Literature and Composition Valley Southwoods Freshman High School Summer Curriculum

Literature and Composition Valley Southwoods Freshman High School Summer Curriculum Spring 2015 Dear Student, Congratulations on meeting the requirem...
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Literature and Composition Valley Southwoods Freshman High School

Summer Curriculum Spring 2015 Dear Student, Congratulations on meeting the requirements for the Literature and Composition course at Valley Southwoods! You will find the curriculum covered in this class to be both challenging and stimulating. This class is a part of the Accelerated Pathways program; you will receive 2 credit hours for this year long course. Since Literature and Composition is a compacted course combining an advanced curriculum of Language and Literature and Fundamentals of Writing, some of the course material must be completed in the summer. Once school starts, teachers will move at a rigorous pace. Please print this packet and complete all assignments. Everything you will need is included here; however, you will need to obtain your own copy of Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. The first expectation of this course is that you will complete some independent work over the summer. This work includes readings with related assignments, a journaling assignment, writing an essay about yourself, and keeping a list of the other books you read this summer (between 5-10 recommended). You will also find a listing of Literary Terms in this packet. Please study these terms and incorporate the literary terms in your journal responses. Your teachers will use these terms frequently throughout the school year and expect you to know all of them. All of this work will be due on the first day of school.

Summer Curriculum     

Jim Crow Article To Kill a Mockingbird Journaling Book List Essay  Literary Terms

(article—included) (novel—assignment included; TEST: second day of school) (assignment included) (assignment included) (assignment included) (included; TEST over BASIC Literary Terms: second day of school)

The Summer Curriculum will be collected on the first day of school. Please note that these materials and others will be the basis of the curriculum for this course during the first few weeks of school. Teachers will also use this completed summer work as a pre-assessment of your knowledge, skills, quality of work, and as a determination of appropriate placement in this advanced course. Please be aware that students who do not have the work completed on the first day of school will be moved to Language and Literature, the standard 9th Grade Language Arts class. Also, be prepared for a Literary Terms TEST and a To Kill a Mockingbird (TKAM) TEST in your Literature and Composition class on the second day of school. We strongly suggest that you read To Kill a Mockingbird in the latter part of the summer since we will discuss it and complete related assignments in August. If you read it too early, you may forget some of the details. Please see the schedule below for an idea of what we will be covering on the first few days of the school year. If you have further questions about completing this assignment, please call the Valley Southwoods office. Phone: 633-4500. We look forward to working with you next year! Valley Southwoods Literature and Composition teachers, Mrs. Carroll, Ms. Graves, Mrs. Hingl, and Mrs. Wicks

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Literature and Composition 2015-16 First Days of School Predicted Schedule (may vary slightly) Monday, 8/24

Tuesday, 8/25 & Wednesday, 8/26 (Block Days)

Thursday, 8/27 Friday, 8/28

Welcome Course Information All Summer Assignments Due (Sections B, C, D, and E)

Basic Literary Terms + To Kill a Mockingbird Test

To Kill a Mockingbird Literary Analysis

Section A: Understanding the Context of the Novel --Read the “What Was Jim Crow?” article by Dr. David Pilgrim Background Information: The novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, is a literary classic that addresses issues of racism, poverty, and intolerance. It offers messages of hope, acceptance, justice, and courage. The novel is set in the fictitious town of Maycomb, Alabama, during the time of the Great Depression. Directions: In order to better understand the social and historical context of the novel, please read an excerpt from the article on Jim Crow Laws found in the supplemental reading packet. For further learning on this subject, an excellent website is: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/resources.html What Was Jim Crow? Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s. Jim Crow was more than a series of rigid anti-Black laws. It was a way of life. Under Jim Crow, African Americans were relegated to the status of second class citizens. All major societal institutions reflected and supported the oppression of Blacks. The Jim Crow system was based on the following beliefs or rationalizations: Whites were superior to Blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; treating Blacks as equals would encourage interracial sexual unions; any activity which suggested social equality encouraged interracial sexual relations; if necessary, violence must be used to keep Blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy. The following Jim Crow etiquette norms show how inclusive and pervasive these norms were: a.

A Black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a White male because it implied being socially equal. Obviously, a Black male could not offer his hand or any other part of his body to a White woman, because he risked being accused of rape.

b.

