MEGADRILOGICA Volume 17, Number 5, December, 2014

Printed in Canada ISSN 0380-9633 MEGADRILOGICA Volume 17, Number 5, December, 2014 A CHECKLIST BY COUNTIES OF EARTHWORMS (OLIGOCHAETA: ACANTHODRILI...
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Printed in Canada

ISSN 0380-9633

MEGADRILOGICA Volume 17, Number 5, December, 2014

A CHECKLIST BY COUNTIES OF EARTHWORMS (OLIGOCHAETA: ACANTHODRILIDAE, LUMBRICIDAE, MEGASCOLECIDAE AND SPARGANOPHILIDAE) IN MICHIGAN, USA. John Warren Reynolds Oligochaetology Laboratory, 18 Broadview Court, Kitchener, ON Canada N2A 2X8, and Research Associate, New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, NB Canada E2K 1E5 (e-mail: [email protected]) and

Mark J. Wetzel Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Forbes Natural History Building, 1816 South Oak Street, MC-652, Champaign, IL USA 61820-6917 ( e-mail: [email protected]) ABSTRACT This checklist of the terrestrial Oligochaeta of Michigan is based on 374 collection sites from 80 of the 83 counties in the state. In total, 27 species representing 13 genera and four families (Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Sparganophilidae) are reported from the state. The first record of Sparganophilus meansi in Michigan is reported herein. Of these 27 species, eight (Bimastos beddardi, B. longicinctus, B. parvus, B. zeteki, Diplocardia riparia, D. singularis, Sparganophilus eiseni and S. meansi) are considered native (endemic) to North America, the rest are European or Oriental exotic species. The most frequently collected species were: Aporrectodea turgida (175 sites), Lumbricus rubellus (154 sites), Ap. tuberculata (89 sites), Dendrodrilus rubidus (69 sites), Dendrobaena octaedra (62 sites), Lumbricus terrestris (57 sites), Octolasion tyrtaeum (51 sites). The remaining 20 species were collected from fewer than 50 sites each, and 13 of them from fewer than 10 sites each. There are 13 counties in which earthworms are reported for the first time in the literature. Individual county sites include the ecoregion and a map location, as well as the species obtained, indicating the frequency and per cent of the total county collections. Key words: Michigan, Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Sparganophilidae, Sparganophilus meansi, earthworms, distribution, checklist, ecoregions RÉSUM É Cet inventaire des oligochaetes terrestres du Michigan est basée sur 374 sites de collection répartis à travers 80 des 83 comtés de cet état. Il y a 27 espèces rapportées pour cet état, représentant 13 genres et quatre familles (Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Sparganophilidae); huit espèces sont considérées indigènes (endémiques) à l'Amérique du Nord (Bimastos beddardi, B. longicinctus, B. parvus, B. zeteki, Diplocardia riparia, D. singularis, Sparganophilus eiseni et S. meansi); et le reste sont des espèces exotiques de l'Europe. Les espèces les plus fréquemment recueillies sont: Aporrectodea turgida (175 sites), Lumbricus rubellus (154 sites), Ap. tuberculata (89 sites), Dendrodrilus rubidus (69 sites), Dendrobaena octaedra (62 sites), Lumbricus terrestris (57 sites), et Octolasion tyrtaeum (51 sites). Les vingt autres espèces ont chacune été recueillies à moins de 50 sites, et 13 d'entre elles à moins de 10 sites chacune. Il y a 13 comtés dans lesquels les lombrics sont rapportés pour la première fois dans la littérature. Il s'agit de la première mention de Sparganophilus meansi au Michigan. Les cartes de chaque comté présentent les écorégions et l'emplacement des sites, ainsi que les espèces collectées, avec une indication de leur fréquence et pourcentage par rapport à l'ensemble du comté. Mots-clé: Michigan, Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Sparganophilidae, Sparganophilus meansi, vers de terre, répartition, inventaire, écorégions

