Margarine. Vegetable oils and fats from Walter Rau

Margarine Vegetable oils and fats from Walter Rau. Margarine Product application A multifunctional product Margarine components and industrial p...
Author: Dennis Cameron
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Vegetable oils and fats from Walter Rau.


Product application

A multifunctional product

Margarine components and industrial production

Whether at home or in the industry,

acids are often solid by nature, like

As a rule, margarine consists of an oil

nition of spread fats in general are go-

hardly another product is as versatile

palm oil and coconut oil. The use of

phase and a water phase, which are

verned by the EC spread fat directive

in its range of applications as marga-

hardened oils, like rapeseed oil or sun-

refined to the end product by using

2991/94 directive (EC) No. 2994/94 of

rine. Created from a supply shortage,

flower oil, is also widespread. But here,

emulsifiers and a sophisticated pro-

the council of 5 December 1994 with

margarine has conquered a broad sli-

the content of the unwanted trans-

cess technology.

norms for spread fats. Once the reci-

ce of the market for spread fats over

fatty acids, which are interesting from

the course of time. Compared to the

a nutritional perspective, must be ta-

When selecting the ingredients, vario-

mode must be selected. Initially, the

products based on butter, the various

ken into account.

us criteria play a role. Initially, the pro-

oil and water phase are created se-

cess focuses on the technical require-

parately, which are then mixed in the

Wherever possible, we recommend

ments – it must be defined precisely

correct ratio by simultaneously emul-

to renounce to partially hardened

what requirements the margarine to

sifying and crystallising them in a

fats and to use instead combinations

be produced must fulfil. In doing so,

sophisticated cooling system. Depen-

of fractions or fully hardened, trans-

shelf life stability, spreadability, brow-

ding on the requirements, mechanical

free fats.

ning or spray behaviour when heating

post-processing levels and/or resting

up in the pan are the parameters that

tubes are used to achieve the correct

garine is an emulsion of water in oil.

The raw materials and the mixing ra-

can be applied. The requirement pro-

plasticity, for instance. With state-of-

It contains both fats and oils. A special

tio depend, above all, on the desired

files of households and the industry

the-art packaging technology, the

task referring to the end product: The


often differ greatly.

products that are spreadable to solid

solid fat builds the structure of the

margarines, baking margarines, puff-

margarine; it provides a kind of net-

pastry margarines and household

The desired nutritional properties

wrappers, cups and cardboard boxes.

work which prevents the liquid part

margarines have very different tasks

constitute another important ba-

Some of the filled products are sub-

from oiling out. Furthermore, the solid

to fulfil and differ significantly, for in-

sis. As a rule, the current trend to

jected to a post-tempering process for

component is responsible for the soli-

stance, in their consistency, melting

renounce to partially hardened fats

stabilisation before they are shipped.

dity of the margarine and influences

behaviour, and spread properties.

with trans-fatty acids and also to re-

margarine types offer better functionality, cost savings and also nutritional benefits for people who have an increased need for essential, unsaturated fatty acids. From a technical point of view, mar-

melting behaviour and spreadability.


margarine: cream

pe is created, the correct production

at room temperature are packaged in

duce the level of saturated fatty acids as long as technically feasible applies

The liquid components are particu-

here. The composition of the unsatu-

larly interesting from a nutritional

rated fatty acids can be controlled by

perspective in particular: the more oil

using different oils. Thanks to the cor-

components are included, the more

rect combination of linseed oil, sun-

valuable multiple unsaturated fatty

flower oil, rapeseed oil, for example

acids can be found in the margarine.

the desired ratio of Ω3:Ω6 fatty acids

The solid phase of margarine – the

can be achieved. The requirements

hard stock – is crucial for structure

that arise from the declaration and

and consistency. Mixtures and/or

the superordinate laws and directives

transesterifications from the various

are closely linked to the topic. The defi-

A typical example of such a system can be found at:

Applikationen/Beispiel_für_eine_ Kristallisations-Linie.aspx

Walter Rau. Neusser Öl und Fett AG.

Product application



A classic household margarine that

Example of a crystallisation line  Storage container for liquid oils and

Bereich 3

fats (area 1)

Bereich 1

Batch area

Fat phase with recommended melt-

Fat phase with recommended melt-

 25–35% from the area of the medium

 3% hardened vegetable oil 78610

 35% from the area of the middle pha-

ing point of 28–30°C

 Container for emulsification approach Bereich 5

Bereich 4

 Container for the approach of the

phase and hard stock, depend-ing on

water phase (water and water-solu-

desired solidity

ble ingredients) (area 3) Bereich 6

phase, e.g. Sonnin 10020 Bereich 8

dition of the water phase to form a

ing point of 24–26°C

 76.6% from the area of the liquid phase, e.g. Sonnin 10020

 45–55% from the area of the liquid

Bereich 7

soluble ingredients and a later adwater-in-oil emulsion (area 4)

Fat phase with recommended melt-

ing to regulations can, for instance, be


composed as follows:

barrels or on pallets

 Container for mixing the oils and oil-

Baking and cream margarine:

must contain at least 80% fat accord-

Bereich 2

 Further raw materials are stored in

(emulsifier and liquid oil) (area 2)

Liquid margarine for cooking and

 0.3% polyglycerine ester for the reduction of spraying

 0.4% mono-diglyceride

 0.1% lecithin

 0.2% lecithin

ing point of 32–34°C

se, e.g. Warasan 11980  25% from the area of cooling sensation, e.g. Cocopur 10060  19.6% from the area of the liquid phase, e.g. Sonnin 10020  0.2% polyglycerine ester  0.2% mono-diglyceride

Bereich 10


Further fat-soluble additives (aromas, colorants, vitamins) according to customer specifications

 Low-pressure pasteurisation (holding hose pasteurisation or plate heat Water phase

Water phase

Water phase

 High-pressure pump (area 6)

~ 18% water to achieve a 100% recipe 

~ 18% water to achieve a 100% recipe 

 ~ 17% water to achieve a 100% recipe

 With high-pressure pasteurisation –

 1% common salt

 1% common salt

 1% common salt

scraped-surface heat exchanger for

 1% skimmed milk powder

 1% skimmed milk powder

 1% sugar

heating and cooling

 0.1% potassium sorbate

 0.1% potassium sorbate

 1% skimmed milk powder

exchangers) (area 5 shows a plate heat exchanger)

 High-pressure push scraped-surface

Bereich 9

 0.1% potassium sorbate

heat exchanger, combiner or perfector (area 7)  Cristalliser(s) (area 8)  Resting tube for products to be

Citric acid to adjust the pH value of the water phase to 4–6

packaged (area 9)  Melt-back plate heat exchanger. Can also be carried out using a push heat exchanger (e.g. for half-fat products) (area 10)

Walter Rau. Neusser Öl und Fett AG.



Product name






Sonnin 10020

Liquid phase

Middel phase


Cooling Sensation

Crystallisation promoter

Sonnin 22140





Cocopur 10060





Canolin 10070

TFA % 50




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