Blacks and Whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, Whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them.

c.

Under no circumstance was a Black male to offer to light the cigarette of a White female -- that gesture implied intimacy. 2

d.

Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended Whites.

e.

Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that Blacks were introduced to Whites, never Whites to Blacks. For example: "Mr. Peters (the White person), this is Charlie (the Black person), that I spoke to you about."

f.

Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to Blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead, Blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy titles when referring to Whites, and were not allowed to call them by their first names.

g.

If a Black person rode in a car driven by a White person, the Black person sat in the back seat, or the back of a truck.

h.

White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections.

Stetson Kennedy, the author of Jim Crow Guide, offered these simple rules that Blacks were supposed to observe in conversing with Whites: 1.

Never assert or even intimate that a White person is lying.

2.

Never impute dishonorable intentions to a White person.

3.

Never suggest that a White person is from an inferior class.

4.

Never lay claim to, or overly demonstrate, superior knowledge or intelligence.

5.

Never curse a White person.

6.

Never laugh derisively at a White person.

7.

Never comment upon the appearance of a White female.

Jim Crow states passed statutes severely regulating social interactions between the races. Jim Crow signs were placed above water fountains, door entrances and exits, and in front of public facilities. There were separate hospitals for Blacks and Whites, separate prisons, separate public and private schools, separate churches, separate cemeteries, separate public restrooms, and separate public accommodations. In most instances, the Black facilities were grossly inferior -- generally, older, less-well-kept. In other cases, there were no Black facilities -- no Colored public restroom, no public beach, no place to sit or eat. Jim Crow laws touched every aspect of everyday life. For example, in 1935, Oklahoma prohibited Blacks and Whites from boating together. Boating implied social equality. In 1905, Georgia established separate parks for Blacks and Whites. In 1930, Birmingham, Alabama, made it illegal for Blacks and Whites to play checkers or dominoes together. Here are some of the typical Jim Crow laws, as compiled by the Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site Interpretive Staff:  Barbers. No colored barber shall serve as a barber (to) white girls or women (Georgia).  Blind Wards. The board of trustees shall...maintain a separate building...on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race (Louisiana).  Burial. The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons (Georgia).  Buses. All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races (Alabama).  Child Custody. It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a negro (South Carolina).  Education. The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately (Florida).  Libraries. The state librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals (North Carolina).

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 Mental Hospitals. The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together (Georgia).  Nurses. No person or corporation shall require any White female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which Negro men are placed (Alabama).  Prisons. The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the Negro convicts (Mississippi).  Teaching. Any instructor who shall teach in any school, college or institution where members of the white and colored race are received and enrolled as pupils for instruction shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined... (Oklahoma). The Jim Crow laws and system of etiquette were undergirded by violence, real and threatened. Blacks who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the White water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their jobs, even their lives. Whites could physically beat Blacks with impunity. Blacks had little legal recourse against these assaults because the Jim Crow criminal justice system was all-White: police, prosecutors, judges, juries, and prison officials. Violence was instrumental for Jim Crow. It was a method of social control. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings. Lynchings were public murders carried out by mobs. Between 1882, when the first reliable data were collected, and 1968, when lynchings had become rare, there were 4,730 known lynchings, including 3,440 Black men and women. Most of the victims of LynchLaw were hanged or shot, but some were burned at the stake, beaten with clubs, or dismembered. In the mid-1800s, Whites constituted the majority of victims (and perpetrators); however, by the period of Radical Reconstruction, Blacks became the most frequent lynching victims. This is an early indication that lynching was used as an intimidation tool to keep Blacks, in this case the newly-freedmen, "in their places." The great majority of lynchings occurred in southern and border states, where the resentment against Blacks ran deepest. Most Blacks were lynched for demanding civil rights, violating Jim Crow etiquette or laws, or in the aftermath of race riots. Lynchings were most common in small and middle-sized towns where Blacks often were economic competitors to the local Whites. These Whites resented any economic and political gains made by Blacks. Lynchers were seldomly arrested, and if arrested, rarely convicted. Raper estimated that "at least one-half of the lynchings are carried out with police officers participating, and that in ninetenths of the others the officers either condone or wink at the mob action." Lynching served many purposes: it was cheap entertainment; it served as a rallying, uniting point for Whites; it functioned as an ego-massage for low-income, low-status Whites; it was a method of defending White domination and helped stop the fledgling social equality movement. Many Blacks resisted the indignities of Jim Crow, and, far too often, they paid for their bravery with their lives. by Dr. David Pilgrim, Professor of Sociology; Ferris State University; Sept., 2000