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA RESUM EN Esta lista de especies de oligoquetos terrestres de Michigan se basó en 374 sitios de recolección en 80 de los 83 condados del estado. Hay 27 especies registradas en el estado que representan 13 géneros y 4 familias (Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Sparganophilidae). Ocho especies (Bimastos beddardi, B. longicinctus, B. parvus, B. zeteki, Diplocardia riparia, D. singularis, Sparganophilus eiseni and S. meansi) son nativas (endémicas) de América del Norte, el resto son especies exóticas europeas ou orientales. Las especies recolectadas con mayor frecuencia fueron: Aporrectodea turgida (175 sitios), Lumbricus rubellus (154 sitios), Ap. tuberculata (89 sitios), Dendrodrilus rubidus (69 sitios), Dendrobaena octaedra (62 sitios), Lumbricus terrestris (57 sitios), Octolasion tyrtaeum (51 sitios). Las 10 especies restantes se obtuvieron en menos de 50 sitios cada una, y 13 de ellos de menos de 10 sitios cada uno. Hay 13 condados en los cuales los lombrices de tierra son relatados por primera vez en la literatura. Este es el primer registro de Sparganophilus meansi en Michigan. En cada sitios del condado se incluyeron la ecoregión y un mapa de ubicación, así como las especies obtenidas, indicando la frecuencia y porcentaje de las recolecciones totales del condado. Palabras claves: Michigan, Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Sparganophilidae, Sparganophilus meansi, lombrices de tierra, distribución, lista de especies, ecoregións TIIVISTELM Ä Tämä Michiganin harvasukasmatojen (Oligochaeta) terrestrinen lajilista perustuu 374:ään näytteenottopaikkaan 80:ssa osavaltion 83:sta piirikunnasta. Osavaltiossa on tavattu yhteensä 27 lajia, jotka edustavat 13:a sukua ja neljää heimoa (Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae ja Sparganophilidae). Tässä artikkelissa raportoidaan Sparganophilus meansi – lajin ensimmäinen havainto Michiganissa. Näistä 27 lajista kahdeksaa (Bimastos beddardi, B. longicinctus, B. parvus, B. zeteki, Diplocardia riparia, D. singularis, Sparganophilus eiseni ja S. meansi) pidetään alkuperäisinä Pohjois-Amerikalle endeemisinä lajeina, ja loput ovat Eurooppalaisia tai Aasialaisia tulokaslajeja. Useimmin havaitut lajit olivat: Aporrectodea turgida (175 paikkaa), Lumbricus rubellus (154 paikkaa), Ap. tuberculata (89 paikkaa), Dendrodrilus rubidus (69 paikkaa), Dendrobaena octaedra (62 paikkaa), Lumbricus terrestris (57 paikkaa), Octolasion tyrtaeum (51 paikkaa). Muita 20:a lajia kerättiin kutakin alle 50:ltä näytteenottopaikalta, ja näistä kolmeatoista löydettiin kutakin alle kymmeneltä paikalta. Tässä raportoidaan tieteellisessä kirjallisuudessa ensimmäistä kertaa lierohavainnoista 13:ssa piirikunnassa. Artikkelissa kuvataan näytteenottopaikkojen ekoalue, maantieteellinen sijainti, havaitut lajit piirikunnittain sekä kunkin lajin havaintopaikkojen lukumäärä ja osuus kaikista piirikunnan havaintopaikoista. Avainsanat: Michigan, Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Sparganophilidae, Sparganophilus meansi, lierot, levinneisyys, lajilista, ekoalueet INTRODUCTION

The earthworm fauna in Michigan was previously discussed in Smith and Gittins (1915), Smith and Green (1916), Smith (1917), Hague (1923), Murchie (1954, 1956, 1958), Snider and Snider (1988, 1994, 1997), Snider (1991), Greiner et al. (2012), Shartell et al. (2013) and W etzel and Reynolds (2014). This paper summarizes the distributional information in those publications, consolidating it with several records from historical and recent collections not previously reported by the authors. Additionally, regional distributions for earthworms in the midwestern United States, as presented by Reynolds (2011), have been further defined herein to include records of specimens, by county, for Michigan. The state consists of 83 counties (Fig. 1) in five ecoregions (North Lakes and Forests – 50, North Central Hardwood Forest – 51, Eastern Corn Belt Plains – 55, Southern Michigan/ Northern Indiana Drift Plains – 56, Huron/Erie Lake Plains – 57) (Fig. 2)

which are explained in Omerick (1987, 1995, 2004) and summarized in the APPENDIX of this paper. CHECKLIST This checklist of earthworms in Michigan is organized as follows: The names of the 83 counties below are followed a number in brackets [ ] indicating the number of collections in that county from which earthworms were obtained. The ecoregion(s) present in that county (taken from Omerick 1987, 1995, 2004, and summarized in the APPENDIX of this paper) are also noted. Earthworms recorded from each county are then listed alphabetically by family, genus, and species. The first number in each set of parentheses ( ) following the species name represents the number of collections in the c o unty from w hic h the sp e c ie s w a s present/identified; the second number in each set of parentheses represents the number of collections as a percentage of the total number made in that county. The number of collections in a county was determined by: 1) the size of the county, 2) the accessibility by

MEGADRILOGICA roads and trails, 3) the diversity of habitats, and 4) collector effort. Nomenclature throughout this paper follows Reynolds and W etzel (2004, 2008, 2012,

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2014). The nomenclature for specimens in Murchie's collections has been updated for inclusion in this checklist.

