Meals for Harvest Time

JULY, 1927. · No. 86 Meals for Harvest Time A reprint of Kansas State· Agricultural College Extension Bulletin No. 35. Reprinted by the Montana Sta...
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JULY, 1927.

· No. 86

Meals for Harvest Time A reprint of Kansas State· Agricultural College Extension Bulletin No. 35.

Reprinted by the Montana State College Extension Service for circulation in Montana, with the permission of the Kansas Extension Division.

Montana Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics J. C. TAYLOR, Director Montana State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, and the Unit.ed Stotcs Department of Agriculture, Cooperating. Acts of Congress May 8 and June 30, 1914.

lbis page: blank ill the: origillal.

MEALS FOR HARVEST TIME Repeated calls have come for help in planning meals during harvest, and while the few suggestions in this bulletin are freely and gladly given, they are intended only as suggestions and not as a final solution of the apparently dreaded problem of what to serve to harvesters. It is the duty of every housewife to study conscientiously the feeding of her family. If this duty were observed more ~ generally, and the habit of systematic planning formed, harvest time would not be such a bugbear. It would simply mean planning, buying and preparing on a larger scale but not neces, sarily a radical departure from the daily system at other times. The farmer has progressed by studying and adopting labor saving devices and methods. The progressive housewife will recognize the importance of following the same plan in the management of the home. Woman's domestic work undoubtedly has a direct bearing on the efficiency of the field workers and therefore the solution of the housewife's problem is just as· important, and just as necessary as is the solution of any problem on the farm,. and a special study of the problem is the duty of every housekeeper. At all times meals should be planned on the basis of: 1. Cost of food, fuel and labor. 2. Quality and quantity of food for proper nourishment of. the body. 3. MinimUm waste of food and energy. What. Not To Serve It is not so much "what to serve" as "what not to serve" that will answer these numerous calls for help. It is an absolute necessity to have a variety in the meals but rank folly to have all the vl:l,riety come in one meal. Variety should bE' handled with discrimination. Work it into all meals rather than one meal. The too common custom of serving two and often three desserts at one meal is not far short of a crime, as often their preparation uses up the time and energy of the housewife, which might be spent to much greater advantage along other lines; makes a needless item in the expense account, and endangers the digestion of the consupler. One dessert and only one is sufficient for any meal. Another common mistake is the duplication of the same type of food. For example,. the serving of potatoes and rice, or potatoes and spaghetti, means a duplication of two starchy foods. A mistake quite as com-

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mon is to serve beans, often cooked with pork, and a generous helping of meat at the same meal. Since they supply much the same kind of food materials -it is undesirable for both to appear at one time. Such foods may be and should be substituted one for the other but not duplicated. Duplication, continual repetition of one food such as fried potatoes, and unnecessary "extra" dishes, have no place in meal planning. It is true that there is a physiological reason why fried foods are so generally thought desirable. They remain in the stomach a considerable time before digestion begins, giving a feeling of fullness and satisfaction for a longer time than do the quicldy digested foods. If the fat has not been burned in the process of cooking, frying does not necessarily make foods unwholesome, but that is no reason why the fried food should always be fried potatoes. As far as careful investigation extends there seems to be no reason, physiological or psychological, for the serving of pie for breakfast-it should never be included in the breakfast menu. Rivalry Ordinarily the serving of a· great variety of food to harvesters necessarily involves duplication of foods more or less alike. This is often the result of neighhorhood rivalry. It has become a tradition in many localities. The men may expect and even demand this great array of food but that is no reason why the serving of it should be continued indefinitely. If the housewives of the community would drop this spirit of rivalry tTtle traditional custom would weaken. They could go farther and do a great good to the individual home and the community by meeting -together and deciding upon type menus that are sane, well-balanced, and sufficiently flexible to admit of adapt:lon to circumstances and season. Their aim should be to secure good, wholesome food-well prepared and in sufficient quantities to satisfy all. At these times there should be a concentration of effOl't for the greatest conservation of time, energy, and money. What To Serve The following menus are intended only as type menus to illustrate food combinations and can readily be changed to suit season or local~ty. Complex salads have been omitted purposely because they require a great amount of time for preparation, but in their place the fresh salad vegetables, easily prepared and served, appear and their presence in the daily menu should be assured. In most of the menus chicken may be substituted for the fI'esh meats, if they are not easily available. In all

