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Western Michigan University ScholarWorks at WMU Master's Theses Graduate College 8-1972 A Study of Audiovisual Media Services Offered in Learning ...
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Western Michigan University

ScholarWorks at WMU Master's Theses

Graduate College

8-1972

A Study of Audiovisual Media Services Offered in Learning Resources Centers at Community Colleges and Two-Year Educational Institutions in Alabama, Michigan, Mississippi, and Wisconsin William C. Pierce Western Michigan University

Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/masters_theses Part of the Library and Information Science Commons Recommended Citation Pierce, William C., "A Study of Audiovisual Media Services Offered in Learning Resources Centers at Community Colleges and TwoYear Educational Institutions in Alabama, Michigan, Mississippi, and Wisconsin" (1972). Master's Theses. 2812. https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/masters_theses/2812

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A STUDY OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA SERVICES OFFERED IN LEARNING RESOURCES CENTERS AT COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND TWO-YEAR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN ALABAMA, MICHIGAN, M I S S I S S I P P I , AND WISCONSIN

by W i l l i a m C. P i e r c e

A P ro jec t R eport Subm itted to th e F a c u l t y o f The G r a d u a t e C o l l e g e in p a rtia l fu lfillm en t of the S p e c ia lis t in A rts

W este rn M ichigan U n i v e r s i t y Kalamazoo, M ichigan A u g u s t 1972

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MASTERS THESIS

M-3757

PIERCE, William Calvin, 1932A STUDY OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA SERVICES OFFERED IN LEARNING RESOURCES CENTERS AT COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND TOO-YEAR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN ALABAMA, MICHIGAN, MISSISSIPPI, AND WISCONSIN. Western Michigan University, Sp.A., 1972 Library Science

University Microfilms, A XEROX C om pany, A nn Arbor, Michigan

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PLEAS E NOTE:

Some pages may have ind ist inet print. Filmed as received.

University M icrofilms, A Xerox Education Company

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

PREFACE

A u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s a n d m e d i a h a v e become a n e s s e n t i a l p a rt of th e resources a v a ila b le in the le arn in g resources c e n te rs o f community c o l l e g e s .

T h e s e m e d i a make i t

possible

for students

t o w or k i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i t h w e l l - p r e p a r e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e d i a a n d to re v ie w m edia a s o f te n as n e c e s s a r y

f o r com prehension.

Use o f

t h e s e media e n a b l e s th e i n s t r u c t o r t o o b se rv e i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s a n d t o w o r k i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h s t u d e n t s who a r e h a v i n g p r o b l e m s or need s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .

I n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s which have been

t a p e r e c o r d e d c a n be u s e d many t i m e s by s t u d e n t s .

This giv es

t h e i n s t r u c t o r tim e to p la n o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s o r t o work w i t h s t u d e n t s on o t h e r p r o j e c t s . easier,

less

The i n s t r u c t o r ' s w o r k w i l l b e

t i m e c o n s u m i n g , a n d b r o a d e r i n s c o p e i f h e knows

and u s e s t h e r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s

of the le a r n in g re s o u rc e s

c e n t e r o f t h e com mun ity c o l l e g e w h e r e he t e a c h e s . With t h e r a p i d growth o f know ledge and t h e i n c r e a s i n g d iv ersity

of s tu d e n t backgrounds, e d u c a tio n a l technology i s

h a v i n g t o change r a p i d l y t o meet th e n e e d s o f i n c r e a s i n g numbers of s t u d e n t s w ith t h e i r d i f f e r i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s and g o a l s . I n s t r u c t o r s m u s t be a w a r e o f t h e s e c h a n g e s a n d n e e d s a n d be a b l e t o d e v i s e new m e d i a a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . co lleg e in s tr u c to r s ,

Community

e s p e c i a l l y , m u s t be a b l e t o u s e new t e c h ­

n i q u e s o f a u d i o v i s u a l media t o i n t e r e s t , i c a t e w ith to d a y 's s tu d e n ts. o f our s o c i e t y and i t s

s t i m u l a t e , a n d commun­

Due t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y

demands on t h e s k i l l s a n d e d u c a t i o n o f ii

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i t s m e m b e r s , t h e c o m m un it y c o l l e g e h a s h a d t o d e v e l o p p r o g r a m s for re tra in in g in

job s k i l l s and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r p e o p le

o f a l l ages and b ack g ro u n d s.

A u d i o v i s u a l media and program s

h a v e h e l p e d c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s i n th ese a re a s . The c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e c a n n o t f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y

unless

i^; h a s a l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e m a t e r i a l s necessary

f o r m eeting the goals of i t s

o rd er to provide th e se m a te ria ls , must have t h e n e c e s s a r y services

In

the le a rn in g reso u rces c e n te r

funds, s t a f f ,

to th e s tu d e n ts ,

e d u c a t i o n a l program.

and equipment to g iv e th e

f a c u lty , and th e a d m in is tr a tio n th a t

th e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o t h i s program demands. The i n v e s t i g a t o r u n d e r t o o k a s t u d y o f a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a serv ices

o f f e r e d by l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r s i n com munity

co lleg e s in the s t a t e s W isconsin.

o f A la b am a, M i c h i g a n , M i s s i s s i p p i , a n d

T h i s s t u d y has a t t e m p t e d t o compare t h e a u d i o ­

v i s u a l m edia p rogram s i n s t a t e s w ith h ig h p e r c a p i t a incomes w ith s t a t e s

o f low er p e r c a p i ta incom es.

The w r i t e r e x p r e s s e s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e d i r e c t o r s o f t h e l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r s who r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s s t u d y by t a k i n g t i m e fr o m b u s y s c h e d u l e s t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s . P a r t i c u l a r a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t i s made t o Ted L a w r e n c e , K i r t i a n d Community C o l l e g e , D i c k O l i v a n t i , K a la m a z o o V a l l e y Community C o l l e g e , Ann B u r k e s ,

B ill S cott,

M e r id ia n J u n i o r C o l l e g e , and

East C e n tr a l Ju n io r C ollege fo r t h e i r courteous

a s s is ta n c e during v i s i t s iii

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We e x p r e s s s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h r e e m e m be r s o f t h e f a c u l t y a t W e s t e r n M i c h i g a n U n i v e r s i t y who w e r e o f i n e s t i m a b l e h e lp i n g iv in g ad v ice and s u g g e s tio n s th ro u g h o u t th e w r i t i n g of th i s

pro ject:

E l e a n o r R. McKinney a n d M a r i l y n L. M i l l e r

of th e School of L ib ra ria n sh ip ; of E ducation.

We t h a n k D a v i d W. H e s s l e r , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n ,

W estern M ichigan U n i v e r s i t y , in terested

a n d D r . D a v i d H. C u r l , C o l l e g e

for s ta rtin g i t

all,

b e c a u s e he

th e w r i t e r i n a u d i o v i s u a l m edia.

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T A B L i OF CONTENTS

P R E F A C E .....................................................................................................................

PAGE ii

LILT OF T A B L E S .................................................................................................

v ii

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE

PROBLEM

Community C o l l e g e B a c k g r o u n d by S t a t e D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms ......................................... S u r v e y o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e ..................... II

METHODOLOGY OF THE S T U D Y ........................

FINDINGS OF THE STUDY BY S T A T E .........

A 9 10

11

E co no m ic P r o f i l e o f t h e S t a t e s . . . . R e s e a r c h T e c h n i q u e ............................................... D e s i g n o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ......... 15 G u i d e l i n e s Used i n E v a l u a t i n g t h e R e t u r n s ........................................................... 2A Method U se d i n F i g u r i n g P e r c e n t a g e s . III

1

12 13

28

29

M i c h i g a n ........................................................... 29 Budgets .................................................... S taff » . . . ............................................... F a c i l i t i e s ............................................ 3A E q u i p m e n t ................................................. 35 A d m in istrativ e O rganization . . . . S ervices . . . . . .................................... W i s c o n s i n ......................................................... B u d g e t s ...................................................... Al S taff ............................................... F a c i l i t i e s ............................................ A6 E q u i p m e n t ................................................. A7 A dm inistrative O rganization . . . . S e r v i c e s ........................................ A l a b a m a ........................................................... 53 B u d g e t s ...................................................... 53 S t a f f v ....................................................... 5A F a c i l i t i e s ............................................ 56 58 E q u i p m e n t ................................................. A d m in istrativ e O rganization . . . . S e r v i c e s ................................................. 63 M i s s i s s i p p i ................................................. 6A 6A B u d g e t ...................................................... v

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29 30

38 Al Al A3

50 52

6l

CHAPTER

IV

PAGE

73 73

REGIONAL COMPARISONS ....................................................

75

V isits V

65 68 68

S t a f f ....................................................................... F a c i l i t i e s ............................................................. E q u i p m e n t ............................................................. A dm inistrative O rganization . . . . S e r v i c e s ..................................................................

.......................................................................

80

SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS .........................................

8k

S u m m a r y ............................................................................. ............................................................. Im plications C onclusions ...................................................

8k 89 90

b i b l i o g r a p h y ...............................................................................................................

93

A P P E N D I X ..........................................................................................................................

95

Copy o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .................................... L e t t e r S e n t t o P a r t i c i p a t i n g LRC D i r e c t o r s

vi

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95 100

LIST OF TABLES TABLE

1.

PAGE

P ercen tage o f Budget E x p en d itu res i n M i c h i g a n Community C o l l e g e LRC's ...............................

31

2.

LRC S t a f f i n M i c h i g a n Community C o l l e g e s . . .

32

3.

F a c i l i t i e s A v a i l a b l e i n M i c h i g a n Community C o l l e g e s .................................................................................................. 35

k.

E q u i p m e n t A v a i l a b l e i n M i c h i g a n Community C o l l e g e s .................................................................................................. 37

5.

Local P r o d u c ti o n Equipment A v a il a b le i n .......................... M i c h i g a n Community C o l l e g e s . . .

39

P ercen tag e o f Budget E x p e n d itu re s in W i s c o n s i n Community C o l l e g e LRC's ..........................

kk

7.

LHC S t a f f i n W i s c o n s i n Community C o l l e g e s

^5

d.

F a c i l i t i e s A v a i l a b l e i n W i s c o n s i n Community C o l l e g e s .................................................................................................. ^ 7

9.

E q u i p m e n t A v a i l a b l e i n W i s c o n s i n Community C o l l e g e s .................................................................................................. ^9

b.

10.

.

.

Local P r o d u c tio n Equipment A v a ila b le i n W i s c o n s i n Community C o l l e g e s . . ...............................

51

P e r c e n t a g e o f B u d g e t E x p e n d i t u r e s i n A la ba m a J u n i o r C o l l e g e LHC's .............................................................

55

12.

LRC S t a f f i n A l a b a m a J u n i o r C o l l e g e s

57

13.

F a c i l i t i e s A v a i l a b l e i n Alabama J u n i o r C o l l e g e s .................................................................................................. 58

l^f.

E q u i p m e n t A v a i l a b l e i n Alab am a J u n i o r C o l l e g e s .................................................................................................. 60

15.

Local P r o d u c tio n Equipment A v a ila b le i n Ala bam a J u n i o r C o l l e g e s . . .........................................

62

P ercen tag e o f Budget E x p en d itu res i n M i s s i s s i p p i J u n i o r C o l l e g e LRC's ...............................

66

11.

16.