Section B: To Kill a Mockingbird Directions: After reading the What Was Jim Crow? article, please read the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. The attached study guide is required; it leads you through the reading process and helps you prepare for the TKAM Test that you will take when you start school. **Attention: Please do not watch the To Kill a Mockingbird movie on your own. We will be completing a film study and discussion involving the classic movie in class in September. **Also, it may be better to read To Kill a Mockingbird in mid-to-late summer (rather than right away this spring), since the novel will be the focus of the class during the first few weeks. We want you to be successful on the discussions, test, and assignments; we don’t want you to forget all of the details.

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Name____________________________________________________________________________________________________

STUDY GUIDE To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Ch. 1-2 1. What did the children know about the Radley’s family history?

2. Why did Scout get into trouble with her teacher on the first day of school? How does this incident add to her credibility as a narrator?

Ch. 3-5 3. What is the significance of Scout’s school experience? Read the following quotation before responding. “First of all,” he said,” If you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you’ll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view – until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” Chapter 3

4. What did Jem and Scout find in the knot-hole of the oak tree? Who do you think put the objects there?

5. What is Miss Maudie like? What is her theory on why Boo Radley is the way he is?

Ch. 6-8 6. Why was Jem bothered by the cement they found in the knot-hole of the oak? How did you know he was upset? 7. How did Miss Maudie handle her house burning down? What does this show about her? (Chapter 8)

8. Where did the blanket come from?

Ch. 9-10 9. What reason did Atticus give Scout for the fact that he was defending a black man?

10. How did Scout get into trouble on Christmas at her Aunt Alexandra’s house? How did her uncle handle things? What does this show you about him?(Chapter 9)

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11. Read the following quotations from chapter 9 and answer the questions that follow: “You just hold your head up high and keep those fists down. No matter what anybody says to you, don’t you let ‘em get your goat. Try fighting with your head for a change.” -Atticus Finch What happened in the story to make Atticus say this?

“Simply because we’re licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to try to win. – Atticus Finch Who is Atticus talking to? Why does he say this?

“This time we aren’t fighting the Yankees, we’re fighting our friends. But remember this, no matter how bitter things get, they’re still our friends and this is still our home.” -Atticus Finch Do you agree? No matter what, are they still their friends? What do these words tell you about Atticus?

“I hope and pray I can get Jem and Scout through it without bitterness, and most of all, without catching Maycomb’s usual disease. Why reasonable people go stark-raving mad when anything involving a Negro comes up is something I don’t pretend to understand…” – Atticus Finch What is “Maycomb’s disease?”

12. According to Atticus, it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. Why?

13. Jem and Scout were somewhat disappointed in Atticus because he wasn’t athletic like some fathers. What happened to change their minds? Why hadn’t Atticus revealed that skill earlier? Consider the quotations below before answering. “Marksmanship’s a gift of God, a talent – oh, you have to practice to make it perfect, but shootin’s different from playing piano and the like. I think maybe he put his gun down when he realized that God had given him an unfair advantage over most living things. I guess he decided he wouldn’t shoot until he had to, and he had to today.” –Miss Maudie “People in their right minds never take pride in their talents.” – Miss Maudie

Ch. 11 14. What did Atticus mean when he said the “The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s conscience”?

15. According to Atticus, what kind of person uses the word “n- lover?”

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16. What did Jem do to Mrs. Dubose? Why? 17. How was Jem punished? What did he learn about Mrs. Dubose? What did he learn about himself? 18. Read the quotations below from Chapter 11 and respond to the questions that follow. “…but sometimes we have to make the best of things, and the way we conduct ourselves when the chips are down.” –Atticus Finch What would our conduct, when the chips are down, reveal about each of us?