Fig. 1. The counties in Michigan, USA.

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

Fig. 2. The ecoregions in Michigan, USA (from Omerick, 1987, 1995, 2004).

Alcona Co. [3]

Ecoregion: H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 100%) Bimastos zeteki (Smith and Gittins, 1915) (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

MEGADRILOGICA Alger Co. [2] (first county records)

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 50%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Allegan Co. [1]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

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Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Arenac Co. [2]

Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + Huron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Baraga Co. [3] (first county records)

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Alpena Co. [3]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 66%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 66%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 66%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Barry Co. [1] (first county records) Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Antrim Co. [1] (first county records) Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + N orth Central H ardwoods Forest

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%)

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

Bay Co. [4]

Branch Co. [1]

Ecoregion: H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (3; 75%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Benzie Co. [2] (first county records) Calhoun Co. [6] Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + N orth Central H ardwoods Forest Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 50%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Berrien Co. [10]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (2; 20%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (2; 20%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (4; 40%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 20%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 10%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 10%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (3; 30%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (2; 20%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (4; 40%) M egascolecidae Amynthas hilgendorfi (Michaelsen, 1892) (1; 10%) Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 17%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 34%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 17%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 17%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 17%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 17%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Cass Co. [2] (first county records) Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

MEGADRILOGICA Charlevoix Co. [1]

Clare Co. [2]

Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + N orth Central H ardwoods Forest

Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

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Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Cheboygan Co. [36]

Clinton Co. [2]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885) (3; 8%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (5; 14%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (12; 33%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (4; 11%) Bimastos beddardi (Michaelsen, 1894) (2; 6%) Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874) (1; 3%) Bimastos zeteki (Smith and Gittins, 1915) (3; 8%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (3; 8%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (14; 39%) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (2; 6%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (8; 22%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (12; 33%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 3%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (3; 8%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae Sparganophilus eiseni Smith, 1895 (6; 16%)

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 50%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Chippewa Co. [2] (first county records)

Crawford Co. [1]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Delta Co. [3]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 100%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 66%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

Dickinson Co. [4]

Genesee Co. [2]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (3; 75%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 50%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 50%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Lumbricus castaneus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (2; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826 (1; 25%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Eaton Co. [1]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Emmet Co. [8]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (2; 25%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (5; 63%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 25%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (4; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 13%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 13%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae Sparganophilus eiseni Smith, 1895 (1; 13%)

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae Amynthas morrisi (Beddard, 1892) (1; 50%) Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Gladwin Co. [1]

Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Gogebic Co. [1]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Grand Traverse Co. [4]

Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + North Central H ardwoods Forest

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%)

MEGADRILOGICA Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 50%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 50%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 50%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 25%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 25%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

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Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 25%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Huron Co. [2] (first county records)

Ecoregion: Huron/Erie Lake Plains

Gratiot Co. [3]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 33%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Hillsdale Co. [2] (first county records)

Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/ N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 100%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Houghton Co. [4] (first county records) Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 25%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (4; 100%)

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Ingham Co. [2]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 50%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Ionia Co. [3]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 66%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 66%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (2; 66%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

Iosco Co. [4]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 50%) Bimastos zeteki (Smith and Gittins, 1915) 1; 25%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 25%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 25%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Iron Co. [0]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Isabella Co. [4] Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 75%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 25%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (2; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Jackson Co. [4]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 75%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) M egascolecidae Amynthas hawayanus (Rosa, 1891) (1; 25%) Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Kalamazoo Co. [9]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 11%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 11%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (3; 33%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 33%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 11%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 11%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 11%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 11%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 11%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Kalkaska Co. [3]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (3; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 66%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Kent Co. [7] Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae Diplocardia riparia Smith, 1895 (1; 25%) Diplocardia singularis (Ude, 1893) (1; 25%)

Acanthodrilidae - none collected.

MEGADRILOGICA Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (3; 42%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 14%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 28%) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (1; 14%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 14%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 14%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 14%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 14%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae Sparganophilus eiseni Smith, 1895 (1; 14%) Keweenaw Co. [4] (first county records) Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (3; 75%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (3; 75%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (2; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Lake Co. [1]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 100%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Lapeer Co. [2] (first county records) Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected.