.......................

v ii

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TABLE

PAGE

LHC S t a f f i n M i s s i s s i p p i J u n i o r C o l l e g e s

18.

F a c i l i t i e s A vailable in M is s is s ip p i Junior C o l l e g e s ................................................................................................

69

Equipment A v a i l a b l e in M i s s i s s i p p i J u n io r C olleges ............................................................................

70

Local P ro d u c tio n Equipment i n M is s i s s i p p i Ju n io r C olleges ............................................................................

72

19.

20.

. . .

67

17-

v iii

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Community a n d j u n i o r c o l l e g e s a r e t h e m o s t r a p i d l y g r o w i n g and changing i n s t i t u t i o n s

i n American e d u c a t i o n t o d a y .

i n s t i t u t i o n s have w idely d i v e r s i f i e d f r o m a few h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s heterogeniety

purposes and v ary i n s i z e

to s e v e r a l thousand.

Due t o t h e

of background o f the s tu d e n ts e n r o l l e d ,

com prehensiveness of th e c u r r i c u l a o f f e r e d , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have found i t

These

and th e

c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e

necessary to ex p lo re,

exten siv ely ,

many a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . B e c a u s e o f t h e n e w n e s s o f many co m mu ni ty c o l l e g e s ,

th is

study

h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t u n h a m p e r e d by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t s of older in s t i t u t i o n s . S i n c e s e r v i c e t o t h e c o m m u n it y i s

one o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s

f o r th e e x is te n c e of th e tw o-year c o l le g e , of a l l ages for a d d itio n a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,

the needs of people

e d u c a t i o n , r e t r a i n i n g t o im prove and c u l t u r a l e n r ic h m e n t p l a y an

i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p ro g ra m s o f f e r e d by t h e co m m u n it y c o l l e g e . train in g ,

T h e s e p r o g r a m s may i n c l u d e v o c a t i o n a l

t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i n many f i e l d s , a n d l i b e r a l a r t s

programs l e a d i n g to t r a n s f e r to a f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r ­ sity .

The i n t e r e s t s

o f s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f p e o p l e i n t h e

co m m u n it y d e t e r m i n e t h e c u l t u r a l e n r i c h m e n t p r o g r a m s o f f e r e d . The l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r h a s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n 1

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

making i t

p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e t o m e e t t h e n e e d s

o f t h e c o m m u n it y i t

serves.

The c o r e o f t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d

by t h e c o m m u ni ty c o l l e g e s h o u l d be t n e l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r s h o u l d be t o meet th e needs of th e s t u d e n t s , w h e r e t h e com mun ity c o l l e g e i s th a t

th e e v o lu tio n of l i b r a r i e s

in to resource cen ters,

f a c u l t y , a n d t h e com mu nit y

lo cated .

The G u i d e l i n e s 1 s t a t e

from p r i n t - o r i e n t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s

providing a l l

t y p e s o f r e s o u r c e s and

s e r v i c e s t o me et i n d i v i d u a l a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e , h a s b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t o u t g r o w t h o f - t h e community c o l l e g e c o n c e p t .

...

The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o c o m p a r e a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a p r o g r a m s i n community c o l l e g e s i n s t a t e s w i t h h i g h p e r c a p i t a incom es w ith such programs i n s t a t e s w ith lo w er p e r c a p i t a in co m es.

T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o show t h a t t h e economy o f a

s t a t e may h a v e a n e f f e c t on t h e a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by com munity c o l l e g e s i n t h a t s t a t e . The w r i t e r c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y o f a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a p r o g r a m s offered

by l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r s a t c o m m un it y c o l l e g e s

i n tw o m i d w e s t e r n s t a t e s a n d i n two s o u t h e r n s t a t e s .

The p r o g r a m s ,

as w ell as an ev a lu a tio n o f th e a d m in is tr a tiv e fu n c tio n s in each s i t u a t i o n , were th e n com pared.

An e f f o r t was made t o d e t e r m i n e

^Am erican A s s o c i a t i o n o f J u n i o r C o lle g e s and t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e a n d R e s e a r c h L i b r a r i e s , "AAJC-ACRL G u i d e l i n e s f o r TwoY ear C ollege L ibrary L earning Resource C e n te rs .'' C o lle g e and R e s e a r c h L i b r a r i e s News, XXXII ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 2 ^ 5 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

if

t h e a u d i o v i s u a l and l i b r a r y

facility ;

separate,

com pletely s e p a r a te

s e r v i c e s were com bined i n

b u t c o o r d i n a t e d by one f a c i l i t y ;

one

or in

facilities.

Assuming t h a t s u f f i c i e n t

funds a r e a v a i l a b l e

to provide

th e n e c e s s a r y p e r s o n n e l and e q u ip m e n t, an a u d i o v i s u a l media p r o g r a m s h o u l d be a b l e

to meet th e fo llo w in g c r i t e r i a a d a p te d

f r o m F u l t o n ' s E v a l u a t i v e C h e c k l i s t '*': to th e edu catio n al o b je c tiv e s

(1) O ffer a program g eare d

of the c o lle g e .

a l l o c a t e d f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e media program .

( 2 ) Have a b u d g e t (3) Provide

t r a i n e d s t a f f to c a rry out th e o b je c tiv e s of th e program. ( k ) Have e q u i p m e n t t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e facu lty .

(5) O ffer c o n tin u o u s i n - s e r v i c e

t r a i n i n g i n th e use

o f m e d i a , a s a means o f i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s commonly a s s u m e d t h a t s t a t e s w i t h h i g h p e r c a p i t a incom es can p r o v id e b e t t e r s c h o o l s and l e a r n i n g m e d ia . is

tru e,

It

th is

t h e n c o m m un it y c o l l e g e s i n s t a t e s w i t h h i g h p e r c a p i t a

i n c o m e s s h o u l d be a b l e t o o f f e r b e t t e r a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a t h a n c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s i n s t a t e s w i t h l o w e r p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e s . A s t u d y o f a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a s e r v i c e s i n c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s i n s t a t e s w i t h h ig h p e r c a p i t a incomes and such program s i n c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s i n s t a t e s w i t h l o w e r i n c o m e s s h o u l d show such a p a tte rn i f

t h i s assum ption i s

tru e.

^ F u l to n , W illiam R ., E v a l u a t i v e C h e c k l i s t : An f o r S e l f - E v a l u a t i n g a n E d u c a t i o n a l M ed ia P r o g r a m i n S ystem s. Prepared under th e a u s p ic e s o f th e U nited O ffice of E ducation. (N o r m a n , O k la h om a: U n i v e r s i t y 1 9 6 6 ), pp. 1 -1 4 , passim .

Instrum ent School S tates o f O k la ho m a,

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

k The s t a t e s

o f M ichigan, t w e l f t h i n p e r c a p i t a income;

W i s c o n s i n , s i x t e e n t h i n p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e ; A la ba m a, e i g h t h i n p e r c a p i t a income; and M i s s i s s i p p i , c a p i t a incom e, were u sed f o r t h i s

forty -

fiftieth

in per

study.'*'

Community C o l l e g e B a c k g r o u n d by S t a t e s

The f i r s t

com m un it y c o l l e g e i n

a t Grand R a p i d s .

M i c h i g a n was b e g u n i n 1 9 1^

By 1 9 7 2 , a s y s t e m o f t w e n t y - t h r e e c o m m u ni ty

c o l l e g e s h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d w h i c h s e r v e s o v e r 6 0 ,0 0 0 p e o p l e th ro u g h o u t th e s t a t e of M ichigan. M ic h ig a n 's t r a d i t i o n has been t h a t of lo c a l c o n t r o l , d e l e g a t e d by t h e s t a t e , o f d e c i s i o n m aking.

w ith c i t i z e n involvem ent a t a l l l e v e l s ,

Over t h e y e a r s ,

M i c h i g a n ' s p u b l i c co m m u n it y

c o l l e g e s h a v e g r o w n by u s i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d a p p r o a c h t h a t i n ­ c lu d e s th e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n , the g o v e rn o r's W ith t h i s

the l e g i s l a t u r e ,

o f f i c e and c i t i z e n g r o u p s . system ,

p ro g re s s has n o t been as r a p i d o r as

c le a r-c u t in o v erall s ta te

planning as i t

has been i n s t a t e s

t h a t have c e n t r a l i z e d most d e c i s i o n making a t t h e s t a t e However, t h i s

lev el.

f l e x i b l e system h a s a llo w e d c i t i z e n and e d u c a ­

t i o n a l l e a d e r s t o make d e c i s i o n s a n d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r actio n s. C u rric u lu m in n o v a tio n has been th e most im p o r ta n t ^ R e a d e r ' s D i g e s t Almanac, e d . 1970 R e a d e r 's D ig e s t Almanac a n d Y e a r b o o k . ( P l e a s a n t v i l l e , New Y o r k : The R e a d e r ' s D ig est A s s o c i a t i o n , I n c . , 1970J, p . 285.

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d e v e lo p m e n t i n community c o l l e g e s i n M ic h ig a n ,

The a u d i o ­

v i s u a l - t u t o r i a l a p p r o a c h h a s i n c r e a s e d th e number o f program s a v a ila b le to s tu d e n ts in h e a lth c a re e rs , and i n th e te c h n ic a l and b u s in e s s a r e a s .

Community c o l l e g e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y

sensitive

to th e needs of g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n , rem e d ial e d u c a tio n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y , to program s d i r e c t e d tow ard t h e n e e d s o f th e g h e t t o s and d e p r iv e d a r e a s o f u rb an , s u b u rb a n , and r u r a l M ichigan.^ F o r many y e a r s ,

th e S t a t e o f W isconsin h a s had a s t r o n g

and independent v o c a t i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l system as w e ll as a l a r g e and v a r ie d u n i v e r s i t y

ex ten sio n program .

le g is la t io n au th o rized the te c h n ic a l i n s t i t u t e s ’’l i b e r a l a r t s c o l l e g i a t e

In th e 1 9 6 0 's, to o f fe r a

t r a n s f e r p ro g ram ," e x c e p t where

" t h e r e i s an e x i s t i n g p u b li c i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . "

2

T his p ro h ib itio n d id not apply to c i t i e s having p o p u la tio n s of 1 5 0 ,00 0 o r more.

It

become i n s t i t u t i o n s in other s itu a tio n s .

a p p e a rs t h a t the t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s w i l l t h a t w o u l d be d e f i n e d a s c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s U n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c e n t e r s were not

au th o rized to o ffe r v o c a tio n a l-te c h n ic a l ed u c a tio n . The f i n a n c i n g o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s i s

unique i n th a t the

^Gannon, Philip J., "Fifty years of Community Involvement in Michigan," Junior Colleges: 50 States/50 Years. Edited by Roger Yarrington. (Washington, B.C.: American Association of Junior Colleges, 1969). p.115. p Wattenbarger, James L., "The Other Twenty-Two," Junior Colleges: 50 States/50 Years. Edited by Roger Yarrington. (Washington, D.C.: American Association of Junior Colleges, 1969), P.295.

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u n iv e rs ity c e n te rs are s ta t e supported w ith lo c a l area s providing land and f a c i l i t i e s ,

w hile the t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s a re l o c a l l y

supported, y e t re c e iv e s u b s ta n tia l s t a t e

aid.

I t w o u l d s eem t h a t t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e s in W isconsin have r e s i s t e d co lleg es.