“…it’s never an insult to be called what somebody thinks is a bad name. It just shows you how poor that person is, it doesn’t hurt you.” – Atticus Finch What happened in the story to bring about this response by Atticus?

“I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. It’s when you know you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do.” -Atticus Finch Who demonstrated the courage Atticus describes?

Ch. 12-14 19. Why did Cal take extra care going over the children’s clothes before going to her church? How were Jem and Scout treated there? Who is Lula? (Chapter 12) 20. Describe the “caste system” in Maycomb. (Chapter 13)

21. Dill had a wild story about why he had run away from home. What was it? What was the real reason? (Chapter 14)

Ch. 15-16 22. What effect did Scout have on the mob?

23.Why did so many people dislike Dolphus Raymond?

Ch. 17 24. How did Atticus establish the fact that Mr. Ewell was left-handed? Why do you suppose that fact is important?

25. What was Mr. Ewell’s attitude while he was testifying? Considering his background, why did he act this way?

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26. Why is it ironic that Bob testifies, “I’ve asked this county for fifteen years to clean out that nest (black neighborhood) down yonder, they’re dangerous to live around ‘sides devaulin’ my property-“?

Ch. 18 27. Of what does Mayella accuse Tom? What is her version of what happened? What is her attitude toward everyone in the courtroom?

Ch. 19-21 28. What was wrong with Tom’s left arm?

29. What was Tom’s version of what happened with Mayella?

30. Why did Mr. Dolphus Raymond pretend to be drunk?

31. Why did Mr. Raymond share his secret with the children? (Chapter 20)

32. Before the verdict, Reverend Sykes told Jem not to be confident his father would win. Why didn’t the Reverend expect Atticus to win?

33. Why was Dill crying?

34. According to Atticus, what is the “evil assumption” people make about black people? (Chapter 20)

35. What was the verdict? How did Jem react?

Ch. 22-24 36. How did Bob Ewell threaten Atticus? Why?

37. What is Atticus’ definition of “trash”? (Chapter 23)

38. Aunt Alexandra won’t allow Scout to invite Walter Cunningham to the house because she says he is trash. Would Atticus consider him trash? Why or why not?

39. At the end of Chapter 23, Jem is trying to make sense of the different kinds of “folks” he has observed in Maycomb. He divided them into four categories. Scout says, “Naw, Jem, I think there’s just one kind of folks. Folks.” Do you agree with Jem or Scout?

40. Why does Jem think Boo Radley wants to stay inside his house? 8

41. How does Tom getting shot demonstrate injustice?

42. What is hypocritical about the ladies' attitude toward the natives (Mrunas)?

43. At the tea, what was it that Aunty was silently thanking Miss Maudie for? (Chapter 24)

Ch. 25-28 44. At school, Scout's class talked about Hitler. Why did Miss Gates' lesson about prejudice confuse Scout? (Chapter 26) Why is this hypocritical?

45. What happened to terrify Scout and Jem on their way home?

Ch. 29-31 46. How does Bob Ewell die? 47. Actually, Mr. Tate made up the story about Ewell falling on his knife to protect someone else. Explain. 48. What does Scout mean when she says, “Well, it’d be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird, wouldn’t it?” (Chapter 30)

49. As Scout looks out from the Radley porch, she regrets that the children never gave Boo anything in return for his gifts. Actually, they did give Boo something. What?

50. Re-read the last page of the book. Atticus tells Scout most people are nice when you finally see them. This is a very optimistic ending. Does this surprise you? Explain.

After completing the novel (use another sheet of paper for more in-depth answers): 51. Who changes the most in the story? Describe some of the changes. 52. Who or what was responsible for Tom Robinson's death? 53. How do you think the author, Harper Lee, feels about the South? Why? 54. What does the mockingbird symbolize?

55. What are the themes of To Kill a Mockingbird? 56. What did you learn from this book? How did the “Jim Crow” article help you understand the social context of the book?

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Extension (optional): Conduct some research on the author to discover Harper Lee’s personal history, other

literary works, accolades in the literary world, and so on. Extension (optional): Read Harper Lee’s posthumously published novel Go Set a Watchman and compare Lee’s writing style, the novel’s plot, setting, characters, and theme(s) with To Kill a Mockingbird. Be prepared to discuss this book in class! You will be assessed on your understanding of the plot, knowledge of the characters, and literary element analysis, including setting, irony, mood, and so on.