MEALS FOR HARVEST TIME

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cases the menus are planned to concentrate the work of the housewife and to this end the daily menus should be carefully studied and the day's work systematically mapped out, and related to the preceding and following days' menus. The use of the fireless cooker is strongly recommended for the cooking of cereals and such foods as require long, slow cooking. A simple but very satisfactory fireless cooker can be made at slight cost and is therefore within reach of everyone. Hot breads have been suggested" for each breakfast menu. This is a concession to tradition, because they are usually preferred. Loaf bread or rolls may be served instead in any of these menus, should the houRewife wish to do so. During the busiest season the evening meal is likely to come rather late. Time may be saved by serving an earlier supper 'to the women members of the household, thus giving an opportunity of washing part of the dishes and leaving a maximum force available for serving the men quickly. By this plan the evening work is more quickly finished. The evening meal should be anticipated and everything that can be, should be prepared in the morning, thus con~ serving time, energy, and fuel. Amounts necessary for the number served should be carefully estimated to avoid leftovers, especially in respect to vegetables and desserts. Cookies, cake, salad dressing, beet pickles, etc., may be prepared the day before the first meals are served. Fruit cake, spice cake, or gingerbread may be kept on hand to help out in emer" gencies. The fruits suggested for service" in the supper menus may be fresh fruits, prepared and sweetened, or canned fruits. Care should be taken to serve hot dishes hot, and cold dishes cold. Notes on Recipes: All measurements are level: Abbreviations: c-cup; tb-tablespoon; t-teaspoon. Breakfast FruIt, Break. fast Food, etc.

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Fruit Cereal

Meat Bacon and Eggs

Vegetables Creamed Potatoes

I'll

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; ~l!

DrInks

Bread, etc. Hot Biscuits Jelly

Coffee

Milk

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Suggestions: Cook bacon in oven while biscuits are baking. Spread sliced bacon on a wire rack and place rack in a dripping pan. This method requires less watching and insures a better product. After breakfast dress the chickens for the following day.

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Dinner' Meat

Soup

Vegetables, Salad, etc.

Pot Roast of Beet Gravy

Browned Potatoes Creamed Corn Sliced Tomatoes

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Bread; etc. Corn Bread Jelly'

Dessert

Drinks

Fresh Apple Pie

Iced Tea. Mille

Suggestions: A cheap cut of meat may be used for pot roasting, such as a piece of rump or shoulder. Sear the meat well on both sides in an oiled kettle (iron preferred), add a small amouut of boiling water and let simmer until tender. About an hour before serving add the pared potatoes to the pot and cook until done, turning them frequently so they will brow evenly. Extra allowance of potatoes and gravy should be made for use in the evening meal. Make mush for the next morning while the range is being used. Cook slowly for 11/ 2 to 2 hours. Pour into pan to mould. If a small amount of flour is mixed with the corn meal when making mush, it will brown more easily. Supper Meat Cold Sliced Beef Catsup

Vegetables, Salad, etc. Browned potatoes heated gravy Buttered Beets Southern Slaw

Bread, etc. Bread Preserves

Dessert Canned or Fresh Fruit Calee

Drinks Tea Mlllt

'Suggestions: Put cabbage in cold water to crisp. Allow to drain in cloth one-half hour before using. For the southern slaw, partially whip cream (sour preferred), add sugar, salt, and vinegar to taste and pour over evenly shredded, crisped bacon. If any corn bread should be left from dinner, corn bread and milk may be served to any who may care for it. Breakfast FruIt, Break· 'fast Food. etc. Fruit

Meat, etc. Brolled Ham Eggs

Vegetables Fried Mush

Bread, etc. Bread Syrup

Drinks Milk Coffee

Suggestions: Any fresh fruits that are in season, as apples, peaches, berries, or grapes may be served for breakfast. Cantaloupes, if available, are usually relished. Dried or canned

MEALS FOR HARVEST TIME

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fruits may be used when fresh ones are not obtainable. Raisins, dates, or figs may be added to the cereal occasionally to vary it. The chocolate bread pudding for supper should be made during the morning. Dinner Soup

Meat

Vegetables, Salad, etc.

