Module 2 - Formulations and routes of administration

Module 2 - Formulations and routes of administration - Formulations Explain routes of administration (tablets, liquid, creams, suppositories, inhaler...
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Module 2 - Formulations and routes of administration -

Formulations Explain routes of administration (tablets, liquid, creams, suppositories, inhalers, eye drops, etc.) Different groups of medicine (antibiotics/psychotics, etc.) Common side effects What to do if a service user experiences side effects

Brand and generic names All drugs have two names. They have a chemical name, known as the approved name or the 'generic' name, and a proprietary name, also known as the brand name. This is the name the manufacturer chooses to market the drug by.

The generic name of a medicine is based on its main Generic name ingredient. Each medicine has an approved name or a pharmaceutical name. This is the generic name. A group of (Approved or pharmaceutical medicines that have similar actions often have similar sounding generic names. For example, penicillin, ampicillin, amoxycillin name) and flucloxacillin are in one group of antibiotics.

Proprietary name (The name given by the company that manufactures the drug)

The company that makes the medication chooses their brand name. Several companies may make the same medicine, each with their own brand name. The name is often chosen to be memorable for advertising, or to be easier to say or spell than some long generic name! For example, paracetamol is a generic name. There are several companies that make this with brand names such as Panadol, Calpol, etc. The brand name of a medicine can be identified by the trademark which is indicated by the symbol ® after the drug’s name.

Classification of medicines You will remember that under the Medicines Act (1968) medicines are classified into three categories, namely: •

Prescription only medicines which can only be issued with a valid prescription

Pharmacy only medicines, which can only be bought under the direct supervision of a pharmacist, and

General sales list medicines, which can generally be purchased without the direct supervision of a pharmacist, for example, from a supermarket.

Medicines can also be categorised according to what they are being used for and the effect they have on the body; the main categories of medication are: Medication and their uses

Antacids Used to treat indigestion and gastric ulcers




Painkillers used to treat pain

relieve allergy type symptoms



reduces the amount of fluid in the body

Used to treat infection

Medication POM Cytotoxic medication Used to treat some forms of cancer




tropic medication Used to treat depression

Hormones Anti coagulants

Used to replace certain hormones, e.g. insulin and HRT

Used to thin the blood

Laxatives Used to relieve constipation

Steroids used to reduce severe inflammation

Medication group Analgesics (Pain killers) Antibiotics

Examples of medications within the medication group Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Co codamol, Morphine Erythromycin, Amoxicillin, Flucloxacillin

(To treat or prevent infection) Psychotropic medication

Fluoxetine, haloperidol, amitriptyline


Insulin, levothyroxine sodium, estradiol,


Prednisolone, hydrocortisone,


Lactulose, senna

Anticoagulant medication

Warfarin, heparin

Cytotoxic medication

Methotrexate, procarbazine


Furosemide, bumetanide, amyloride hydrochloride


Chlorphenamine, cetrizine, loratadine


Ranitidine, omeprazol, gaviscon

Information sources Sources of information In relation to medication, it is essential that you know where you can find information in relation to the medication you administer to people receiving community based care. There are many sources of information available to you. 1. Information supplied with the medication It is European Law that patient information leaflets be supplied each time a medicine is dispensed to a patient from the pharmacy. Patient information leaflets should also be included even when the medicines are supplied in monitored dosage systems and this information should always be made available to the service user. The information leaflet should indicate: •

What the medication is for

How it is to be administered

What to do if you take too much of the medication

Any side effects that are likely to occur

Any potentially dangerous effects of mixing the drug with other substances, for example, alcohol

Any special instructions about administration, for example, to be taken on an empty stomach.

2. Reference information Both the British National Formulary (B.N.F) and the Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) are publications that provide valuable information about medication. The B.N.F and MIMS can also be accessed via the internet. 3. Information obtained from the service user Service users will be able to tell you a great deal about their medication, specifically in relation to: •

Details of their medical condition

Any medications that have worked for them in the past

Any medications that have not worked for them in the past

Any allergies they may have

Any side effects that they have suffered from certain medications

4. Information from other sources The following are other sources from which you can obtain information: •

Your manager

The pharmacist

The drug company

NHS Direct


General Practitioner

Supportive reference material, for example, information from the internet or from the library, but remember to only use reliable sources of information on the internet, such as the NHS website or BNF.

It is essential that you are aware of the sources of information available to assist you in increasing your knowledge about medication as you will need to be aware of: •

The therapeutic uses of the medicines that you are administering

Normal dosage

Module 2 – Formulations and routes of administration Activity 5 Explain the terms “brand” and “generic” with regards to medication.

Activity 6 Write down the medicine group with the description shown below. Analgesic Antibiotic Anti depressants Antacid Neuroleptics Diuretic

draw water out of the body kills pain helps indigestion commonly used in older adults fights and prevents infection could help people experiencing low mood

Activity 7 Identify five places carers can look for further information regarding specific drugs.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Activity 8 Name five drugs you assist people with, in your workplace. Write down their name and routes of administration. Are you aware of drugs that have different routes of administration?

Drug Name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Route of Administration

Activity 9 Write down three side effects that might be experienced by using: a) Amoxycillin (antibiotic) b) Risperidone (neuroleptic) c) Cocodamol (analgesic)




Activity 10 Explain any circumstances when experiencing side effects can be beneficial to the individual.

Activity 11

Explain the difference between side effects and allergy.

Activity 12 Explain why side effects might be more severe in the elderly population

Now ask your Tutor/mentor to check this section and provide feedback. You should both sign below, when you agree that the results of your activities meet the required standard. Tutor/mentor Signature: ______________________________________________________________________ Date: ______________________

Student Signature: ____________________________________ Date: ___________