Section C: Journal Directions: Consider all of the reading you have completed for this class. Please type your responses to the following prompts and bring them to class on the first day of school. Elaborate as much as you feel is necessary to answer the questions. Incorporate the Literary Terms from the attached list in your responses. Note: Most of what you write will be your personal reactions to your reading. However, your teachers will ask you to go back and reflect upon your journal early in the school year, so it’s a good idea to be thoughtful and thorough in your responses. Length: Each journal entry should be at least 7-10 sentences. Journal Questions: 1.) What is your personal reaction to the information presented in the What Was Jim Crow? article? 2.) After reading the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, what are your thoughts about the novel in general? (You may consider discussing Harper Lee’s writing style, the social issues found in the novel (poverty, racism, intolerance, etc.), the ideas of justice, family, heroes, and so forth, or anything else that comes to mind.) 3.) Compare and contrast the protagonist from one of your summer reading books to a character from To Kill a Mockingbird.

Section D: Book List Directions: Please keep a typed list of the books you read during the summer. While we recommend that you read at least 5-10 books, preferably college-bound selections, the main purpose of this book list is to determine what kind of reader you are: what genres you prefer, what your reading stamina is, what you choose to read in your free time. Just record the title, author, and number of pages. If you need some ideas for “good reads” or recommended reading, the following websites may be helpful. 10

http://als.lib.wi.us/Collegebound.html https://www.goodreads.com/choiceawards/best-books-2014 http://www.ala.org/yalsa/printz-award http://www.ala.org/yalsa/products/teenbookfinder

Please set up your list with these categories: Title

Author

# of pages___

Section E: Lit & Comp Personal Essay A tradition at Valley Southwoods is for each new freshman student to write a 5paragraph personal essay, sharing information about himself or herself. Not only does this essay give your fellow classmates a chance to get to know you, it also allows your teachers to find out more about you and your writing skills. Possible Essay Topics (Choose 1): 1.)

Traditional “All About Me” Essay Write a typical autobiographical essay. Begin with an interesting introduction of who you are, then use the 3 body paragraphs to expand various aspects of your personality, family, activities, goals, and so on. Leave us with a lasting impression in your conclusion.

2.)

3 Most Important Virtues What 3 Virtues are most important to you? What do you expect from yourself or from others? Identify the 3 Virtues in your thesis statement, and then discuss each one on the following paragraphs. Your conclusion might identify the virtue you value the most.

3.)

Comparison to a Favorite Literary Character Harry Potter? Katniss Everdeen? What literary character are you most like, or at least wish to be like? Identify a fictional character you most identify with. Then, explain the ways in which you are similar to or wish to be like that character. Please identify the piece of fiction in which this character is found—just in case your teacher does not know that character!

4.)

A Defining Moment in My Life Identify one moment in your life that you feel shaped who you are today, or perhaps changed your way of thinking. Identify the moment in your introduction, and then develop how that moment defines you in the next 3 body paragraphs. Wrap up with an overall conclusion.

5.)

This I Believe Based on the successful NPR radio and essay series, write an essay about something you deeply believe in. Your thesis should include a belief statement, while the rest of the essay supports that belief with specific examples. This essay can be on any school-appropriate topic and may be very passionate and very personal.

You should write multiple drafts of this essay and will need to find a peer or an adult to edit your writing. Your final draft should be typed, should follow MLA formatting, and should include a recent photograph of yourself. Please refer to the attached rubric often during the writing process to determine the expectations. 11

Since Literature and Composition is a writing class, you will be held to high standards for all of your essays from the very beginning of this class. This first formal writing assignment is an opportunity for your teachers to assess where you currently are as a writer and where you can go this year! Due: The first day of school Points: 30

M.L.A. Writing Style Guide This section is designed to help you with writing assignments in your classes at Valley Southwoods. All of your teachers will expect you to follow these guidelines for all written assignments. These guidelines are based on M.L.A. standards that are also used by writing teachers at Valley High School. You will be expected to refer to this handout throughout the year.