Fried Chiclren

Mashed Potatoes Green Beans Lettuce Salad

Bread, etc. Bread

Dessert

Drlnks

Cherry Roll

Iced Tea Milk

Suggestions: When preparing the potatoes for the mashed potatoes, boil extra ones to be used as creamed potatoes for the evening meal. After dinner combine the remainder of the mashed pototoes with egg, shape into patties, ready for frying the following morning. Supper Meat Cold Fried Chi c]r en

Vegetables, Salad, etc. C'reamed Potatoes Sliced Tomatoes

Bread, etc.

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Bread P.escl'ves

Dessert Chocolate ~!I~e:d PudWhipped Cream

DrInks Tea Mi1lr

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Suggestions: Put beans to soak-sufficient for boiled beans and baked beans. Put breakfast cereal in fireless cooker. Make and mould biscuits for breakfast. Keep in refrigerator over night. Breakfast Fruit, Breakfast Food, etc. Fruit Cereal

Meat, etc. Creamed Dried Beef Poached Eggs

Vegetables Potato Calces

Bread, etc. Hot Biscuits Jelly

Drinks Coffee Mlllt

Suggestions: Immediately after breakfast put the beans on to cook and when parboiled once, divide and prepare half for baked beans and allow the remainder to cook with the pork until tender. Make cottage cheese. Prepare the baked apples for supper.

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Dinner Soup

1

M_e_at_ _

Parlt Apple Sauce

,_...::v~eg~e~ta!....:b~le~s~, 8_re_a_d,_e_t_c,_ _ _D_e_S_SS_l"_t Salad, etc. _1 __ , Rice Boiled Beans Boiled Cabbage Fresh Onions

Corn Bread Bread

D_rl_n_kB_

Caramel Custard Ice Cream

Milk Coffee

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Suggestions: Caramel custard ice cream is made by combining 3 cups of milk,·.2 eggs 01'4 yolks, 1% cups sugar (1% caramelized) and making a steamed custard. When this is cooled, add 3 cups cream and freeze. This may be made early in the morning and packed. Extra rice should be cooked and all that is left from dinner should be put into a can and moulded ready to slice for breakfast. The cabbage should be boiled just long enough to make it tender-about twenty-five minutes. If cooked a long time it becomes dark in color and strong in flavor.

Meat ______

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Vegetables, etc.

~ad,

German Fried Potatoes Baked Beaus Cottage Cheese

Suggestions:

Bread, etc. Corn Bread \ Bread

Drinks

Dessert Baked Apples Whipped

Cream

Tea

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Milk

Put breakfast cereal in fireless cooker. Breakfast

Fruit, Break· fast Food, etc. Fruit Cereal

Meat, etc.

Vegetables

Bread, etc.

DrInks

-----Bacon and Eggs

Friea Rice

Muffins Syrup

Coffee Mlllt

Suggestions: Rolled oats is an excellent choice for a breakfast cereal. It is well to use it frequently. Other good cereals are farina, cream of barley, cracked wheat and cracked oats. Ready-to-eat cereals should be served only occasionally for variety as they are more expensive and also less suited to the needs of the working man.

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Dinner Soup

Meat

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Vegetables, Salad, etc.

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Bread

Drinks

Dessert

Ml1k

ILemon Pie

Iced Tea

Fried Apples Radishes

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Suggestions: Boil potatoes for the evening meal and for breakfast the following morning. Cook the beets which may be reheated and buttered for the evening meal. Prepare the baked custard and the potato salad for supper. If the left over ham is limited in amount serve with potato salad with boiled eggs. Supper

_. Vegetables, Salad, etc.

Ment Cold Slicc(l Ham :l\1ustard

Po tnto Salad Bu ttered Beets Pic1