Keywords: Adverbial order; Discoursive feature; Functionalism

POSITION OF TEMPORAL ADVERBIALS IN JOURNALISTIC TEXTS Bruna Das Graças Soares CAPES-UFRJ Érika Cristine Ilogti de Sá [email protected] erikaci...
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POSITION OF TEMPORAL ADVERBIALS IN JOURNALISTIC TEXTS Bruna Das Graças Soares CAPES-UFRJ Érika Cristine Ilogti de Sá [email protected] [email protected]

The aim of this work is to analyze the positioning of the temporal adverbials in the clause, such as: em fevereiro (in February), em 2010 (in 2010), na semana passada (last week) and so on, in a written language of the contemporary Portuguese. There are several factors, such as the adverbials order, the size of the adverbials, their semantic and discoursive roles and so on, which may motivate their different positions in the clause. Moreover, regarding previous results, our initial assumptions are that, especially, the semantic features of the adverbial may influence on its position in the clause and the discousive factor of the adverbial as well. According to Functionalism theoretical purposes, grammar reflects the speaker’s linguistic creativity in organizing the text functionally for a specific hearer in a determined communicative situation. (Hopper, 1998). Thus, we believe that each position taken by the adverbial has a relation with the communicative context where it is used. and with those structural, semantic-pragmatic and discoursive features. The size of the adverbial, for instance, may show that those long adverbials with greater phonological weight can occupy the initial and final positions to not interrupt the flow of information between the verb and its arguments. When it comes to the discourse role of the adverbs, the anaforical ones, for example, occur most frequently in the beginning of the sentence because they make a reference to the previous clause. The corpus of this research is composed by

journalistics texts taken from brazilian newspapers and magazines, such as O Globo, Folha de São Paulo, Época (published from July, 2006 through August, 2007) and ISTOÉ (published from January, 2009 through December, 2009). All temporal adverbials clauses found were compiled and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. After the data collection, a statistical program named, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), were used to obtain the frequency of use and to cross the factors in analysis. Keywords: Adverbial order; Discoursive feature; Functionalism

SUBJECT-VERB (SV) AND VERB-SUBJECT (VS) ORDERS IN A HISTORY TEXTBOOK Autora: Gabriela Cristina Almeida Lamim (UFRJ) [email protected] The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of Subject-Verb (SV) and Verb-Subject (VS) clauses on active and passive voices in a History textbook. It is known that the prototypical order in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) is SV, but BP allows VS in some contexts. Many studies show that in BP, the order VS tends to be used with certain types of verbs and break the flow of information. So, we want to determine if this context – History textbooks - supports the use of VS. The corpus used in this study is the book "Nova História Crítica" whose author is Mario Schmidt. Despite formal register being generally used in textbooks, this particular book was written in an informal register. Thus the text has characteristics of writing and speech. Moreover, the author’s opinion is clearly stated, which is not common in History textbooks. The methodology consists of collecting and analyzing SV and VS sentences on active and passive voices. Then we will examine factors related to the SN subjects of each sentence. They are: informational status, extent, volition and animation. Our main hypotheses are: 1) although SV occurs in greater number than the VS, the amount of data of this sort should be significant in the analysis of this History textbook, proving that there are contexts which contribute to the emergence of the inversion of subject and 2) VS clauses tend to be the background of the narrative, promoting the breakdown of information flow. Finally, one can say that despite the SV order being the prototypical order in BP, it is possible that the VS order occurs in certain contexts. Besides, many authors who study the same phenomenon say it is increasingly less productive. Therefore, we want to investigate if the genre studied can facilitate the occurrence of VS. Keywords: SV order, VS order, Functionalism;

THE LATIN ORIGIN OF ADVERBS IN -MENTE: A PROCESS OF GRAMMATICALIZATION Júlia Langer de Campos – UFRJ [email protected] This study proposes an analysis of the construction adjective + mente (e.g.: profundamente) in texts of the Latin language in order to find the origin of the suffix -mente, forming adverbs in most Romance languages, and demonstrate the trajectory of change of the noun “mente”(mind) from a lexical to a grammatical category, characterizing this process as grammaticalization change. This study is justified by the fact that, historically, grammarians have referred to this structure (adj+mente) as originating in the Latin language, arguing that such a mechanism to derive adverbs from adjectives had come to replace the existing processes in classical Latin. However, it was proved in a previous research (Martelotta and Langer, 2010) that this structure could be found in classical Latin texts, maintaining the lexical meaning of the noun “mente” (mind), but with qualitative value (manner). Moreover, this construction becomes more common in medieval Latin, presenting some changes in context, thus giving us some evidence of the grammaticalization of “mente” (as its primary use, the extension of meaning and context, increase in frequency, regularization of the structure as a unit). For our current research we have been analyzing different texts from different periods of time of the Latin language, namely: post-classical Latin, ecclesiastical Latin and texts entitled Carmen or Carmina, which are Christian chants that resemble spoken language. Given that we had previously analyzed strictly literary texts, our aim is to move toward to spoken language, since we believe that this new process of forming adverbs from adjectives had arisen primarily in speech, as it is in the actual use of the language that arise motivations for language change, hence with regularization and frequency of use, those structures had migrated to grammar. Keywords: adverb formation, Latin, grammaticalization