M.L.A. Format Basics: All of your formal written assignments will follow M.L.A. format: Typing, Printing, Font: Avoid script or other fancy print; use a standard font (Times New Roman or Calibri) and a standard size such as 12 point. Be sure to choose a high-quality printer and print only on one side of the paper. Justify the left margin only; full justification is incorrect in an MLA document. Always keep a backup copy on flash. Margins: Use one-inch margins on all sides, except when inserting a heading with page numbers. To set your margins, locate “PAGE LAYOUT TAB,” go to “PAGE SETUP” and switch the margin settings to 1 inch. Set the top margin to ½ inch to account for a separate page number line. The first word of each paragraph should be indented one-half inch or five spaces from the left margin. Each block quotation should be indented one inch or ten spaces from the left margin. Spacing: Double-space EVERYTHING, including block quotations and the works-cited list. Page Numbers: Your last name and page number should appear in the right-hand corner of each page. Insert Tab Page Number Select “Top of Page” Select “Plain Number 3” Type in Last Name before page number Close Header/Footer Heading and Title: DO NOT INCLUDE A TITLE PAGE. Your heading is on the first page and it includes: Your name Teacher’s Name Course Name, Period Date (20 August 2013) Double-space and then type your title, centered. Capitalize all significant words in the title. Do not underline your title, or put it in quotes, or put it all in capitals. Following the title, double-space, indent, and begin the text. Do not include more spaces than indicated. (Italicize titles of books.)

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Smith1 Joe Smith Mrs. Sweet Literature and Composition, Period 3 24 August 2015 Hero’s Journey Movie Analysis Historically, women have always been required to defer to men, allowing husbands and relatives to make decisions for them and tell them how to act. Even now, in the twenty-first century, women encounter discrimination. If it is difficult for a woman to be taken seriously when she goes against the grain now, imagine what it must have been like in ancient China. When a young girl named Mulan, in a Disney movie of the same name, masquerades as a man and joins the army, she is able to save all of China with her bravery and guile. Mulan’s hero’s journey allows her to change from a girl whose life was bound by tradition to a woman who defied society’s laws and found the strength within that she didn’t know she had. Mulan changes…. NOTE: When your assignment is longer than a single paragraph, do not add extra spaces between paragraphs. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

What is a Thesis Statement? A thesis statement is the topic and direction of your paper. Think of it as a formula: Topic + Direction (or Opinion) = THESIS STATEMENT Example of an Introduction and Thesis Statement: For those who might believe people cannot change, I am walking proof to the contrary. I used to be so afraid of heights that I broke out into a sweat just by looking out my second-story bedroom window. However, in the past few years, I’ve overcome my fear of heights by putting myself into “elevated” situations. I have faced my fears by learning to rock wall climb, bungee jump, and even by learning how to hang glide! *The writer focused the essay by listing the 3 main points to be covered in each body paragraph: 1.) Rock wall climbing, 2.) Bungee jumping, 3.) Hang gliding

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Name ____________________________________________ Period ____________Score_______________/30 