61

Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 100%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Leelanau Co. [1]

Ecoregions: Northern Lakes and Forests + North Central H ardwoods Forest

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 100%) Bimastos zeteki (Smith and Gittins, 1915) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Lenawee Co. [5] Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 20%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 40%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 40%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (2; 40%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Livingston Co. [7]

Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains

Acanthodrilidae Diplocardia singularis (Ude, 1893) (3; 42%) Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (2; 28%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 28%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 28%) Bimastos longicinctus (Smith and Gittins, 1915) (1; 14%)

62

Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

Bimastos zeteki (Smith and Gittins, 1915) (1; 14%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (4; 56%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 14%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 14%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Luce Co. [1] (first county records)

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. M ackinac Co. [3] (first county records)

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny,1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (3; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 66%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (3; 100%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (2; 66%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. M acomb Co. [1]

M anistee Co. [3]

Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + North Central H ardwoods Forest

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1873) (2; 66%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 66%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 66%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. M arquette Co. [66]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (2; 3%) Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885) (2; 3%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny,1826) (7; 11%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (7; 11%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (38; 58%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (23; 35%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (3; 4%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (12; 18%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (35; 53%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (12; 18%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (8; 12%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae Sparganophilus meansi Reynolds, 1980 (1; 2%) M ason Co. [3]

Ecoregions: H uron/Erie Lake Plains + Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae Sparganophilus eiseni Smith, 1895 (1; 100%)

Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 33%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (3; 100%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%)

MEGADRILOGICA M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. M ecosta Co. [0]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

63

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 66%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. M onroe Co. [3]

M enominee Co. [4] (first county records)

Ecoregion: Huron/Erie Lake Plains

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1873) (2; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 75%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (2; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 25%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

M idland Co. [3]

Ecoregions: H uron/Erie Lake Plains + Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 66%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

M issaukee Co. [3]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 33%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. M ontcalm Co. [7] Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (4; 56%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 14%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 28%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 14%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. M ontmorency Co. [2]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

M uskegon Co. [5]

Oceana Co. [5]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 40%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 40%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 40%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (3; 60%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 40%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Newaygo Co. [5] Ecoregions: N orthern Lakes and Forests + Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Ogemaw Co. [3]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 40%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 40%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 40%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 28%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 33%); Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 33%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Oakland Co. [22] Ontonagon Co. [7] Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 9%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (21; 95%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 9%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 9%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (16; 73%) M egascolecidae Amynthas hilgendorfi (Michaelsen, 1892) (14; 64%) Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (5; 70%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 14%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 28%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (3; 42%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 14%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

MEGADRILOGICA Osceola Co. [0]

Presque Isle Co. [5]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Oscoda Co. [2]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Otsego Co. [2]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (4; 80%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 20%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 40%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Roscommon Co. [7]

Ecoregion: Northern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 28%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 28%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (3; 42%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 14%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 14%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 14%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Saginaw Co. [2] (first county records) Ecoregion: Huron/Erie Lake Plains

Ottawa Co. [2]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

65

66

Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

St. Clair Co. [2] (first county records) Ecoregion: H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 100%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. St. Joseph Co. [2]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 50%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae Sparganophilus eiseni Smith, 1895 (1; 50%)

Sanilac Co. [1]

Ecoregion: H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 100%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Schoolcraft Co. [3]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected.

Lumbricidae Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 66%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 66%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (2; 66%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 33%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Shiawassee Co. [1]

Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

Tuscola Co. [2] Ecoregion: Huron/Erie Lake Plains + Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. Van Buren Co. [1] (first county records) Ecoregion: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (1; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 100%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 100%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

67

MEGADRILOGICA W ashtenaw Co. [17]

Ecoregions: Southern M ichigan/N orthern Indiana D rift Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains + H uron/Erie Lake Plains

Acanthodrilidae Diplocardia singularis (Ude, 1893) (2; 12%) Lumbricidae Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) (1; 6%) Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (7; 41%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 6%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (4; 24%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (7; 41%) Bimastos beddardi (Michaelsen, 1894) (1; 6%) Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) (1; 6%) Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) (4; 24%) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (1; 6%) Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) (2; 12%) Murchieona muldali (Omodeo, 1956) (1; 6%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (4; 24%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (8; 48%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (6; 36%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. W ayne Co. [2]

Ecoregion: H uron/Erie Lake Plains + Eastern Corn Belt Plains

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (2; 100%) Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (2; 100%) Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) (2; 100%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (1; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) 1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected.

W exford Co. [2]