However, t h e r e a r e t w e n t y - t h r e e t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s

and u n i v e r s i t y The s t a t e than a c e n tu ry , It is

still

t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f com munity

ex ten sio n c e n te rs in W isconsin. o f A lab am a h a s h a d c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s

f o r more

t h e e a r l i e s t h a v i n g b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n 18 ^ 2 .

f u n c t i o n i n g today as a f o u r - y e a r p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l

w ith a ju n i o r c o lle g e departm ent. I n 1 9 5 8 t h e r e w e r e s i x f u n c t i o n i n g j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , two o f which were i n d e p e n d e n t s c h o o l s , y e t w hich w ere r e c e i v i n g c o n t r i ­ butions

f r om t h e s t a t e

o f Alabama.

These s i x

ju n io r colleges

b e l o n g e d t o t h e Alabama A s s o c i a t i o n o f J u n i o r C o l l e g e s whi ch a c c o r d i n g t o Graham'*' s e t

forth i t s

p u rp o se i n i t s w orking r u l e s

t o " p r o m o t e t h e common i n t e r e s t o f t h e A labam a."

ju n io r c o lle g e s of

T h i s w o u l d be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h

o th er agencies in te r e s te d in ed u catio n ; effo rts

on b e h a l f o f t h e

junior c o lle g e ;

"rep resen tatio n in

through co o rd in a tio n of through c o lla b o ra tio n

i n exchange o f r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s and p e r s o n n e l and th rough public r e l a t i o n s . " L e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d i n 19&3 p r o v i d e d f o r a n Alabama T r a d e

■'"Graham, W a l t e r A . , " I t May H a p p e n i n A l a b a m a , T o o . " Junior C olleges: 5 0 S t a t e s / 30 Y e a r s . E d i t e d by R o g e r Y a r r i n g t o n (W ashington, D .C .: A m e r ic a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f J u n i o r C o l l e g e s , 1969), p. 133.

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

School and J u n io r C o llege A u th o rity .

F u n d s w e r e t o be p r o v i d e d

t o e s t a b l i s h t e n new j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , w i t h a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f S I . 5 m illio n per school.

T h e new c o l l e g e s w e r e t o b e b u i l t on s i t e s

d o n a t e d t o t h e A u t h o r i t y and no f u n d s w ere t o be u s e d t o a c q u i r e site s

o r t o im prove e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s .

T h is program l e d t o

p l a n s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f n i n e t e e n new j u n i o r c o l l e g e s a n d t w e l v e new t r a d e s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t A l a b a m a . areas of the s t a t e , com m unities.

The l o c a t i o n s c o v e r e d a l l

in c lu d in g both b ig c i t i e s ,

The A u t h o r i t y A c t a l s o

and s m a ll,

rural

provided fo r the o p e ra tio n

a n d m a i n t a i n a n c e o f t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s

t o be a s s u m e d by t h e

S t a t e Board o f E d u c a tio n . By 1965» A la b a m a h a d f o u r t e e n s t a t e ju n io r c o lle g e s.

owned a n d c o n t r o l l e d

E n r o l l m e n t s a t t h a t t i m e r a n g e d fr o m a low o f

142 t o a h i g h o f 993* I n 1 9 6 9 , A la b a m a h a d t w e n t y - t h r e e th em p r i v a t e .

ju n io r c o lle g e s , s i x of

The e s t i m a t e d e n r o l l m e n t was 2 0 , 0 0 0 w i t h a n

a n t i c i p a t e d e n r o l l m e n t o f 2 5 ,0 0 0 t o b e r e a c h e d d u r i n g t h e 1971-72 s c h o o l y e a r . o f 1968, only e ig h t

A c c r e d i t a t i o n i s s l o w e r i n c o m in g a n d a s j u n i o r c o l l e g e s h a d b e e n a c c r e d i t e d by t h e

S outhern A ss o c ia tio n o f C o lleg es.

A n o th e r e i g h t s c h o o ls were

h o p i n g t o m e e t t h e a c c r e d i t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s by 1 9 6 9 . As e a r l y a s 1 9 0 8 , M i s s i s s i p p i h a d t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f j u n i o r co lleg es.

The j u n i o r c o l l e g e s w ere a n o u t g r o w t h o f co unty

a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s which w ere e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e s e c o n d a r y education in th e r u r a l area s.

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I n 1 9 2 2 , l e g i s l a t i o n was e n a c t e d w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f f r e s h m e n a n d s o p h o m o r e y e a r s o f c o l l e g e w o r k t o be added to th e s e county a g r i c u l t u r a l h ig h s c h o o ls a s lo n g a s they were l o c a t e d a t l e a s t tw e n ty m i l e s from a s t a t e c o l l e g e . same la w r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l

T his

te a c h e rs of th ese ju n io r c o lle g e s

h a v e a c o l l e g e d e g r e e a n d t h o s e who t a u g h t t h e s o p h o m o r e y e a r were t o have a t t h e i r b a c h e lo r's

l e a s t one more y e a r o f g r a d u a t e c r e d i t a b o v e degree.

A lso,

the l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u ir e d

the h ig h sch o o l curricu lu m of th e s e

ju n io r colleges

be f u l l y

a p p r o v e d by t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , a n d t h a t lib raries

that

the

i n e a c h s c h o o l w e r e t o h a v e a minimum o f " 1 5 0 0 w e l l -

s e l e c t e d v o lu m e s , e x c l u s i v e of p a m p h le ts or government p u b licatio n s. By 1 9 2 8 , the

the s t a t e

l e g i s l a t u r e r e a l i z e d the need to review

la w s of 1922, and t h u s b r o u g h t them u p - t o - d a t e .

The

l e g i s l a t u r e provided t h a t : . . . c o u n t i e s may j o i n t o g e t h e r a n d t a x t h e m s e l v e s t o e s ta b lis h a ju n io r c o lle g e w ith equal r e p re s e n ta tio n on t h e b o a r d o f t r u s t e e s . At t h e same t i m e , a J u n i o r C o l l e g e C o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d to p r o v i d e t h e r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l s

over the e s ta b l is h m e n t

o f new j u n i o r c o l l e g e s . F ro m e l e v e n students,

j u n i o r c o l l e g e s i n 1 9 2 8 , w i t h a b o u t 90 0

t h i s n u m b e r h a s g ro w n t o t w e n t y - s e v e n j u n i o r c o l l e g e s

^Johnston, G.H., "State and Local Partnership in Mississippi. Junior Colleges; 50 States/50 Years. Edited by Roger Yarrington. (Washington, D.C.: American Association of Junior Colleges, 19&9) p . 269. ^ibid.

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s e r v i n g 45,000 s tu d e n ts as o f 1972. Financial support comes from both the local districts and the state.

In 1968, the operating funds were derived from

three sources:

(1) student fees - 10 per cent; (2) local

districts - 45 per cent; (3) state appropriations - 45 per cent.

D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms

For the purposes of t h i s su rv e y ,

the follow ing d e f in i ti o n s

2 of terms, adapted from the Guidelines, will be used:

Community

or Two Year Colleges are any institution of higher education which offers less than a bachelor's degree and which requires its students to be either (1) high school graduates, or (2) beyond high school age. institutions:

Included are the following types of

(1) institutions offering courses similar to the

liberal arts curricula; (2) institutions which are branches or extension centers of senior colleges and universities;

(3)

institutions whose concern is primarily vocational or technical; and (4) comprehensive institutions offering both liberal arts and occupational programs of posthigh school level.

A Learning

Resources Center is an administrative unit on the individual campus which integrates print and nonprint forms of information resources and the equipment and services to permit their use.

H o c . cit., p.2 7 3 * p AAJC-ACRL Guidelines, op. cit., pp.265-78, passim.

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Throughout t h i s paper th e i n i t i a l s term L e a rn in g R esources C e n te r .

"LRC" w i l l b e u s e d f o r t h e

Media i n c l u d e s such i t e m s a s

film s and p r o j e c t o r s , video m a t e r i a l s , programmed l e a r n i n g a i d s ,

r e c o r d i n g s and p l a y e r s ,

books, s e r i a l s , m icroform s,

docum ents, and o th e r r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s .

Production i s

p r e p a r a t i o n o f m edia, i n c l u d i n g g r a p h i c s ,

v ariety

The C e n t e r

LRC a n d who h a v e a

o f a b i l i t i e s an d e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s .

p ro fessio n al s ta f f ,

the

photography,

r e c o r d i n g s , and th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r i n t e d m edia. S t a f f a r e t h e p e r s o n n e l who o p e r a t e t h e

pam phlets,

tech n ical a s s is t a n t s ,

clerks,

They i n c l u d e secretaries,

and s tu d e n t a s s i s t a n t s .

Survey o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e

A search of re la te d li t e r a t u r e , A b stracts

I n t e r n a t i o n a l and L ib ra ry

in clu d in g D issertatio n L i t e r a t u r e , r e v e a l e d no

s t u d i e s u s i n g th e per c a p i t a incom es o f th e s t a t e s su rv ey ed i n c o m p a r i n g a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a s e r v i c e s i n c o m m u ni ty c o l l e g e s . T he f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e t h e m e t h o d u s e d i n c o n d u c tin g the survey and g iv e th e d e s ig n of th e q u e s tio n n a ir e used.

T h is c h a p te r w ill a l s o d is c u s s th e c r i t e r i a used i n th e

q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s ig n and o u t l i n e t h e g u i d e l i n e s used i n e v a lu a tin g the re tu rn s .

Subsequent c h a p te rs w ill d iscu ss

t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y by s t a t e ,

compare th e m idw estern

r e g i o n w i t h th e s o u th e r n r e g i o n , and summarize th e f i n d i n g s .

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CHAPTER I I

METHODOLOGY

O rig in ally ,

i t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e w r i t e r s u r v e y a u d i o ­

v i s u a l p r o g r a m s a t c o m m u ni ty c o l l e g e s i n t h e s t a t e s o f I n d i a n a , M ichigan, and W isconsin.

I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e

t h i r t y - f o u r community c o l l e g e s i n M ic h i g a n , t w e n t y - t h r e e i n W i s c o n s i n , b u t o n l y one i n I n d i a n a .

The w r i t e r t h o u g h t t h a t

f i f t y - e i g h t c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s w o u l d n o t b e a n a d e q u a t e n um be r to p ro v id e a s u f f i c i e n t r e tu r n f o r a m eaningful su rv ey . I n d i a n a h a s o n l y one j u n i o r c o l l e g e , i t

w as e l i m i n a t e d

Since from

the s u rv e y . Being f a m i l i a r w ith e d u c a t i o n a l problem s i n th e S o u th , th e w r i t e r r e v is e d the o r i g i n a l survey to in c lu d e the a u d io ­ v i s u a l p r o g r a m s o f t h e s t a t e s o f A la b a m a a n d M i s s i s s i p p i w i t h th e program s i n th e s t a t e s of M ichigan and W isconsin.

A check

o f P a t t e r s o n ’s A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n '*' r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e a r e t w e n t y - t w o co m m u n it y c o l l e g e s i n A l a b a m a a n d t w e n t y - s e v e n i n M ississip p i.

W i t h t h e t h i r t y - f o u r c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s i n

M ichigan ( t h i r t y - s e v e n ,

i n c l u d i n g a l l o f t h e campuses o f

O a k l a n d Com munity C o l l e g e ) , a n d t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e i n W i s c o n s i n , a d d e d t o t h o s e i n Alab am a a n d M i s s i s s i p p i , a t o t a l o f 109 E l l i o t t , Norman F . , e d . P a t t e r s o n ’s A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n . S ix ty - e ig h th annual yearbook. (Mount P r o s p e c t , I l l i n o i s : E d u c a tio n a l D i r e c t o r i e s I n c . , 1971)» p p . 5 85-86.