Personal Essay Rubric / Literature and Composition  Iowa Core Writing Standard: W9‐10.3 (Write narratives to develop real experiences using effective technique, well‐chosen details,                                                                           and well‐structured event sequences.)  Clear and effective 3‐point  3‐point thesis statement is either  3‐point thesis statement Focus   thesis appears at the end of the  missing, unclear, inaccurate, and/or  appears at the end of the  (Thesis Statement  introductory paragraph and  in the wrong place.   introductory paragraph and  and Topic  provides a clear focus for the  Topic sentences are either missing in  provides a general direction for  Sentences)  the essay.   essay.  some or all body paragraphs or do  The text focuses on a  not clearly provide a sense of that  Topic sentences in each body  Topic sentences in each body  topic to inform a  paragraph are generally present  paragraph’s main idea.   paragraph connect to thesis  reader.    statement and effectively direct  and give the reader a sense of    that paragraph’s main idea.  the reader’s focus on the main      idea for that paragraph.   3    2    1    0  4       5  The writing includes a variety of  The writing includes some  The writing includes few relevant or  Narrative  relevant, interesting, and  relevant and interesting details  interesting details (the paper seems  Technique and  creative details. Paper is  (more focus and development  incomplete or undeveloped).  Development   focused and details help the  would enrich the paper).    The text presents  reader to really “know” the      relevant facts,  student.  description, and      details.  5  4  3    2    1    0  The writing demonstrates some  The writing demonstrates limited  Organization and  The writing demonstrates a  great deal of coherence, clarity,  coherence, clarity, and/or  coherence, clarity,  and/or cohesion  Cohesion   and cohesion.  The introduction  cohesion.  The introduction and  making the writer’s progression of  The text uses  and logical progression of ideas  logically grouped ideas make the  ideas somewhat or completely  appropriate and  varied transitions to  unclear. Transitions and/or  make it easy to follow the  writer’s progression of ideas  link major section of  writer’s progression of ideas.  noticeable but not obvious.  conclusion are ineffective or  the text, creates  Effective transitions; strong  Transitions and conclusion are  missing.  cohesion, and clarifies  conclusion.  present.    the relationships  5  4     among complex ideas.   3    2    1    0  The paper naturally and  The paper uses words and  The paper merely tells about the  Style   effectively uses vibrant words  phrases and sensory language to  student. The writing is bland,  The text uses rich  sensory language to  and phrasing, rich sensory  convey a realistic picture of the  mechanic, or lifeless.  create a vivid picture.  language and mood to convey a  student. The writing is      somewhat engaging.    realistic picture of the student.        The writing is engaging and  revealing!   4    5  3    2    1    0  Paper needs editing/revision  Paper demonstrates superior Paper needs additional editing  Conventions  (by writer or peers) because of  The text demonstrates  editing (by writer or peers) with  (by writer or peers) because of  standard English  virtually no errors in grammar,  major errors in grammar, usage,  several errors in grammar,  conventions of usage  usage, punctuation,  punctuation, capitalization, and/or  usage, punctuation,  and mechanics.  capitalization, and/or spelling.   spelling.  Needs work!  capitalization, and/or spelling.   Decent job!  3    2    1    0  Impressive!  4      5  Paper conforms to all MLA  The paper conforms to most The paper does not conform to MLA  MLA Format   MLA format/style guidelines  format/style guidelines (page  The text demonstrates  format/style guidelines (page  discipline‐specific  numbers, info lines, title,  (page numbers, information  numbers, info lines, title, spacing,  requirements.  spacing, font, and margins);  lines, title, spacing, font choice,  font, margins); vast errors remain  virtually no errors exist.  margins) but several noticeable  and distract.    errors remain.    5  4  3    2    1    0  14

 

Section F: Literary Terms

Please study the literary terms that follow and incorporate some of the terms into your journal responses. Your teachers expect you to know, understand, and correctly use all of these concepts. You will be quizzed over the definitions of all the Literary Terms on the second day of school.

Basic Literary Terms Plot Exposition Inciting Incident Rising Action Complications Climax Falling Action Resolution Denouement Plot Techniques Foreshadowing Flashback In medias res

Conflict --internal --external

Suspense

The sequence of events in a short story The basic introduction to a story; reader may find out character names, setting, etc. The main conflict of the story is introduced All events leading up to the climax Minor problems that add to the main conflict in the story The highest point of tension in the story OR the turning point All events after the climax that lead to resolution The point in the story when the main conflict has been resolved After the resolution, when all “loose ends” are tied up Clues given in the story which may indicate the outcome of the plot When the sequence of events in a story is interrupted to go to an earlier period of time Literally means “in the middle”; Technique in which the sequence of events in the plot are out of order—usually the story begins somewhere in the middle, flashes back to the beginning, catches up to the present and proceeds on. Example: The Odyssey Tension or problems in a story A personal struggle a character has within their own mind Example: person v. self Struggles a character must deal with apart from themselves, such as external forces. Examples: person v. nature, person v. society, person v. person The tension the reader feels as conflicts and complications grow in a story.

Character Terms Direct Characterization Indirect Characterization

A character’s personality traits are directly stated in the story The author gives clues the character’s personality by including their appearance, thoughts, speech, actions, or opinions of others.