Ecoregion: N orthern Lakes and Forests

Acanthodrilidae - none collected. Lumbricidae Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) (1; 50%) Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 (1; 50%) Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) (1; 50%) M egascolecidae - none collected. Sparganophilidae - none collected. DISCUSSION This checklist of earthworms in Michigan is based on 374 collections from 80 of the 83 counties. In total, 27 species representing 13 genera in four families, Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Sparganophilidae, are now known to occur in the state. Of these 27 species, only eight (Bimastos beddardi, B. longicinctus, B. parvus, B. zeteki, Diplocardia riparia, D. singularis, Sparganophilus eiseni and S. meansi) are considered native to North America; 16 (Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea longa, Ap. rosea, Ap. trapezoides, Ap. tuberculata, Ap. turgida, Dendrobaena octaedra, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia foetida, Eiseniella tetraedra, Lumbricus castaneus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris, Murcheiona muldali, Octolasion cyaneum, and O. tyrtaeum) are considered European introductions, and three (Amynthas hawayanus, Am. hilgendorfi and Am. morrisi) are considered Oriental introductions (Table 1). Not surprisingly, the 10 most frequently collected earthworms in M ichigan (from >20 sites) are European introductions (Table 1). The average number of collections per county from which collections were obtained was 4.47 – with 41 (51.2%) below that average and 39 (48.8 %) above that average (Table 1). There are still three counties in the state (Iron, Mecosta, Osceola) from which records of earthworms have yet to be reported. It would be expected that increasing the number of collections from a county or other defined study area would yield additional species. Although this has been documented in published earthworm surveys for several states, e.g., South Carolina (Reynolds, 2014a), New York (Reynolds, 2014e) and Pennsylvania (Reynolds, 2014d), and for Michigan (this present study: Table 2), this was not supported by the results of two other recent surveys – W yoming (Reynolds, 2014b) and Colorado (Reynolds, 2014c). Collection sites per county were also fewer in W yoming – with seven collections from each of the three most visited counties – compared to 47, 21 and 19 in South Carolina (Reynolds, 2014a) and 22, 9, and 6 in the three most visited counties in Colorado (Reynolds, 2014c).

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

The availability of diverse habitats greatly influences the number of species collected. Limicolous species such as Allolobophora chlorotica, Eiseniella tetraedra, Sparganophilus eiseni and S. meansi are only going to be obtained in wet soils and substrates associated with lotic and lentic habitats (e.g., streams, ponds, lakes, wetlands, springs, low lying areas that retain water for periods of time). Eiseniella tetraedra was reported from 48 collections and Allolobophora chlorotica from 21 collections in Michigan; Sparganophilus eiseni was reported from ten collections in the state (Table 1). In 2012, one specimen of S. meansi was collected by MJW from Rush Lake Spring in the Huron Mountains of Marquette Co., representing only the third site from which this species has ever been obtained (W etzel and Reynolds, 2014). The type locality for S. meansi is Benton Co., Mississippi, and the second site from which it previously had been reported is in Sarasota Co., Florida (Reynolds, 1980, 2008). This wide gap in its known range may be due to the lack of collecting and choice of sampling methods (Reynolds, 2001). Additional sampling in those counties where only a couple of collections were obtained, and in the three counties (Iron, Mecosta, and Osceola) from which no earthworms have yet been reported, would certainly broaden our knowledge of the distribution and dominance of the earthworm species occurring in the state of Michigan. Acknowledgements W e are grateful to W ilma M. Reynolds (Oligochaetology Laboratory) and Dr. George A. Damoff (Stephen F. Austin University) for reviewing the manuscript, their comments and suggestions. W e thank Holly Griener (Oakland University) for sharing some of her field collection data that has broadened our understanding of the distribution of species in Michigan. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Huron Mountain W ildlife Foundation (HMW F – Dr. Kerry W oods, Director), W ayne Thorpe (HMW F facilities manager at Ives Lake), numerous Huron Mountain Club (HMC) members, and HMC Outdoor Activities Coordinator Megan McDonald for their interest and assistance during surveys for aquatic, semi-aquatic, and terrestrial oligochaetes in the Huron Mountain area (2010-2014). W e thank Peg Morgan (Pinellas Co., FL, Natural Resources Freshwater Bioassessment Program) for her invaluable field assistance during surveys for oligochaetes at HMC (2010-2012). The authors also thank Dr. Catalina C. de Mischis (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba) Dr. Jean-Marc Gagnon (Canadian Museum of Nature), and Anni Arponen

