Council of Agriculture (COA); Mr. Ching-Ping Tsai, Assistant Research Fellow, Division of Animal Medicine, Animal Technology Institute Taiwan; Dr. Grace Lih-Fang Lin, Deputy Director, Economic Division, Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States; Dr. Su-San Chang, Director General, Department of International Affairs, COA; Dr. Andreas W. Ebert, Genebank Manager, AVRDC; and Dr. Shu-Hwae Lee, Deputy Director General, Animal Health Research Institute, COA; Second row (L to R): Mr. Chih-Hung Lin, Section Chief, International Cooperation Section, Department of International Affairs, COA; Dr. Yung-Chang Lai, Agronomist, Department of Agronomy, Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Branch, Agricultural Research Institute, COA; and Mr. Bao Ren Jiang, Senior Officer, Economic Division, Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States

Recently, AVRDC proposed a project on “Scaling-up Activities on Indigenous Vegetables for Nutritional Security and Sustainable Conservation of Biodiversity in Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan).” After initial approval for funding by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO)/ COA in late 2008, the project was presented during a Bilateral Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperative Programs between the American Institute in Taiwan/USDA and TECRO/COA on 9 February 2009 at USDA Headquarters in Washington D.C. The USDA delegation was headed by Ms. Patricia Sheikh, Deputy Administrator, Office of Capacity Building and Development, USDA/ FAS and the Taiwan delegation by

Dr. Su-San Chang, Director General, Department of International Affairs, Council of Agriculture. AVRDC’s Genebank Manager was invited to participate in the Taiwan delegation and present a proposal on indigenous vegetables. Ms. Sheikh underlined the important work being carried out by AVRDC in Asia and Africa in terms of food security and alleviation of hidden hunger and malnutrition through the promotion of safe vegetable production. She ranked regional cooperation with AVRDC in vegetable production highest, followed by opportunities for regional cooperation in different areas (product development, food safety aspects, marketing, and rural development). The highest USDA contribution was awarded to AVRDC’s indigenous vegetables proposal.

The following day, the Taiwan delegation visited the USDA Eastern Regional Research Center near Philadelphia, which aims to reduce pre- and postharvest losses; develop new and improved food and nonfood or industrial products and energy-efficient processing technologies; upgrade the nutritional value of food; ensure food safety via molecular biology studies, rapid detection-sensing methods, intervention technologies, and risk assessment; use byproducts, particularly potential pollutants; and open new and expand existing domestic and foreign markets. On the evening of the same day, the Taiwan delegation returned to Taipei. — Andreas Ebert, GRSU

5 PEOPLE Students discover vegetables are “unique, nutritious — and cool” Twenty-two students and five teachers/chaperones from Morrison Academy, Kaohsiung, a local international school, visited AVRDC on 17 February 2009, for a short but informative immersion program. The students were welcomed by Ms. Shiu-luan Lu and Mr. Oliver Hanschke. In the Demonstration Garden, Ms. Ruby Hsiao introduced the students to many indigenous vegetables. They sampled spiny and Vietnamese coriander, Fishwort, Vegetable Hummingbird, and other plants. They saw African eggplant, Nigerian spinach and snake gourd. They also learned how breeding has produced tomato varieties that provide better nutrition and are adapted to a range of climates and growing conditions. Dr. Jaw-Fen Wang explained the mission of AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center and how the Center’s work in agriculture is changing lives around the globe. The students from Mr. Multra's class wish to thank the staff at AVRDC for the wonderful tour. Here’s what they had to say about their visit: I found out vegetables actually are important. — Tiffany

I think getting examples of each plant, and letting us taste, smell, look and touch is pretty neat. — Alysia I liked answering the questions. — Terran At AVRDC, they find healthier foods that people did not know they could eat, like sweet potato leaves. Scientists at AVRDC learn which plants are the healthiest and also discover what they can do to make the vegetables the most useful to humans. — Stephanie I was actually quite stunned by all the different and multiple ways vegetables were planted. Some were on sticks, some were on the floor, and some were on a wire made house! — Tammy We got to see that some tomatoes are able to be made into things like ketchup and some can't...and just because it looks like a pumpkin doesn't mean it is a pumpkin! Maybe it's an eggplant! — Elizabeth Many vegetables from around the world are found in AVRDC…all very unique, nutritious—and cool. — Evangeline I liked learning about the plants and also eating samples such as

Fishwort, African Lettuce, and Vegetable Hummingbird. — Kate I really liked the idea of giving those vegetables to poor nations. — Ellen Really interesting experience. Saw and smelled a lot of plants I didn't even know about! — Angela I've wanted to be a scientist for a while, but after going to AVRDC, I think I want to learn more about veggies & maybe even do what AVRDC does. — Anna It's very kind of the people to let us come in and learn about the AVRDC. — Marcelo — Ruth Hanson

Welcome Seuk-Ki Lee (李錫基), Visiting Scientist from the Legume Research Laboratory, Upland Crop Research Division, National

Institute of Crop Science (NICS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Republic of Korea, arrived at AVRDC on 16 February 2009 for five months of training; his wife En-Ju Kim (金恩珠) and two-yearold son Ui-Jeong Lee (李義正) accompanied him. Mr. Lee will work on the generation,

advancement, and seed multiplication of Korean soybean breeding lines for the Legume Unit under the supervision of Dr. Kyeong-Ho Chung. Contact ext. 375 (office) or ext. 883 (dormitory suite #215/216). E-mail: — Lydia Wu, Global Technology Dissemination

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