Flat Round Static Dynamic

A character who is one-dimensional A multi-faceted character--you see more than one side of their personality A character who stays the same throughout the entire story A character who changes throughout the story

Protagonist Antagonist Foil Epiphany

The hero of the story The character in opposition to the hero of the story A character in contrast with the main character A sudden realization for a character....their epiphany may help them resolve the conflict 15

Point of View First Person Third Person Limited Third Person Omniscient

The perspective from which a story is told; the narrator The narrator is a character in the story The narrator is not a character; tells the story from the outside, looking in to the mind of ONE character. The narrator is not a character in the story, but can look into the minds of several characters. This narrator is “all-knowing.”

Setting Mood Time Location Atmosphere Historical Setting

The time and place of the story The atmosphere or feeling of the story Time of day, day of the week, year, or era of the story The building, region, country, etc. of the story The weather, or psychological feeling of the story The events that were happening in history when the story is set or the social context of the story

Theme

The central idea or message of a story

The following may provide CLUES to the theme: Direct Statements Philosophical Statements Nature of the Conflict Character Changes

A quote by a character or narrator that directly states the theme A quote by a character or narrator that is not direct, but philosophical or profound. The reader must interpret their comment to discover the theme. The type of conflict itself may indicate the theme As characters change and grow, the theme may become apparent

Symbolism

Anything that represents something else: (colors, numbers, names)

Tone

The author’s attitude toward the subject

Irony Verbal Irony Situational Irony

When the opposite of what you expect happens Characters say one thing, but mean another Everyone is surprised by the outcome of the story, both reader and characters The reader knows what is going on in the story, but the characters are surprised by the outcome

Dramatic Irony

Genre Short Story Novel Poetry Drama Nonfiction

Different types of literature A short piece of fiction, meant to be read in one sitting A longer piece of fiction--usually much more developed plot and characters Short writing that incorporates elements of poetry such as rhythm, rhyme, figurative language, and sound devices A longer piece of fiction that is meant to be performed by actors on a stage. Includes dialogue and stage directions. A piece of writing based upon real-life. Examples: biographies, news articles, textbooks, essays, etc. 16

Advanced Literary Terms Allusion Antithesis

A reference to mythology, history, or religion in a literary work. Placement or juxtaposition of structurally parallel words or phrases for the purpose of contrast. Example: sink or swim.

Connotation

The implied meaning of a word. Example: “lady”—a refined woman.

Denotation

The dictionary definition of a word. Example: “lady”—a female.

Diction

Word choice, usually chosen purposefully to convey a certain effect upon the reader.

Figurative Language

Language that is not meant to be interpreted for literal meaning.

--Idiom

A figure of speech in which the meaning is different from the words that are actually written. Example: “It’s raining cats and dogs.”

--Metaphor

A comparison between two things, not using “like” or “as.” Example: Morning is a new sheet of paper to write upon.

--Simile

A comparison between two things that uses “like” or “as.” Example: “My sister is like a bear when she wakes up from a nap.”

--Personification

Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects. Example: Death knocked upon his door.

Hyperbole

Deliberate and often extreme exaggeration done for either serious or comic effect. Example: “I had a million things to do this morning!”

Imagery

Language that appeals to one or more of the five senses. Example: The dark and murky sky was filled with the smell of rain.”

Motivation

A set of circumstances that prompts a character to act a certain way or that determines the outcome of a situation.

Paradox

Contradictory ideas that appear together in an effort to reveal some new way of thinking about something or a hidden truth.

Poetic Devices

Poetic techniques used in a piece of writing. Examples: sound devices such as alliteration, rhythm, rhyme; figurative language; imagery, etc.

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Pun

A play on words that are identical or similar in sound, but have sharply diverse meanings. Example: “Dreamers often lie.”

Sarcasm

The use of verbal ironical humor. Example: “You look really great today!” when the person really looks disheveled.

Structure

The framework or organization of a literary work. (Chapters in a book; acts in a play; paragraph topics in an essay; stanzas in a poem.)

Style

The writer’s characteristic manner of employing language.

Synecdoche

A form of metaphor. Used when a part of something is used to signify the whole. Example: “I have a new set of wheels,” when referring to a car.

Syntax

The arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence.

Understatement

The opposite of hyperbole. A kind of irony that deliberately represents something as being much less than it really is. Example: “I guess I could manage to get by on an income of ten million dollars a year.”

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