(University of Helsinki, Helsingin yliopisto) for translations of the abstracts and key words. Table 1. Frequency of earthworm species in Michigan, presented in decreasing order based on specimens in 374 collections from 80 of the 83 counties. Species† No. of Collections % of Total Aporrectodea turgida - E 175 46.8 % Lumbricus rubellus - E 154 41.2 % Aporrectodea tuberculata - E 93 24.8 % Dendrodrilus rubidus - E 69 18.4 % Dendrobaena octaedra - E 62 16.6 % Lumbricus terrestris - E 57 15.2 % Octolasion tyrtaeum - E 51 13.6 % Eiseniella tetraedra - E 48 12.8 % Aporrectodea rosea - E 47 12.6 % Allolobophora chlorotica - E 21 5.6 % Aporrectodea trapezoides - E 18 4.8 % Amynthas hilgendorfi - O 15 4.0 % Sparganophilus eiseni 10 2.7 % Aporrectodea longa - E 8 2.1 % Bim astos zeteki 7 1.9 % Diplocardia singularis 5 1.3 % Eisenia foetida - E 4 1.1 % Bim astos beddardi 3 0.08 % Amynthas hawayanus - O 1 0.03 % Amynthas morrisi - O 1 0.03 % Bim astos longicinctus 1 0.03 % Bim astos parvus 1 0.03 % Diplocardia riparia 1 0.03 % Lumbricus castaneus - E 1 0.03 % Murcheiona muldali - E 1 0.03 % Octolasion cyaneum -E 1 0.03 % *Sparganophilus m eansi 1 0.03 % † Species in bold = considered native to North America; E = European introduction; O = Oriental introduction; * = first published report of species in Michigan. Table 2. Frequency of earthworm species in certain counties in Michigan, in decreasing order based on 374 collections from 80 of the 83 counties. County No. of Collections No. of species Marquette 66 14 Cheboygan 36 15 Oakland 22 6 W ashtenaw 17 14 Berrien 10 10 Emmet 8 7 Kent 7 9 Livingston 7 9 Montcalm 7 4 Ontonagon 7 5 Roscommon 7 6 Calhoun 6 6

MEGADRILOGICA LITERATURE CITED Generic and species names in brackets that follow citations, below, reflect current nomenclature for those taxa, and thus may be different than nomenclature assigned in the original descriptions. Beddard, F.E. 1892. On some species of the genus Perichaeta (sensu stricto). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1892: 153-172. [Amynthas morrisi n. sp.] Dugès, A. 1828. Recherche sur la circulation, la respiration et la reproduction des Annélides abranches sétigères. Ann. Sci. Nat. 15(1): 284-336. [Aporrectodea trapezoides n. sp.] Eisen, G. 1873. Om Skandinaviens Oligochaeter. Öfv. Vet-Akad. Förh. Stockholm 30(8): 43-56. [Aporrectodea turgida n. sp.] Eisen, G. 1874. New Englands och Canadas Lumbricider. Öfv. Vet-Akad. Förh. Stockholm 31(2): 41-49. [Aporrectodea tuberculata n. sp., Bimastos parvus n. sp.] Greiner, H.G., D.R. Kashian and S.D. Tiegs. 2012. Impacts of invasive Asian (Amynthas hilgendorfi) and European (Lumbricus rubellus) earthworms in a North American temperate deciduous forest. Biol. Invasions 14(19): 2017-2027. Hague, F.S. 1923. Studies on Sparganophilus eiseni Smith. Trans. American Micros. Soc. 42(1): 1-42. Hoffmeister, W . 1843. Beiträge zur Kenntnis deutscher Landanneliden. Arch. Naturg. 9(1): 183-198. [Lumbricus rubellus n. sp.] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tris naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Edition decima, reformata. Tom I. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 824 pp. [Lumbricus terrestris n. gen., n. sp.] Michaelsen, W . 1892. Terricolen der Berliner Zoologischen Sammlung. II. Arch. Naturg. 58(2): 209-261. [Amynthas hilgendorfi n. sp.] Michaelsen, W . 1894. Die Regenwürmen-Fauna von Florida und Georgia. Zool. Jb. Syst. 8(2): 177-194. [Bimastos beddardi n. sp.] Murchie, W .R. 1954. Natural history studies on the earthworms of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: Univ. Michigan, Ph.D. dissertation, 282 pp.

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Murchie, W .R. 1956. Survey of the Michigan earthworm fauna. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci., Arts and Lett. 41: 53-72. Murchie, W .R. 1958. A new megascolecid earthworm from Michigan with notes on its biology. Ohio J. Sci. 58(5): 270-272. Omerick, J.M. 1987. Ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Map (scale 1:7,500,000). Annals Association of American Geographers 77(1): 118-125. Omerick, J.M. 1995. Ecoregions: A spatial framework for environmental management. In: Biological Assessment and Criteria: Tools for W ater Resource Planning and Decision Making. Davis, W .S. and T.P. Simon (eds.) Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers. Pp. 49-62. Omerick, J.M. 2004. Perspectives on the nature and definition of ecological regions. Environmental Management 34 (Suppl. 1): S27-S38. Omodeo, P. 1956. Lumbricidae e Lumbriculidae della Groenlandia. Arch. Zool. Italiano 41: 129212. [Dendrodrilus n. gen.; Murchieona muldali n. sp.] Reynolds, J.W . 1980. The earthworm family Sparganophilidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) in North America. Megadrilogica 3(12): 189204. [Sparganophilus meansi n. sp.] Reynolds, J.W . 2001. Sparganophilidae — are terrestrial oligocheatologists missing the habitat in North America! Megadrilogica 8(11): 84-86. Reynolds, J.W . 2008. Sparganophilidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) distribution in North America and elsewhere, revisited. Megadrilogica 12(9): 125-143. Reynolds, J.W . 2011. The earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Komarekionidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Sparganophilidae) of the midwestern United States. Megadrilogica 15(5): 69-139. Reynolds, J.W . 2014a. A checklist by counties of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Ocnerodrilidae and Sparganophilidae) in South Carolina, USA. Megadrilogica 16(3): 15-28.