11

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12 co m m u n it y c o l l e g e s w o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e

f o r the s u r v e y .

The

w r i t e r a n d h i s a d v i s o r d e e m e d 1 0 9 co m mu n it y c o l l e g e s a s u f f i c i e n t n um be r t o p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e r e t u r n

fo r th e pro­

posed su rv ey .

E c o n o m ic P r o f i l e

of th e S t a t e s

As o f 1 9 7 0 , M i c h i g a n r a n k e d t w e l f t h among t h e s t a t e s

in

p e r c a p i t a p e r s o n a l incom e w i t h o n ly k . 7 p e r c e n t o f h e r work fo rc e involved in farm ing.

M anufacturing, tr a d e ,

ment acc o u n ted f o r 7 ^ .5 p e r cen t p ay ro ll.

and g o v ern ­

of M ich ig an 's n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l

The m a n u f a c t u r e o f m o t o r v e h i c l e s a n d t h e i r a c c e s ­

s o r i e s i s the le a d in g i n d u s t r y

i n M i c h i g a n . ' 1'

In 1970, W isconsin r a n k e d e i g h t e e n t h i n p e r c a p i t a p e r s o n a l in c o m e w i t h 1 1 . 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e wo rk f o r c e i n a g r i ­ c u l t u r a l occupations.

M a n u f a c t u r i n g , t ra de and g o v e r n m e n t

acc o u n te d fo r 7 2.2 per c e n t of W isc o n s in 's n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l pay ro ll.

Food p r o c e s s i n g ,

paper m anufacturing,

fu rn itu re,

and

m a c h i n e r y a r e some o f t h e l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n W i s c o n s i n . He r c h ie f a g r ic u ltu r a l products a re dairy products, and c a t t l e .

eggs,

po tato es,

2

A lab am a r a n k e d f o r t y - e i g h t h among t h e s t a t e s i n p e r c a p i t a p e r s o n a l in c o m e i n 1 9 7 0 .

W h ile o n l y 9 . 8 p e r c e n t o f h e r work

fo rce a re involved in a g r i c u l t u r e ,

A labam a's l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i e s

^R e a d e r 's D ig e s t A lm anac, op. c i t . , 2

loc. c i t . ,

p . 285.

p . 305*

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

13 a re m ining and p r o c e s s in g prim ary m e ta ls ,

te x tiles,

chem icals,

p u lp and p a p e r , and r u b b e r and m e ta l p r o d u c t s .

A labam a's c h i e f

a g r i c u l t u r a l products a r e ,

dairy

forest

products,

peanuts,

beef c a t t l e ,

cotton,

p roducts,

c o r n , s o y b e a n s , and p e c a n s . ^ -

M is s is s ip p i ranked f i f t i e t h

in

p e r c a p i t a p e r s o n a l income

i n 1970, w i t h 2 0 .5 p e r c e n t o f h e r work f o r c e i n v o l v e d i n a g r i ­ cu ltu re.

The l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n M i s s i s s i p p i a r e t h e manu­

f a c t u r e o f a p p a r e l , l u m b e r a n d wood p r o d u c t s , a n d f o o d p rocessing. are co tto n ,

The c h i e f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s o f M i s s i s s i p p i p o u l t r y and e g g s ,

beef c a t t l e ,

soybeans,

and d a i r y

products.^

R esearch Technique Th e s u r v e y m e t h o d was u s e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a , w i t h the q u e s tio n n a ir e as th e in s tr u m e n t.

The i n v e s t i g a o r c o n s t r u c t e d

t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o g a i n b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n common t o a l l situ a tio n s. F i v e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n w e r e i d e n t i f i e d i n d e c i d i n g on t h e k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d f r o m t h e com mun ity c o l l e g e s i n t h e s ta te s selected . Th e f i r s t

a r e a s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s u r v e y was t h e b u d g e t o f

t h e r e s p o n d i n g LRC's. 3 2 5 , 0 0 0 was u s e d .

A r a n g e from u n d e r $ 5,000 t o o v e r

An e f f o r t was made t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t p e r

^loc. cit., p. 26 9 . p l o c . c i t . , p . 286.

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14 c e n t o f t h e b u d g e t was a l l o c a t e d

f o r p r in t m edia, n o n p rin t

m e d i a , and e q u ip m e n t. The s e c o n d a r e a o f c o n c e r n was t h e p e r s o n n e l o f t h e LRC. Th e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o s p e c i f y t h e n u m b e r s o f s t a f f i n v arious c a te g o rie s, tech n ician s,

etc.

such a s l i b r a r i a n s ,

audiovisual s p e c ia lis ts ,

A s t a t e m e n t o f th e e d u c a tio n and e x p e r i e n c e

o f c e r t a i n key p e r s o n n e l was a l s o a s k e d . F a c i l i t i e s and equipm ent com prised the t h i r d a r e a o f concern.

I t was a s k e d w h e t h e r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s

i n c l u d e d an

a u d io v is u a l le a rn in g la b o r a to r y ; a graphic p ro d u ctio n a re a ; a te le v isio n stu d io ;

a r e a s f o r t h e u s e o f pro gr amm ed i n s t r u c t i o n a l

m ed ia; and w h eth er t h e i r equipm ent in c lu d e d hardw are

f o r use in

th e classroom , and /o r f o r l o c a l production of tr a n s p a r e n c ie s , slid es,

tapes, e tc .

An e f f o r t was made t o d e t e r m i n e i f

these

f a c i l i t i e s a n d e q u i p m e n t w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e LRC, e l s e w h e r e o n c a m p u s , o r n o n e x i s t e n t on c a m p u s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e LRC was t h e a re a of concern.

The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w e r e a s k e d :

fourth ( 1 ) Are

t h e a u d i o v i s u a l a n d l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s me rge d u n d e r o n e d i r e c t o r ? ( 2 ) Are t h e s e s e r v i c e s s e p a r a t e , d irecto r?

b u t c o o r d i n a t e d u n d e r o ne

( 3 ) Ar e t h e s e r v i c e s s e p a r a t e , w i t h s e p a r a t e

d i r e c t o r s who r e p o r t t o a V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , A ca d e m ic D e a n , e t c . ? (4 ) I s the l i b r a r y

or au d io v isu al cen ter responsible

c i r c u l a t i o n o f a u d i o v i s u a l m edia and equipm ent?

f o r the

The l e t t e r

i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k e d t h a t a c o p y o f t h e LRC's

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o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t be r e t u r n e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y o f t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s w e r e t h e f i f t h asked of th e respondent w ere: e n c i e s and g r a p h ic s l o c a l l y

area of concern.

Q uestions

(1 ) Are m e d ia , s u c h a s t r a n s p a r ­

produced f o r the

( 2 ) May t h e f a c u l t y u s e t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s

f a c u l t y i n t h e LHC

t o p r o d u c e t h e i r own

m e d i a ? ( 3 ) May s t u d e n t s u s e t h e p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s LRC?

( k ) Do es t h e LRC s t a f f

t r a i n i n g program f o r th e

o f f e r a continuous in - s e r v i c e

facu lty ?

provide tr a i n in g fo r s tu d e n ts

o f the

( 5 J Does t h e LRC s t a f f

( . o t h e r t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s who

w o r k i n t h e LRC) i n t h e u s e o f a u d i o v i s u a l e q u i p m e n t a n d m e d i a ?

D esign of th e Q u e s tio n n a ire

The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a w e r e u s e d t o p r o v i d e a f r a m e w o r k fo r the q u e s tio n n a ire ;

( 1 ) T h a t a c o m m un it y c o l l e g e s h o u l d

have a program o f e d u c a t i o n a l media s e r v i c e s a d m i n i s t e r e d th ro u g h a le a r n in g r e s o u rc e s c e n te r ,

which p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t o r s

w i t h an a d e q u a te s u p p ly o f a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l media to support th e ir in s tru c tio n a l s tr a te g ie s .

(2) T h a t t h e l e a r n i n g

r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r s h o u ld be a s e r v i c e u n i t t h a t

o p e r a te s a t the

sam e l e v e l a s o t h e r m a j o r c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s e r v i c e s .

(3) That

t h e r e s h o u l d be a s u f f i c i e n t nu m b e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l m e d i a s t a f f m e m b e rs t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e m e d i a p r o g r a m t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y

o f t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e .

(^ ) That

th e l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r sh o u ld be o r g a n iz e d a ro u n d th e c o n c e p t o f o f f e r i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e s an d m edia t o

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

a ll students, college.

f a c u l t y , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e community

( 5 ) T h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s h o u l d be s u p p o r t e d

by an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a t o m e e t t h e e d u c a ­ t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e co m m u n it y c o l l e g e w i t h a s y s t e m o f m a k in g them a c c e s s i b l e

to the

f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s .

(6) That th e

media c e n t e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e such media s e r v i c e s a s p r o c u r e m e n t, m a in ten a n ce, and p r o d u c ti o n of a p p r o p r i a t e m edia t o su p p o rt the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program.

( 7 ) T h a t c l a s s r o o m s s h o u l d be

d esig n ed f o r , and p ro v id e d w ith ,

essen tial f a c ilitie s

for

e f f e c t i v e u s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e media of a l l k i n d s t o meet t h e in s tr u c tio n a l needs of the

comm unit y c o l l e g e .

(8) That

f i n a n c i n g o f t h e m e d i a p r o g r a m s h o u l d be b a s e d on b o t h t h e community c o l l e g e ' s l o n g - r a n g e a n d i m m e d i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s . The b u d g e t s h o u l d r e f l e c t a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s e l o n g - r a n g e g o a l s a n d be s u f f i c i e n t

to

i n s t r u c t i o n a l im provem ent.

s u p p o r t 3lms d i a p r o g r a m f o r (9 ) T hat t h e community c o l l e g e

m e d i a p r o g r a m s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d by a w e l l - q u a l i f i e d ,

fu ll­

t i m e m e d i a s p e c i a l i s t who i s p r o v i d e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p r o f e s ­ sional, te ch n ica l,

and c l e r i c a l s t a f f t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a te

m e d ia s e r v i c e s w h i c h m e e t t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e co m m u n it y c o l l e g e . ' * ' Q u e s t i o n s w ere d e s i g n e d f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which would a p p l y t o e a c h o f t h e f i v e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.

2

“^ F u l t o n , 2

op. c i t . ,

pp. 1-14, passim .

A co py o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x A.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

The G u i d e l i n e s ^ s t a t e

t h a t t h e b u d g e t o f t h e LRC s h o u l d be

s u f f i c i e n t t o meet t h e normal r e q u ir e m e n t s o f th e c u rric u lu m o f t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e a n d t h e t y p e s a n d k i n d s o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r . may be d e p e n d e n t on many f a c t o r s ,

The b a s i c

budget

s u c h a s , w h e t h e r t h e c o m m u n it y

c o lle g e 's

em phasis i s

programs;

t h e g ro w th r a t e o f t h e community c o l l e g e ; c h a n g e s

in th e curriculum ; center s ta f f ;

the

on v o c a t i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l o r l i b e r a l , a r t s

type6 of s e r v i c e s re n d ered ; th e s iz e of th e av ailab ility

s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y ;

o f o th e r le a r n in g re s o u rc e s to

and th e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s

i n which th e

center operates. The G u i d e l i n e s f u r t h e r s t a t e r e s p o n s ib il iti e s of the

t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s and

LRC w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e

o f t h e community c o l l e g e s h o u l d be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .

The

e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e LRC d e p e n d s on t h e u n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g , by s t u d e n t s , ad m in istrato rs, LRC a s i t

faculty,

center s ta f f ,

and th e c o l l e g e

o f t h e f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e

r e l a t e s t o th e needs and program s of th e p a r t i c u l a r

co m m u ni ty c o l l e g e .

The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e a n d o r g a n i z a ­

t i o n o f t h e LRC s h o u l d be t h a t w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y c a r r i e s out th e o b je c tiv e s of th e

LRC.

The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e

LRC t o t h e t o t a l a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m o f t h e com m un it y c o l l e g e should in v o lv e th e p ro fe s s io n a l s t a f f

o f t h e LRC i n a l l l e v e l s

^AAJC-ACRL Guidelines, op. cit., pp.265-78, passim.

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

and a r e a s o f acad em ic p l a n n i n g an d c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t. T e c h n ic a l s t a f f should be in v o lv e d in

the

f in a l s ta g e s of

p l a n n i n g a n d make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d equipm ent. A ccording to th e G u i d e l i n e s , the a d m in is tr a t iv e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e LRC may v a r y , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l co m m u n it y c o l l e g e , e d u c a tio n a l r e s o u rc e m edia, by t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e .

e a r l i e r m ethods o f p r o v i d i n g

or the changing o f programs o f f e r e d Th e a u d i o v i s u a l a n d l i b r a r y

serv ices

may b e m e r g e d u n d e r on e d i r e c t o r w i t h a n a u d i o v i s u a l s p e c i a l i s t or te c h n ic a lly and eq u ip m en t. separate, d irectly

q u a lif ie d perso n in charge of a u d io v is u a l s e rv ic e s Or t h e l i b r a r y

a n d a u d i o v i s u a l s e r v i c e s may b e

b u t c o o r d in a te d u n d e r one d i r e c t o r , w ith p r o f e s s i o n a l s in charge of the a u d io v is u a l and l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s .

The

n e e d s o f t h e p r o g r a m o f t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e may n e c e s s i t a t e a u d io v is u a l and l i b r a r y

s e r v i c e s being s e p a r a te , w ith s e p a r a te

d i r e c t o r s who r e p o r t t o a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t

or academic dean .

D e p e n d i n g on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a may b e c i r c u l a t e d by t h e l i b r a r y

o r by t h e LRC.

The s o f t w a r e

may b e h o u s e d an d c i r c u l a t e d by t h e l i b r a r y a n d t h e h a r d w a r e h o u s e d a n d c i r c u l a t e d by t h e LRC.

M eeting th e o b j e c t i v e s

of the

p r o g r a m o f t h e com mun ity c o l l e g e s h o u l d be t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n a r r a n g i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e LRC. A q u a l i f i e d a n d e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t h e LRC i n s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r s t o c a r r y o u t t h e p u r p o s e s a n d

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

in

o b je c tiv e s of the c e n te r. of s t a f f

w i l l vary

The G u i d e l i n e s s t a t e

that

t h e num be r

from one c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e t o a n o t h e r ,

d e p e n d in g upon t h e s i z e of t h e s t u d e n t p r o g r a m o f t h e c o m m u ni ty c o l l e g e , the p h y s ic a l f a c i l i t i e s

av ailab le,

t h e s e r v i c e s p e r f o r m e d by t h e

body,

the e d u c a tio n a l

t h e h o u r s t h e LHC i s o p e n , and th e s c o p e and n a t u r e o f

LRC s t a f f .

Every p r o f e s s i o n a l

member o f t h e s t a f f s h o u l d h a v e g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e r e s p o n s i D i l i t i e s a s s i g n e d t o him .

The d i r e c t o r o f t h e

LRC s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d on t h e

b a sis of h is e d u c a tio n a l ac h ie v e ­

m ent, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y ,

a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p u r p o s e s and

f u n c t i o n s o f t h e LRC, a n d c o n c e r n t h a t The G u i d e l i n e s s t a t e and a b i l i t i e s

th at

t h e u s e r s ' n e e d s be m e t .

t e c h n i c i a n s w ith s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g

s h o u l d be on t h e s t a f f

to a s s i s t the p ro fe s s io n a l

s t a f f i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e LRC. may s u p e r v i s e s u c h a c t i v i t i e s m aterials.

T echnicians

a s c i r c u l a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n o f

They may a l s o s u p e r v i s e c l e r i c a l a n d s t u d e n t

assistan ts. A ccording to th e G u i d e l i n e s , s tu d e n t a s s i s t a n t s

are

i m p o r t a n t on t h e LRC s t a f f b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i e t y o f d u t i e s they can c a r ry

o u t , b e c a u s e t h e y may e n c o u r a g e o t h e r s t u d e n t s

to use th e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s

o f t h e LRC, a n d b e c a u s e

t h e y may s e r v e a s a r e c r u i t m e n t p o o l f o r o t h e r p o s i t i o n s on the s t a f f . Th e G u i d e l i n e s s t a t e and th e

t h a t d e p e n d i n g on t h e b u d g e t a v a i l a b l e

c a p a b i l i t i e s of the s t a f f ,

c e rta in physical f a c i l i t i e s

t h e LRC s h o u l d p r o v i d e

to carry

o u t t h e f u n c t i o n s and

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l program o f t h e community c o l l e g e . T h e r e s h o u l d be a n a u d i o v i s u a l l e a r n i n g l a b o r a t o r y w h e r e b o t h s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y c a n become f a m i l i e r w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d te ch n iq u es of using p r o je c to r s , o th e r ty p es of hardw are.

t a p e and r e c o r d p l a y e r s ,

and

A g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s h o u l d be

a v a i l a b l e to the s t u d e n t s ,

faculty,

an d t h e LRC s t a f f , w h i c h

w i l l meet th e i n d i v i d u a l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l n eed s f o r ta p e recordings,

tran sp aren cies,

m aterials.

A r a d i o a n d a t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o may be a p a r t o f

the

p h o to g ra p h s , and o t h e r t y p e s of

f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e LRC, b u t d e p e n d i n g o n t h e n e e d s o f t h e

c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e ’s p r o g r a m ,

t h e r e may be s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t i e s ,

or,

t h e y may be u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r

departm ents.

the

c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e h a s a c o m p u t e r c e n t e r ,

t h e LRC may p r o v i d e

com puter f a c i l i t i e s a s a p a r t o f i t s

program .

If

E rickson s ta te s

th a t: Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , u t i l i z i n g t e a c h i n g s y s t e m s o f an au to m ate d n a t u r e on a s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l b a s i s , i s b e i n g u s e d t o t e a c h b a s i c s k i l l s i n many c u r r i c u l a . The i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n p r o g r a m s a r e b e i n g u s e d t o t e a c h th e o p e r a t i o n o f equipm ent, t h e making o f t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , d u p l i c a t i n g p r o c e s s e s , a n d many o t h e r sk ills. The

com m un it y c o l l e g e LRC s h o u l d d e v e l o p p r o g r a m m e d i n s t r u c t i o n

as needs fo r i t a r i s e

a n d a s p r o g r a m s c a n be p r o d u c e d o r

p u r c h a s e d fr o m c o m m e r c i a l s o u r c e s . I n t h e a r e a o f e q u i p m e n t , t h e i d e a l s i t u a t i o n w o u l d be h aving th e r i g h t equipm ent, in th e r i g h t p la c e , a t

the r ig h t

^ " E r i c k s o n , C a r l t o n W . H . , A d m i n i s t e r i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media Program s. (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . l * t 0 - 4 l .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

21

t i m e , AND i n w o r k i n g o r d e r . equipment collore

While t h e r e a r e l i s t s

of basic

f o r a n LRC, t h e e q u i p m e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r community

s h o u l d be b a s e d on t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l

neods o f th e s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y .

The G u i d e l i n e s ^ s t a t e

that

t h e com mun ity c o l l e g e s h o u l d s e l e c t e q u i p m e n t on t h e b a s i s o f q uality

of perfo rm an ce,

design,

ease of o p e ra tio n ,

serv ice.

p o rtab ility ,

effectiv e

a nd a v a i l a b i l i t y

of

T h e r e s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e

u tiliz atio n c o lle g e 's

e a s e o f m a in ten a n ce and r e p a i r ,

o f a u d i o v i s u a l media e q u i p m e n t.

The commu nity

c l a s s r o o m s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d s o t h a t a u d i o v i s u a l

e q u i p m e n t may be e f f e c t i v e l y

u t i l i z e d a s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l

technique. The n e c e s s a r y e q u i p m e n t a n d m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d

be a v a i l a b l e

i n t h e LRC f o r t h e l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n o f s p e c i a l m e d i a o r m e d ia which a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e

com m ercially.

The t y p e s a n d k i n d s o f

m e d i a an d e q u i p m e n t s h o u l d d e p e n d on t h e n e e d s o f t h e college s tu d e n ts , be a v a i l a b l e

f a c u l t y , a n d LRC s t a f f .

fo r the e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n

equipment and m ed ia.

A dequate sp ace sh o u ld of l o c a l production

A s u f f i c i e n t nu m be r o f s t a f f ,

r e q u i s i t e a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s ,

community

w ith the

s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o p r o d u c e

t h e m e d i a , a n d / o r a s s i s t s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y i n t h e m a k in g o f tape r e c o r d i n g s , furtherance

slid es,

and o t h e r media a s n e e d e d f o r th e

o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t o v e s o f t h e community

co lleg e.

•^AAJC-ACRL G u i d e l i n e s ,

op. c i t . ,

p. 275-

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

22 The e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m o f t h e co m m u n it y c o l l a g e r e q u i r e s t h a t p r o v i s i o n be made f o r m e d i a t o s u p p o r t a n d s u p p l e m e n t t h e c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s , a n d t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s an d facu lty .

The LRC p r o v i d e r s e r v i c e s

f o r s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y

a n d g i v e s i n s t r u c t o r s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e l e c t from th e r e s o u r c e s , m edia n e c e s s a r y t o m eet i n d i v i d u a l and c l a s s n e e d s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e G u i d e l i n e s ^ t h e e m p h a s i s o f t h e LRC s h o u l d be upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r ,

in

f a c i l i t a t i n g in q u iry ,

in

e x p l o r i n g id e a s and c o n c e p ts , and i n d e v e lo p in g in d e p e n d e n t use of re s o u rc e s .

The LRC s t a f f s h o u l d p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e f o r

i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e use o f m edia and r e s o u r c e s , a s w e l l as form al i n s t r u c t i o n to groups of s tu d e n t s and f a c u l t y .

The LRC s t a f f

s h o u l d s e r v e , a l s o , a s a r e s o u r c e f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . As a p a r t o f t h e LRC's s e r v i c e s o f p r o d u c i n g a u d i o v i s u a l m edia f o r t h e

facu lty ,

to use th e f a c i l i t i e s own m e d i a .

i t s h o u l d make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e LRC s o t h a t

W ith th e s e s e r v i c e s ,

t h e LRC s t a f f s h o u l d p r o v i d e

a c o n t i n u o u s t r a i n i n g program f o r t h e a u d i o v i s u a l media and eq u ip m en t.

th e y can p ro d u c e t h e i r

f a c u lty in the use of

T h i s t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be

o f f e r e d on b o t h a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s a n d i n g r o u p s e s s i o n s . The t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m o f t h e LRC s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e t r a i n i n g of students

( o t h e r t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who w o r k i n t h e LRC) i n

t h e u s e o f a u d i o v i s u a l media an d e q u i p m e n t.