ADVERBS OF TIME AND ASPECT: BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE IN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES Julia Oliveira Costa Nunes (CAPES/UFRJ) [email protected] Adverbs have traditionally been presented as a topic restricted to basic semantic and syntactic interpretations and as an entirely flexible item concerning its position in the clause. However, the recent literature on adverbs and other adverbial units in Brazilian Portuguese seems to agree that the behavior of these constructions is far more complex than expected, as pointed out by Martelotta (1994), Cezario (2001), Costa Nunes (2009), Ilogti (2009) and Vlcek (2011). Regarding the present study, our focus is on adverbs of time and aspect, particularly the ones formed by the suffix –mente (e.g.: finalmente “finally”). With reference to previous results in contemporary Brazilian Portuguese, these units normally function as adjuncts but may function as disjuncts and conjuncts as well. This study aims to investigate possible motivations to each of the units’ positions in the clause, such as the role of semantics, discourse function, clause structure, etc. It is also purposed to be a diachronic study, as part of a PhD thesis, in which we trace these adverbs back to the 15th century, European (PP) and Brazilian Portuguese (PB). Nonetheless, as for the present paper, we’re only focusing on too synchronies: 18th and 19th centuries (both from PB). Our corpora is composed by 352 documents from different genres of letters in order to range from the formal and formulaic writing (official government documents and letters of commerce), mildly revised contexts (letters published on newspapers), to more informal register (personal letters). Our main objectives are: (i) characterize all positions taken by the adverb in the clause; (ii) analyze all adverbs according to their semantic-pragmatic function; (iii) define which could be the prototypical uses of the adverb in each synchrony; (iv) observe to which extent the adjective base influences, if so, the use of the adverb; (v) name contexts in which adverbs of time/aspect begin to be interpreted as such; and (vi) observe the change or stability regarding the use of such adverbs through time.

THE POSITION OF ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF TENSE AND ASPECT IN MODERN PORTUGUESE Natalia Ilse Paulino Machado – CAPES / UFRJ [email protected] The category of the adverbs contains members with great differences between them because these items present grammatical and semantic aspects that cannot allow them to be described as a homogeneous group. Moreover, those elements assume functions oriented to the internal text organization or to its argumentative orientation. The traditional Brazilian grammarians assert that adverbial phrases of Tense and Aspect (hereafter, adverbials) show great mobility in the Portuguese syntactic structure. However, according to functionalist studies, the word order of the adverbial phrases of Tense and Aspect is not arbitrary. This work investigates the factors that can influence the position of that type of adverbials in sentences taken from personal letters in Brazilian Modern Portuguese, XVIII and XIX century, when the Portuguese language stabilizes orthographic patterns and gets a more morphosyntactic and grammar regularity (Mattos e Silva, 1991). Besides the position, we analyzed the semantic function of the phrases in focus, according to Ilari`s (2001) and Martelotta`s (1994) studies, the adverbial discursive function, based on Paiva (2008) and the sentence structure. The proposed analysis aims to observe the way those factors can motivate the position of the adverbial phrases of Tense and Aspect in the corpus. Key-words: adverbial positions; Functionalism; modern Portuguese.