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Reynolds, J.W . 2014b. A checklist by counties of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in W yoming, USA. Megadrilogica 16(4): 29-36. Reynolds, J.W . 2014c. A checklist by counties of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae and Sparganophilidae) in Colorado, U SA. Megadrilogica 16(5): 37-47. Reynolds, J.W . 2014d. A checklist by counties of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Sparganophilidae) in Pennsylvania, USA. Megadrilogica 16(6): 49-68.

Aporrectodea rosea n. sp., Dendrobaena octaedra n. sp., Dendrodrilus rubidus n. sp., Eisenia foetida n. sp., Eiseniella tetraedra n. sp., Lumbricus castaneus n. sp., Octolasion cyaneum n. sp., and O. tyrtaeum n. sp.] Shartell, L.M., E.A. Lillliskov and A.J. Storer. 2013. Predicting exotic earthworm distribution in the northern Great Lakes region. Biological Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-0399-2. Smith, F. 1895. A preliminary account of two new Oligochaeta from Illinois. Bull. Illinois St. Lab. Nat. Hist. 4(5): 138-148. [Diplocardia riparia n. sp., Sparganophilus eiseni n. sp.]

Reynolds, J.W . 2014e. A checklist by counties of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Sparganophilidae) in New York, USA. Megadrilogica 17(3): 1530.

Smith, F. 1917. North American earthworms of the family Lumbricidae in the collections of the United States National Museum. Proc. United States Natl. Mus. 52(2174): 157-182.

Reynolds, J.W . and M.J. W etzel. 2004. Terrestrial Oligochaeta in North America north of Mexico. Megadrilogica 9(11): 71-98.

Smith, F. and E.M. Gittins. 1915. Two new species of Lumbricidae from Illinois. Bull. Illinois State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10(8): 545-550. [Bimastos longicinctus n. sp. and B. zeteki n. sp.]

Reynolds, J.W . and M.J. W etzel. 2008. Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) in North America, including Mexico, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Bermuda. Megadrilogica 12(12): 157-208.

Smith, F. and B.R. Green. 1916. The Porifera, Oligochaeta, and certain other groups of invertebrates in the vicinity of Douglas Lake, Michigan. Rept. Michigan Acad. Sci. 17: 8184.

Reynolds, J.W . and M .J. W etzel. 2012. Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) in North America, including Mexico, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Bermuda. III. Megadrilogica 15(8): 191-211. Reynolds, J.W . and M.J. W etzel. 2014. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica – A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens. Editio Secunda. URL: http://wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/ people/mjwetzel/nomenoligo (accessed: 2 December 2014).

Snider, R.M. 1991. Checklist and distribution of Michigan earthworms. Michigan Academician 24: 105-114. Snider, R.M. and R.J. Snider. 1988. ELF ecological monitoring in M ichigan. II. The earthworm communities of test and control sites. Pedobiologia 32(5/6): 335-342. Snider, R.M. and R.J. Snider. 1994. ELF ecological monitoring in Michigan. III. Earthworm community parameters during pre-operational years. Pedobiologia 38(2): 102-114.

Rosa, D. 1891. Die exotischen terricolen des K.K. naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. Ann. Hofmus. W ien 6: 399-406. [Amynthas hawayanus n. sp.]

Snider, R.M. and R.J. Snider. 1997. ELF ecological monitoring in Michigan. IV. Changes to earthworm communities of test and control sites from 1984 to 1993. Pedobiologia 41(4): 295-306.

Savigny, J.C. 1826. Analyses des travaux de l’Académie Royale des Sciences pendant l’année 1821, partie physique. Cuvier, M. le Baron G. (ed.) Mém. Acad. Sci. Inst. France 5: 176-184. [Allolobophora chlorotica n. sp.,

Ude, H. 1885. Über die Rückenporen der Terricolen Oligochäten, nebst Beiträgen zur Histologie des Lieberaschlauches und zur Sysyematik der Lumbriciden. Z. W iss. Zool. 43: 87-143. [Aporrectodea longa n. sp.]