S t u d e n t s s h o u l d be

encouraged t o use the p r o d u c tio n f a c i l i t i e s

o f t h e LRC f o r t h e i r

own p r o j e c t s a s f a r a s i t

is

feasib le.

^AAJC-ACRL G u i d e l i n e s , op. c i t . ,

p.2 6 7 .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

23 A s e p a r a t e b u d g e t s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d t o t h e th a t c o s ts of m a te ria ls, r e a d i l y be d e t e r m i n e d .

LRC i n o r d e r

s e r v i c e s , and s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s

may

The a m o u n t s w i t h i n t h e b u d g e t s h o u l d

be f l e x i b l e s o a s to meet t h e demands w hich d e v e l o p d u r i n g the sch o o l y e a r. For t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g b u d g e t r a n g e s were u s e d : under S3,000; 320,000;

35,000 - 310,000;

310,000 - $15,000; $15,000 -

$ 2 0 ,0 0 0 - $ 2 5 ,0 0 0 ; and o v e r $ 2 5 ,0 0 0 .

These low ered

r a n g e s w e r e u s e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f s m a l l e r c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s and newer i n s t i t u t i o n s .

The p e r c e n t o f t h e b u d g e t s p e n t f o r

p r i n t m e d ia , n o n p r i n t m e d ia , e q u ip m e n t, and o t h e r e x p e n d i t u r e s was u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e r e t h e e m p h a s i s o f t h e LRC p r o g r a m lay. The n u m b e r o f p e r s o n n e l i n v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s was u s e d t o d eterm ine,

(1) the s iz e of th e a u d i o v is u a l program ;

a d e q u a te t h e s t a f f s w ere, and services offered.

( 2 ) how

( 3 ) t o g i v e some i d e a o f t h e

The e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d e x p e r i e n c e

o f k e y p e r s o n n e l was a s k e d s o t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d s e e i f a lib rary

b a c k g ro u n d a n d / o r an a u d i o v i s u a l b a c k g ro u n d would

be most u s e f u l f o r the d i r e c t o r o f t h e a u d i o v i s u a l media s e r ­ v i c e s i n a n LRC.

C e rta in t e c h n ic a l backgrounds in b u sin e ss

a n d i n d u s t r y m i g h t s e r v e a s a n o t h e r me an s o f q u a l i f y i n g am i n d i v i d u a l , who g e t s t h e n e c e s s a r y e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , f o r p r o m o t i o n w i t h i n t h e LRC. The f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , s u c h a s t h e a u d i o v i s u a l l e a r n i n g lab o rato ry ,

th e graphic p ro d u ctio n a r e a , e t c . ,

were used t o

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

-24 d e t e r m i n e t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e LRC p r o g r a m a n d t h e t y p e s of services av ailab le. The t y p e s o f e q u i p m e n t an d t h e i r l o c a t i o n was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e ' s c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e u s e o f a u d i o v i s u a l media i n i n s t r u c t i o n . The n u m b e r a n d t y p e s o f l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n e q u i p m e n t w e r e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e co m m u n it y c o l l e g e h a s a n e e d f o r its

own s p e c i a l i z e d m e d i a o r w h e t h e r i t

d ep en d s upon c o m m e r c ia lly

produced m edia. The s e c t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n was used to d isco v er i f th e study,

c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s , i n t h e s t a t e s

follow th e concept of a d m in is te rin g a l l le a r n in g

r e s o u r c e s m edia t h r o u g h one c e n t e r , facilities

used fo r

or i f

they p r e f e r s e p a ra te

of v a rio u s arrangem ents.

The s e r v i c e s , w h i c h t h e LRC ma k es a v a i l a b l e t o t h e com m u ni ty c o l l e g e f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s , were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e commit­ m e n t o f t h e LRC s t a f f t o m e e t i n g t h e n e e d s o f t h e f a c u l t y a n d students.

The i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s e c t i o n w as u s e d t o s e e

w h e t h e r t h e LRC s t a f f was m a k i n g a n e f f o r t t o i m p r o v e t h e f a c u l t y ' s u s e o f a u d i o v i s u a l media and e q u ip m e n t.

G u i d e l i n e s Used i n E v a l u a t i n g t h e R e t u r n s The A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n ' s a n d N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s S t a n d a r d s f o r S c h o o l Media Program s

served as a

^"American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n s a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A u d io v isu al I n s t r u c t i o n of the N a tio n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n . S t a n d a r d s f o r S c h o o l M e d ia P r o g r a m s (C hicago: American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 19^9)* p p . 3 9 - ^ ^ .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

beginning g u id e lin e

for th is

study.

The l i s t

of equipment f o r

a n a u d i o v i s u a l p r o g r a m f r o m t h e s e S t a n d a r d s was u s e d a s a guiding l i s t

for th is

survey.

The S t a n d a r d s s t a t e :

The i t e m s i n t h e l i s t t h a t f o l l o w s r e p r e s e n t t h e a d d i t i o n a l equipm ent needed to meet th e m u ltim ed ia ap p ro a c h w hich good t e a c h i n g and e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e from t h e s c h o o l m edia program . . . . t h e basic s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n d i c a t e q u a n t i t i e s n e e d e d f o r u. f u n c t i o n i n g p r o g r a m , more t r a d i t i o n a l i n n a t u r e . The a d v a n c e d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s p r e s e n t q u a n t i t i e s t h a t w i l l be n e e d e d i n t h o s e s c h o o l s w i t h s u c h a p p r o a c h e s a s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n and in d e p e n d e n t study. I t i s reco g n ized th a t in c e r ta in ty p e s of in n o v a tiv e program s even the advanced l e v e l w i l l n e e d t o be e x c e e d e d . T h i s l i s t recommends t h e number o f u n i t s p e r t e a c h i n g s t a t i o n and a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s

o f e q u i p m e n t i n t h e LRC.

The S t a n d a r d s a l s o s t a t e

th at:

N a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s h a v e many f u n c t i o n s b e y o n d t h e im m ediate o n es o f p r o v i d i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r media programs o f good q u a l i t y and e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r t h e m e d i a s e r v i c e s , r e s o u r c e s , and f a c i l i t i e s e s s e n tia l in the educational process. They a c t a s a s t i m u l u s t o c o r r e c t t h e s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s now e x i s t i n g i n t o o many o f o u r s c h o o l s by ( 1 ) a s s i s t i n g i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m e d i a c e n t e r s w h e r e no s e r v ic e i s a v a i l a b l e , or (2) a c c e l e r a t i n g th e improvement o f m edia s e r v i c e s i n th o s e s c h o o ls w h e r e o p ti m u m p r o g r a m s a r e d e f e a t e d b e c a u s e o f la c k of s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f and reso u rces or because of other substandard co n d itio n s. T h is p u b li c a t i o n a l s o m entions th a t th e s e s ta n d a r d s r e q u ir e c o n tin u o u s r e v i s i o n b ecause of the r a p i d i t y tio n ,

of change i n educa­

technology, and in o th e r f i e l d s . A d d iti o n a l c r i t e r i a were d ev elo p ed f o r t h i s

^loc.

2

loc.

c it.,

p .44.

c it.,

p. x.

s tu d y from

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

26 F u l t o n ' s E v a l u a t i v e C h e c k l i s t , a n i n s t r u m e n t t o be u s e d by t h e LHC d i r e c t o r f o r a s e l f - e v a l u a t i n g : s t u d y o f t h e a u d i o v i s u a l media program o f a s c h o o l s y s te m .

Using t h i s

is p o s s i b le to develop a graphic p r o f i l e

technique, i t

o f an a u d i o v i s u a l media

p r o g r a m w h i c h w i l l show s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s a n d h i g h l i g h t a r e a s t h a t need im provem ent.

Fulton s t a t e s ,

in p a rt,

th at:

A s c h o o l sy ste m sh o u ld have a program of e d u c a t i o n a l m e d ia s e r v i c e s a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h a s c h o o l media c e n t e r . . . a n d t h e r e s h o u l d be a s u f f i c i e n t nu m b e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l m e d i a s t a f f me mbers t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l media p r o g r a m . . . F ulton a ls o s t a t e s

th a t:

C ontinuous i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a tio n i n th e use of educa­ t i o n a l m e d i a s h o u l d b e ^ c a r r i e d on a s a m e an s o f im proving i n s t r u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a a r e p o i n t e d o u t by F u l t o n a s b e i n g e s s e n t i a l t o t h e media pro g ram : E d u c a t i o n a l m e d i a c e n t e r s s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t o f o f f e r i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e s and m edia to a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s of a s c h o o l s y s t e m . . . a n d th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l program sh o u ld b e s u p p o r t e d by a n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f e d u c a t i o n a l m e d i a a n d a s y s t e m o f m a k i n g th e m a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s . T he f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e AAJC-ACRL G u i d e l i n e s f o r Tw o- Y ea r C o l l e g e L i b r a r y L e a r n i n g R e s o u r c e C e n t e r s was u s e d by t h e w r i t e r i n developing e v a lu a tiv e g u id e lin e s f o r t h i s

study.

The

G uidelines s t a t e : A s t a t e m e n t d e s c r i b i n g a d e q u a te l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s h as been d i f f i c u l t t o f o r m u la te f o r such i n s t i ­ t u t i o n s ( co m m un it y c o l l e g e s ) b e c a u s e o f s u c h f a c t o r s a s th e w idely d i v e r s i f i e d p urposes and s i z e s of the

^ F ulton, 2

op. c i t . ,

loc.

c it.,

p .k.

^loc.

c it.,

p .?.

p .l.

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

27 i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r i v a t e and p u b l i c ; th e high p r o p o r t i o n o f com muting s t u d e n t s ; th e c o m p r e h e n s iv e n e s s o f t h e c u r r ic u la ; th e w illin g n ess o f a d m in istra to rs to exper­ i m e n t u n h a m p e r e d by t r a d i t i o n ; a n d t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f b a c k g r o u n d among t h o s e e n r o l l e d . A lthough th e d i v e r s i t y among t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s m a k e s t h e estab lish m en t of g en erally a p p lic a b le g u id elin es d i f f i c u l t , a l l tw o - y e a r i n s t i t u t i o n s need q u a l i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e s i n l e a d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s which can be u s e d f o r s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and p r o j e c t i v e p l a n n i n g . The G u i d e l i n e s f u r t h e r s t a t e t h a t : T h e s e g u i d e l i n e s c o n t a i n no q u a n t i t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s i n the t e x t . R a t h e r t h a n d e v e l o p i n g any new q u a n t i t a ­ t i v e s t a t e m e n t s , r e f e r e n c e w i l l b e made t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a s t a t e m e n t , most co m p reh en siv e o f t h o s e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l ­ a b l e f o r g u i d a n c e t o t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r i n g th e m fo r s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n or p la n n in g p u rp o se s. Such num era­ t i o n s becom e t o o s o o n o b s o l e t e a n d i n h i b i t o r y r a t h e r th a n rem ain in g a d e s ir a b l e g o a l f o r developm ent.2 The w r i t e r h a s u s e d t h e s e c t i o n s to budgeting, p erso n n e l, o rg an izatio n ,

of the G u id elin es p e rta in in g

f a c i l i t i e s and equipm ent, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

and s e r v i c e s i n e v a l u a t i n g th e r e s u l t s

of th is

stu d y . B a s e d on t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t s f r o m t h e G u i d e l i n e s , q u a l i t a ­ t i v e com parisons w i l l e n t e r i n t o r e p o r t i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s stu d y . As a p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y ,

the w r i t e r v i s i t e d th e

c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s i n M i c h i g a n :

follow ing

K i r t l a n d Community C o l l e g e n e a r

Roscommon, M i c h i g a n ; a n d K a l a m a z o o V a l l e y Community C o l l e g e n e a r K alam azoo, M ic h ig a n .