Diachronic analysis of subject-verb order in Portuguese

Priscilla Mouta Marques (Bolsista FAPERJ) Doutoranda – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) The aim of this study is to analyze the subject order in Portuguese from 14th to 20th century, observing what motivates the occurrence of this term in pre-verbal or post-verbal position. The main hypothesis of this research is that the order of the subject in a clause is not only explained by structural factors but also, and in high level, by discursive-pragmatics aspects, as information status. The corpora of this research are composed by narrative texts or excerpts of all the centuries under investigation. All kinds of clauses were analyzed in affirmative and negative sentences. Due to the frequency observed during the data analysis, it is possible to affirm that the order SVC is the unmarked order in transitive and copulative sentences in archaic Portuguese as it is in contemporary Portuguese. From 16th century on, the frequency of post-verbal position in transitive clauses decreased and the occurrence of the subject after this kind of verb became restricted to specific contexts. In intransitive clauses, we verified the co-occurrence of SV and VS in Old Portuguese and in the 16th Century. The frequency of the last subject order decreased over time. The subject with new information tended to occupy the post-verbal position while the subjects classified as old or inferrable tended to precede the verb. Although we have noticed a high frequency of old subjects in postverbal position and new subjects in pre-verbal order, our analysis pointed that there is an intrinsic relation between newness and postposition. In our analysis of the explanatory factors of the subject order, we testified the high influence of discursive-pragmatics factors in this phenomenon in all the centuries, including the 19th century, when the information status underlies the subject order, although a grammatical factor (verb) was observed as the most important explanatory factor in this period.

THE DIRECT OBJECT ARGUMENT OF VERBS OF MOVEMENT Alan Marinho César – UFRN [email protected] In Brazilian Portuguese, verbs of movement are traditionally classified as intransitive, as they usually don’t occur with a direct object. This property arises from the prototypical usage of patterns that are formed with a Subject, a Verb of Movement and a Prepositional Phrase that indicates the source or the goal of the movement, as in: “depois disso a gente veio pra casa” (after that we came home). However, when we examine the use of language we realize that there are transitive verbs of movement. Then, it is possible the occurrence of direct objects with this kind of verb so that besides the movement of the referent of the subject, the referent of the direct object is also capable of moving from a point to another, as in: “ele leva um jornal dizendo que o pai dele foi assassinado” (he takes a newspaper saying his father was murdered). This work focuses on the argument structure of verbs of movement, aiming at analyzing the behavior of the arguments that occur with this kind of verb. Following the theoretical framework of cognitive-functional linguistics , that considers language as a complex set of cognitive and sociocommunicative activities, we intend on the one hand to study the syntactic/semantic/discoursive characteristics of verbs of movement, and on the other to classify them according to the kinds of movement expressed. Keywords: argument structure, verbs of movement, direct object.

COMPARATIVE OF EQUALITY CONSTRUCTIONS IN FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE: ARGUMENTATION, MODALIZATION AND EVIDENTIALITY Ana Beatriz Arena – UFF [email protected] This article aims to present a study on the comparative of equality constructions in a functional perspective, considering cognitive linguistics regarding to construction grammar and to the notion of frame. Syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and discursive motivations are investigated, such as argumentation, modalization and evidentiality, contributing to the establishment of some use patterns of these constructions. We assume that, in a comparative of equality expression such as “eu penso como um filósofo inglês” (I think as an English philosopher), the comparing element “filósofo inglês” is used to persuade the addressee, since it is a reliable evidence of the speaker world knowledge. Besides, the compared element is the speaker himself, indicating his commitment to the truth value of the proposition. The work is part of a larger study in progress, and focuses on comparative constructions whose operators are "como" and "como se". The corpus consists of written texts, from archaic to present day Portuguese language. Comparative of equality constructions present the following virtuality: compared element + shared attribute + comparison operator + comparing element, which can be represented by different noun phrases and verbs. This is what Traugott (2008) calls macroconstruction. There are some smaller blocks of constructions within these macroconstructions, as the integration between the comparison operator and the comparing element in clauses beginning with "como." It can also be observed that “como se” is itself a conventionalized construction, necessarily selecting verbs in the subjunctive mood. This research deepens the study about the role of different pragmatic and discursive motivations in grammar structure, and highlights the interface between functional theory and some cognitive principles. Keywords: Comparative constructions. Functionalism. Construction Grammar.

Verb + locative discourse marker Construction in the Brazilian Portuguese: polisemy and grammaticalization Ana Cláudia Machado Teixeira – UFF [email protected] This presentation analyzes some expressions such as: chega (a)í, dig(a) aí, diga lá, escuta aqui, (es)pera (a)í, , espera lá olha (a)í, olh(a) aqui, olha lá, (es)tá (a)í, (es)tamo(s) aí quero lá sei lá, sabe lá, segur(a) aí, vá lá, vamo(s) lá, vê lá vem cá, with regard to phenomena related to linguistic change, and about the process of grammaticalization that allow its routine and coding in one unit whose conventionalized meaning is imposed by certain contexts that "coerce" interpretations. The initial hypothesis is that the two terms are dependent and become a construction, a unit of form and meaning according to Croft (2001) and classified as microconstructions according to Traugott (2008), used in the specific syntactic-semantic and discursive pragmatic contexts. We begin from the theoretical framework that combines the linguistic functionalism, according to Heine and Kuteva (2007), Traugott and Dasher (2005), among others, and cognitivism in terms of Fillmore & Attikns (1992) and Croft (2001). We examine the usage patterns of this expressions. Some units in their original meaning together with abstract units demonstrate that polysemy is metonymically favored by certain contexts, from invited inferences in interactive communication in which they operate (inter) subjectivity, mechanisms that support their abstract trajectory. We present the preferential contexts of use, their functions according to the communicative situation and the influence of syntactic-semantic, pragmatic and discursive properties to grammaticalization.