MEGADRILOGICA

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Ude, H. 1893. Beiträge zur Kenntnis ausländischer Regenwürmer. Z. wiss. Zool. 57: 57-75. [Diplocardia singularis n. sp.] W etzel, M.J. and J.W . Reynolds. 2014. A preliminary inventory of earthworms (Annelida, Clitellata) of the Huron Mountain Club area, Marquette County, Michigan, USA. Final Report for 2013. Submitted to Huron Mountain Wildlife Foundation, iii + 41 p. [10 May 2014].

APPENDIX Ecoregions in M ichigan (modified from Omerick 1987, 1995, 2004)

50. Northern Lakes and Forests The Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion (50) is a region of nutrient poor glacial soils, coniferous and northern hardwood forests, undulating till plains, morainal hills, broad lacustrine basins, and extensive sandy outwash plains. Soils in this ecoregion are thicker than in those to the north and generally lack the arability of soils in adjacent ecoregions to the south. The numerous lakes that dot the landscape are clearer and less productive than those in ecoregions to the south.

51. North Central Hardwood Forests The North Central Hardwood Forests Ecoregion (51) is transitional between the predominantly forested Northern Lakes and Forests to the north and the agricultural ecoregions to the south. The oak-hickory forest becomes more savanna-like in its northern reaches. W idespread dominants are white oak (Quercus alba), red oak (Q. rubra), black oak (Q. velutina), bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis), and shagbark hickory (C. ovata). Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) often occurs in the understory, along with sassafras (Sassafras spp.) and hop hornbeam (Carpinus spp.). The shrub layer is distinct, often with evergreens, and wildflowers are common. Intact wetter sites feature American elm (Ulmus americana), and tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera). Land use/land cover in this ecoregion consists of a mosaic forests, wetlands and lakes, cropland agriculture, pasture, and dairy operations.

55. Eastern Corn Belt Plains The Eastern Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion (55) is primarily a rolling plain with local end moraines; it had more natural tree cover and has lighter coloured soils than the Central Corn Belt Plains. The region has loamier and better drained soils than the Huron/Erie Lake Plain, and richer soils than the Erie/Ontario Hills and Lake Plain. Glacial deposits of W isconsin age are extensive. They are not as dissected nor as leached as the pre-W isconsin till which is restricted to the southern part of the region. Originally, beech forests were common on W isconsin soils while beech (Fagus grandifolia) forests and elm-ash swamp (Ulmus americana - Fraxinus pennysylvanica) forests dominated the wetter preW isconsin soils. Today, extensive corn (Zea maize), soybean (Glycine max), and livestock production occurs and has affected stream chemistry and turbidity.

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Checklist by Counties of the Earthworms of Michigan, USA

56. Southern M ichigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains Bordered by Lake Michigan on the west, the Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains Ecoregion (56) is less agricultural than those to the south, it is more well drained and contains more lakes than the flat agricultural lake plain to the east, and its soils are not as nutrient poor as the region to the north. The region is characterized by many lakes and marshes as well as an assortment of landforms, soil types, soil textures, and land uses. Broad till plains with thick and complex deposits of drift, paleobeach ridges, relict dunes, morainal hills, kames, drumlins, meltwater channels, and kettles occur. An assortment of soils developed under oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya) forests, northern swamp forests, or beech (Fagus grandifolia) forests. The most prevalent field-layer plants in the northern swamp forest are Chamaedaphne calyculata and Carex oligosperma while Sphagnum spp. dominates the bryophyte layer. The conifer swamps are characterized by well-developed tree and field layers and circumneutral waters (pH 7.0–7.4). Thuja occidentalis strongly dominates the tree layer and Mitella nuda, Abies balsamea, and Maianthemum canadense are the most prevalent field layer plants. Bogs and bog soils are also locally common. Low to medium gradient streams occur and often have rocky bottoms and low amounts of suspended sediment.

57. Huron/Erie Lake Plain The Huron/Erie Lake Plain Ecoregion (57) is a broad, fertile, nearly flat plain punctuated by relic sand dunes, beach ridges, and end moraines. Originally, soil drainage was typically poorer than in the adjacent Eastern Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion (55), and elm-ash swamp (Ulmus americana - Fraxinus pennysylvanica) and beech (Fagus grandifolia) forests were dominant. Oak (Quercus) savanna was typically restricted to sandy, well-drained dunes and beach ridges. Today, most of the area has been cleared and artificially drained and contains highly productive farms producing corn (Zea maize), soybean (Glycine max), livestock, and vegetables; urban and industrial areas are also extensive. Stream habitat and quality have been degraded by channelization, ditching, and agricultural activities.

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Web Site for the Journal Megadrilogica: http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~mjwetzel/Megadrilogica.home.html Web Site for Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica – Editio Secunda A catalogue of names, descriptions, and type specimens of the Oligochaeta: http://wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/nomenoligo