The f o l l o w i n g com m un it y c o l l e g e s w e r e

v i s i t e d i n M i s s i s s i p p i by t h e w r i t e r :

^ AAJC-ACRL G u i d e l i n e s , o p . c i t . , lo c.

c it.,

M eridian J u n i o r C o lle g e

p . 265.

p . 266.

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

in M eridian, M is s is s ip p i; D ecatur, M ississip p i.

and E a s t C e n tr a l J u n io r C o lle g e in

Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were n o t s e n t t o e i t h e r

K i r t l a n d Community C o l l e g e o r t o K a la m a z o o V a l l e y Comm unity C o lleg e,

but were s e n t t o

e a c h o f t h e o t h e r two c o m m u n it y

co lleg es v isite d .

Method U se d i n F i g u r i n g P e r c e n t a g e s In Chapter I I I

t h e m ethod o f f i g u r i n g p e r c e n t a g e s f o r

e q u ip m e n t and l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n e q u ip m e n t i s a s f o l l o w s : Th e p e r c e n t a g e s a r r i v e d a t w e r e f i g u r e d f i r s t

(1)

fo r th e item s

a v a i l a b l e i n t h e LPC by u s i n g t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d i n g c o lle g e s divided in to the i n d i c a t e d having th a t

n u m b e r o f c o l l e g e LRCs w h i c h

p a r t i c u l a r p ie c e of equipm ent.

( 2 ) The

p e r c e n t a g e s were t h e n f i g u r e d f o r equipm ent a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e on ca m p u s by u s i n g t h e sam e m e t h o d a s s t a t e d i n

(1) above.

( 3 ) T o t a l p e r c e n t a g e s w e r e a r r i v e d a t by d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d i n g c o l l e g e s i n t o t h e t o t a l number o f c o l l e g e s w hich i n d i c a t e d h a v in g c e r t a i n

ite m s of equipment a v a i l a b l e i n

t h e LRC a n d / o r e l s e w h e r e o n c a m p u s .

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

CHAPTER I I I

FINDINGS OF THE STUDY BY STATE

Michigan

Budgets Out of the twelve community colleges in Michigan which responded to the questionnaire, nine have LRC budgets which exceed the $25,000 range.

One community college falls in the

$1 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 20,0 00 range, one in the $5 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 range, while the twelfth community college did not respond to this question. Since some respondents indicated that salaries were included in the LRC's budget, the need for a follow-up study is indicated in order to determine exactly what the breakdown is of the budgets of these nine community colleges. Of the colleges responding, College A spends 16.8 per cent of its budget for print media, 6 . 8 per cent for nonprint media,

1 . 0 per cent for equipment, and 7 5 *^ per cent of the budget for salaries and supplies.

College B spends ^7 per cent of its

budget for print media, 18 per cent for nonprint media, 18 per cent for equipment, and 18 per cent for supplies.

College C

did not have a percentage breakdown of its budget available. College D spends 50 per cent of the budget for print media,

25 per cent for nonprint media, and 25 per cent for equipment. College E spends

per cent of its budget for print media and 29

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

30 55 per cent for nonprint media. for other categories.

College E supplied no figures

College F spends hQ per cent of the budget

for print media and 10 per cent for supplies.

No indication was

given as to what the remaining 50 per cent is spent on. G spends35 per cent for print media, 1 media, 6

per cent

per cent for equipment, and 5 & per cent

repairs, and miscellaneous expenses.

College

for nonprint for salaries,

College H spends 90 per

cent of the budget for print media, find 10 per cent for nonprint media.

Equipment purchases are made from capital expenditures.

College I did not give budget percentages as they indicate that there are separate budgets for audiovisual and library expendi­ tures.

College J did not fill in this section of the question­

naire.

College L spends 25 per cent of the budget for print

media, 5

per cent for nonprint media, 1 per cent

and 69 per cent for salaries.

for equipment,

(TABLE 1, p.31)

On the basis of these returns, College E, which spends 55 per cent of the budget for nonprint media, and College D, which spends 25 per cent of their budget for these media, would seem to offer the best software to support an audiovisual program. In three cases salaries and other items account for a large percentage of the budget.

Staff In the reports on the staff in Michigan community colleges, (TABLE 2, p.32) six of the fifteen colleges responding have audiovisual specialists on the staff of the LRC.

All of the

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

-

-- ------- ------ ------------ :—

-

~

......

— ...................... -----------

--------

»

# I) o f'f a; . -> ,7 \

o



S> 7-'

C

o ^ *~r rv.

c: £ K" •H O .r l ;

e c: O

X

41.6

41.6

50.0

58.3

FACILITIES

Radio Studio

Programmed Instruction

Equipment

In t h e a r e a of a u d i o v i s u a l e q u ip m e n t, th e r e s p o n d in g M ichigan c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s p r o v i d e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t h e LRC: p r o je c to r s - 58.3 per c e n t;

o p a q u e p r o j e c t o r s - 50 p e r c e n t ;

l6mm p r o j e c t o r s - 6 6 . 6 p e r c e n t ;

8mm p r o j e c t o r s - 83*3 p e r c e n t ;

f i l m s t r i p p r o je c to r s - 66.6 p er c e n t; 50 p e r c e n t ; sound f i l m s t r i p

overhead

film strip /slid e

projectors -

p r o j e c t o r s - 58.3 p er c e n t ;

s t r i p v ie w e rs - 83.3 p e r c e n t ;

film ­

2x 2 s l i d e v i e w e r s - 50 p e r c e n t ;

m i c r o p r o j e c t o r s - 8 . 3 p e r c e n t ; r e c o r d p l a y e r s - 83.3 p e r c e n t ; t a p e p l a y e r / r e c o r d e r s - 10 0 p e r c e n t ;

c o py m a c h i n e s - 9 1 . 6 p e r

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

cent;

d u p l i c a t i n g m achines - 4 l . 6 p er c e n t; m icro r e a d e r s -

100 p e r c e n t ; m i c r o r e a d e r - p r i n t e r s - 8 3 . 3 p e r c e n t ;

and

portable

(TABLE 4 ,

v id e o ta p e r e c o r d e r s y s te m s - 50 p e r c e n t .

P.3 7 ) The f o l l o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f e q u i p m e n t a v a i l a b l e

o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r s - 8 3 »3 p e r

w e r e r e p o r t e d by t h e c o l l e g e s : cent;

opaque p r o j e c t o r s - 6 6 .6 p e r c e n t ;

16mm p r o j e c t o r s

8 3 . 3 p e r c e n t ; 8 mm p r o j e c t o r s - 3 3 . 3 p e r c e n t ; p r o j e c t o r s - 66.6 p e r c e n t ;

-

film strip

f i l m s t r i p / s l i d e p r o j e c t o r s - 75

p e r c e n t ; s o u n d f i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t o r s - 50 p e r c e n t ; v i e w e r s - 50 p e r c e n t ;

on campus

film strip

2x 2 s l i d e v i e w e r s - 3 3 . 3 p e r c e n t ;

m i c r o p r o je c to r s - 16.6 p e r c e n t ; r e c o r d p la y e r s - 83.3 per cent;

ta p e p l a y e r / r e c o r d e r s - 83.3 p e r c e n t ; copy m achines -

6 6 .6 p er c e n t ; d u p l i c a t i n g m achines - 8 3 .3 p e r c e n t ; r e a d e r s - 3 3 . 3 p e r c e n t ; no m ic r o r e a d e r - p r i n t e r s

m icro

o u tsid e of

t h e LRC; an d p o r t a b l e v i d e o t a p e r e c o r d e r s y s t e m s - 4 1 . 6 p e r cent.

( S e e a l s o TABLE 4 , p . 3 7 ) I n l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n e q u i p m e n t a v a i l a b l e i n t h e LRC, t h e

re sp o n d in g c o lle g e s have th e

follow ing p e rc e n ta g e s:

d r y mount

p r e s s e s - 4 1 .6 per c e n t ; p ap er c u t t e r s - 58.3 p e r c e n t ;

two

ty p e s o f t r a n s p a r e n c y p r o d u c ti o n equipm ent - 6 6 .6 p e r c e n t ; l6mm c a m e r a s - 1 6 . 6 p e r c e n t ;

8mm c a m e r a s - 50 p e r c e n t ; r a p i d

p r o c e s s cameras - 16.6 p e r c e n t ; cent;

d a r k r o o m e q u i p m e n t - 25 p e r

s p i r i t d u p l i c a t o r s - 25 p e r c e n t ; p r i m a r y t y p e w r i t e r s -

6 6 . 6 p e r c e n t ; copy cam era and s t a n d - 4 l , 6 p e r c e n t ; boxes - 16.6 p er c e n t ;

35mm c a m e r a s - 6 6 . 6 p e r c e n t ;

lig h t film

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

37

TABLE 4

Equipment A v a i l a b l e i n M i c h i g a n Community C o l l e g e s EQUIPMENT

% A vailable in LRC

% A vailable Elsewhere on Campus

T otal % A v ailable

Overhead projector

58.3

83.3

Opaque projector

50

66.6

l6aa projector

66.6

83.3

8mm projector

83.3

33.3

83.3

Filmstrip projector

66.6

66.6

83.3

Filmstrip/slide projector

50

75

75

Sound filmstrip projector

58.5

50

91.6

Filmstrip viewer

83.3

50

91.6

2x2 slide viewer

50

33.3

58.3

8.3

16.6

25

83.3

83.3

100

83.3

100

Microprojector Record player Tape player/recorder

100

100

91.6 100

Copy machine

91.6

66.6

91.6

Duplicating machine

41.6

83.3

91.6

Micro reader

100

Micro reader-printer

83.3

Portable video-tape recording system

50

33.3

100

0.0

83.3

41.6

66.6

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

rewind - 66.6 per cent; film splicers - 75 per cent; tape splicers - 66.6 per cent; slide reproducers - 35*3 per cent; mechanical lettering devices - 33*3 per cent; portable chalk­ boards - 25 per cent; and portable feltboards - 8.3 per cent. (TABLE 5, P-39) With local production equipment, in other locations on campus, the responding Michigan community colleges reported the following percentages:

dry mount presses - 33.3 per cent; paper

cutters - 58.3 per cent; two types of transparency production equipment - 41.6 per cent; l6mm cameras - 8.3 per cent; Sam cameras - 33.3 per cent; rapid process cameras - 8 . 3 per cent; darkroom equipment - 5 8 . 3 per cent; spirit duplicators - 66.6 per cent; primary typewriters - 25 per cent; copy cameras and stands - 8.3 per cent; light boxes - 8.3 per cent; 35mm cameras 41.6 per cent; film rewind - 16.6 per cent; film splicers - 33*3 per cent; tape splicers - 1 6 . 6 per cent; slide reproducers 25 per cent; mechanical lettering devices - 50 per cent; portable chalkboards - 66.6 per cent; and portable feltboards 1 6 . 6 per cent.

(See also TABLE 5* P«39)

A d m in istrativ e O rganization

The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e i g h t o f t h e M i c h i g a n community c o l l e g e s i n d i c a t e s

t h a t th e a u d i o v i s u a l and l i b r a r y

s e r v i c e s a r e m e r g e d u n d e r o ne d i r e c t o r . co lleg es,

the

a u d io v is u a l and l i b r a r y

c o o r d i n a t e d u n d e r o ne d i r e c t o r .

At two o f t h e s e e i g h t

services are se p a ra te ,

but

A n o t h e r co m m u n it y c o l l e g e h a s

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

39

TABLE 5

Local P r o d u c t i o n Equipment i n M i c h i g a n Comm uni ty C o l l e g e s

EQUIPMENT

% A vailable in LRC

% A vailable Elsewhere on Campus

T otal % A vailable

Dry mount press

41.6

33.3

58.3

Paper cutter

58.3

58.3

83.3

2 types of transparency production

66.6

4l.6

75

l6mm camera

16.6

8.3

25

8mm camera

50

33.3

75

Rapid process camera

16.6

8.3

25

Darkroom equipment

25

58.3

66.6

Spirit duplicator

25

66.6

75

Primary typewriter

66.6

25

75

Copy camera & stand

41.6

8.3

50

Light box

16.6

8.3

25

35mm camera

66.6

41.6

83.3

Film rewind

66.6

16.6

75

Film splicer

75

33-3

91.6

Tape splicer

66.6

16 .6

83.3

Slide reproducer

33.3

25

58.3

Mechanical lettering devices

33.3

50

75

Portable chalkboard

25

66.6

66.6

16.6

25

Portable feltboard

8.3

Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

40 its

a u d i o v i s u a l and l i b r a r y

rep o rts

s e r v i c e s s e p a r a te and th e d i r e c t o r

to the v ic e - p r e s id e n t,

Of t h e c o l l e g e s r e p l y i n g , most p r e f e r r e d i s

academ ic dean, e t c . the ad m in istra tiv e o rg a n iz a tio n

t h e on e w h e r e a u d i o v i s u a l a n d l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s

a r e m e r g e d u n d e r one d i r e c t o r . S i x o f t h e com mu nit y c o l l e g e s r e s p o n d i n g show t h a t t h e i r a u d i o v i s u a l m e d i a a r e c i r c u l a t e d by t h e l i b r a r y . t h e s e m edia c i r c u l a t e d stated

that

by t h e a u d i o v i s u a l c e n t e r .

Two more h a v e Four colleges

both th e l i b r a r y and t h e a u d i o v is u a l c e n t e r c i r c u l a t e

m e d ia and one i n d i c a t e d t h a t s a t e l l i t e

learning c e n te rs also

c i r c u l a t e a u d i o v i s u a l m edia. S i x o f t h e t w e l v e M i c h i g a n c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s w h i c h r e s ­ ponded t o th e q u e s tio n p e r t a i n i n g t o th e involvem ent o f th e d i r e c t o r o f t h e LRC i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , stated

th at

t h e d i r e c t o r was i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g .

S i x c o l l e g e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r was n o t i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m p la n n i n g and t h r e e d i d n o t r e p l y .

Nine o f t h e

c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r s t a f f was n o t i n v o l v e d i n s u c h p l a n n i n g a n d two s t a t e d t h a t

t h e i r s t a f f s were in v o lv e d .

The n a t u r e o f t h e i n v o l v e m e n t i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e d r e c o m m e n d i n g m e d i a f o r p u r c h a s e f o r new c o u r s e s a n d w o r k i n g w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s i n p l a n n i n g new c o u r s e s . At some c o m m un it y c o l l e g e s , c e r t a i n s t a f f members w o r k w i t h t h e f a c u l t y a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new c o u rs e s and program s. of le ss

Of t h e c o l l e g e s r e s p o n d i n g , t h e d i r e c t o r s

th a n h a l f ta k e p a r t i n c u rric u lu m plan n in g and d ev elo p -

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

kl

m ent.

Only two c o l l e g e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t a f f

in th is

is

involved

planning.

In the a re a of s e r v ic e s

p r o v i d e d f o r s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y ,

t h e r e s p o n d i n g community c o l l e g e s o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : produce a u d io v is u a l m edia, such a s t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , tapes,

e tc .,

f o r the

facu lty

in the

to use the f a c i l i t i e s

m edia.

Only t h r e e p r o v i d e a r e g u l a r l y program f o r th e

m edia and equipm ent.

o f t h e LRC t o p r o d u c e t h e i r own

faculty

i n th e use of a u d i o v i s u a l

t r a i n i n g was d o n e i n g r o u p s e s s i o n s ,

in

scheduled i n - s e r v i c e

One c o l l e g e s t a t e d t h a t i t s

A nother c o lle g e s t a t e d t h a t

g raphics,

LRC, a nd n i n e a l l o w e d t h e

facu lty

train in g

eleven

in -serv ic e

i n t h e LRC, o n c e a y e a r .

t h e i r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g was h e l d

g roup and i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s ,

b o t h i n t h e LRC a n d e l s e w h e r e ,

but u s u a l l y on ly once a y e a r . F ive of the c o lle g e s provided tr a in in g for s tu d e n ts in th e use of a u d i o v is u a l m edia and equipm ent, and s i x a llo w e d s t u d e n t s to u se the p r o d u c tio n f a c i l i t i e s

o f t h e LRC.

W isconsin

Budgets Of t h e t w e l v e W i s c o n s i n c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s r e s p o n d i n g ,

nine

have b u d g e ts ex ce ed in g t h e $25*000 r a n g e , - - o n e o f w hich i n c l u d e s s a l a r i e s — one has a b u d g e t i n t h e

$15,000 to $20,000 r a n g e ,

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

one

42 i n t h e 5>10,000 t o S I ! ? , 0 0 0 r a n g e a n d o ne h a s a b u d g e t b e l o w *5,000. A fo llo w -u p study

w o u ld be n e c e s s a r y t o more a c c u r a t e l y

d e t e r m i n e t h e r u n g e o f t n e b u d g e t s o f t h e com mu nit y c o l l e g e s i n t h e S 2 5 ,0 0 0 and above r a n g e . *3,500,

One c o l l e g e , w i t h a b u d g e t o f

i s a s m a l l d e n o m i n a t i o n a l c o l l e g e w h ic h g e t s i t s

from t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n .

support

The c o l l e g e s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e b u d g e t

ex p en d itu re q u estio n as fo llo w s : s e c tio n of the q u e s tio n n a ir e ;

C ollege A did n o t answ er t h i s

C o l l e g e B s p e n d s 35 p e r c e n t of

th e b u d g e t f o r p r i n t m e d ia , 10 p e r c e n t f o r n o n p r i n t m e d ia and 5 per cent

fo r equipm ent.

C o l l e g e C s p e n d s 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e

b u d g e t on n o n p r i n t m e d i a a nd 25 p e r c e n t on e q u i p m e n t . D l i s t e d 40 p e r c e n t how i t

f o r n o n p r in t m edia, but d id n o t i n d i c a t e

spent th e rem aining

per cent of th e

C ollege

budget

6 0 p e r c e n t . C o l l e g e E s p e n d s 65

f o r p r i n t m e d i a , 25 p e r c e n t f o r n o n p r i n t

m e d i a , a n d 10 p e r c e n t

fo r equipm ent.

per cent of the

f o r p r i n t m e d i a , an d s t a t e d n o n e f o r

budget

n o n p r i ’-'t m e d i a a n d n o n e f o r e q u i p m e n t .

C ollege F sp en d s 1 4 .3

C o l l e g e G s p e n d s 30 p e r

c e n t o f t h e b u d g e t f o r p r i n t m e d i a , 15 p e r c e n t f o r n o n p r i n t m e d i a , 15 p e r c e n t f o r e q u i p m e n t a n d i n d i c a t e d t h e r e s t D u d g e t was f o r s a l a r i e s .

o f the

C o l l e g e H s p e n d s 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e

bu d g et f o r p r i n t m edia, 2 p er c e n t f o r n o n p rin t m ed ia, and 2 per c en t f o r equipm ent.

C o l l e g e I s p e n d s 56 p e r c e n t

bu dg et f o r p r i n t m edia, 40 p e r c e n t f o r s a l a r i e s , for s u p p lie s .

C o l l e g e J s p e n d s 96 p e r c e n t o f t h e

n o n p r in t m edia, and 4 p e r c e n t f o r equipm ent.

of the

and 4 p e r cent budget fo r

C o lleg e K spends

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

90 p e r c e n t o f t h e b u d g e t

fo r p r i n t m ed ia, 5 per c e n t f o r

n o n p r i n t m ed ia, and 5 p e r c e n t f o r e q u ip m e n t. 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e b u d g e t

C ollege L spends

f o r p r i n t m e d i a , 50 p e r c e n t

p r i n t m e d i a , a n d 25 p e r c e n t f o r e q u i p m e n t .

fo r non­ p. kk)

(TABLE 6 ,

S taff

The r e s p o n s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t a f f ■ v i s c o n s i n c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e s show t h a t

(TABLE 7 ,

f iv e c o lle g e s have au d io ­

v i s u a l s p e c i a l i s t s on t h e s t a f f o f t h e LRC. au diovisual s p e c ia lis t is and i n a n o t h e r c o l l e g e ,

the

a l s o t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r a n d TV t e c h n i c i a n ,

One c o l l e g e h a s t h r e e l i b r a r i a n s ,

c o l l e g e s h a v e two l i b r a r i a n s ,

One c o l l e g e h a s t h r e e

two c o l l e g e s h a v e two l i b r a r y

c o l l e g e s have one l i b r a r y

seven

t h r e e c o l l e g e s have one l i b r a r i a n ,

a n d one c o l l e g e h a s no l i b r a r i a n s .

colleges s ta te

I n one c o l l e g e ,

t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e LRC h a s a d e g r e e i n

e l e c t r i c a l eng in eerin g .

assistan ts,

p. ^ 5) i n

assistan ts,

lib rary

fiv e

a s s i s t a n t , and resp o n d en ts a t th r e e

t h e y do n o t h a v e l i b r a r y

assistan ts

on t h e i r s t a f f s .

Two o f t h e r e s p o n d i n g c o l l e g e s h a v e p h o t o g r a p h e r s w i t h another having a p a rt-tim e pho to g rap h er. have g r a p h i c a r t i s t s

F o u r o f t h e LRCs

a n d f o u r LRCs h a v e TV t e c h n i c i a n s .

One

LRC h a s f o u r c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s on t h e s t a f f w h i l e a n o t h e r h a s t h r e e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s on i t s

staff.

Two o f t h e LRCs

h a v e n o n s t u d e n t c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l on t h e s t a f f a n d s i x LRCs h a v e o n e c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e on t h e i r s t a f f s . h a s f o r t y s t u d e n t a s s i s t a n t s on t h e LRC s t a f f ; one h a s f o u r t e e n ;

one h a s t w e l v e ;

an d o n e h a s t w o .

One c o l l e g e l i s t s

o f the

0n e c o l l e g e

one h a s t w e n t y ;

two h a v e t e n ; two h a v e t h r e e ; an o f f s e t p r i n t e r a s an

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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