TEXTUAL PROCESSING OF INFORMATION INTRODUCED BY "SENDO QUE": PRELIMINARY STUDIES André Luiz Rauber (UFMT/PG-USP) [email protected] Profa. Dra. Maria Célia Lima-Hernandes (Orientadora/USP) This work is a part of a larger study intended to investigate the cognitive mechanisms involved in the processing of grammatical structures of argumentation in Portuguese. Such structures are responsible for providing opinions, points of view, etc. of language users in situations of verbal interaction. In this panel, this process is studied from the uses of the construction "sendo que" in Brazilian Portuguese (PB) based on synchronous data formed by texts written in the twenty-first century. Despite some criticism of its use by some normative grammarians, such expression is very productive in Portuguese. It can be found in several contexts of use, and presents polysemic uses, suggesting a process of grammaticalization in progress. According to Hopper and Traugott (2003), grammaticalization is a “change whereby lexical items and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions and, once grammaticalized, continue to develop new grammatical functions”. For Givón (1995), grammaticalization is the rise of the morpho-syntactic structure. Bybee (2003) draws attention to the fact that the scope of grammaticalization has been enlarged from the study of lexical items that become morphemes to the notion that such process occurs in the context of a particular construction. The data now being analyzed consists of two contemporary synchronicities of Brazilian Portuguese: i) the essays of graduation candidates (FUVEST/2010); ii) and texts published on the Internet in two modes of writing, a more formal - academic publications; and another more informal - publications in blogs. A preliminary analysis seems to support the hypothesis that "sendo que" is playing in some contexts, the meanings of concession, adversity, causation, conclusion and, moreover, it seems to assume the function of delimiter in relation to the information that precedes it. Keywords: text processing, grammaticalization, sendo que.

DOM CASMURRO, FROM THE REFERENTIAL SIMBOLIZATION TO THE SIGNIFICATION Giselda Maria Dutra Bandoli – UENF [email protected] Sérgio Arruda de Moura – UENF [email protected] Abstract: The methodological proposal Semiolinguistic Discourse Theory, postulated by Patrick Charaudeau, provides that an act of language - or speech - is structured from a “mise in scène” of meaning, which the protagonists of communicative interaction involved. In this scenario purposeful, the semiolinguistic subject whose voice is driven by discursive formations works to somehow influence your partner. Thus, those involved in the process of enunciation / interpretation of speech acts as inter-character limitation, divided into the following four: communicating subject, subject interpretant, subject enunciating and subject recipient. The effects of sense of any statement are thus closely related to the situation in which it is produced. This semiolinguistic subject relies on some strategies "linguist representations " to Charaudeau - and contracts of the speech to be successful in their communicative purpose. Our work seeks to direct a discussion of some classical concepts of the Semiolinguistic Theory of Speech, regarding the production / interpretation of speech acts, from the situation of communication between narrator and reader installed on Dom Casmurro, a Machado de Assis’ work. Some basic topics of the above theory will be initially included in our analysis. Thus, the performance of the subjects involved in an act of utterance and circumstances of the speech, involving the conditions of production and interpretation of speech acts, will be the focus of our attention. Finally proceed to the consideration of matters pertaining to construction of the narrative in this work, illustrating it from the theory Charaudeau. Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Semiolinguistic Theory, Dom Casmurro

Cognitive and pragmatic motivations for the use of adjectives in discourse José Romerito Silva (UFRN) Adjectives in Portuguese have been always conceived by traditional grammars – like Cunha & Cintra (1985), Almeida (1999) – as a lexical class which is semantic and morphosyntactically related to nouns. In this view, communicative functions of adjectives are not considered. On the other hand, linguistic accounts to adjectives, represented by Pontes (2004), Silva (2008), Castilho (2010), for example, do not offer a satisfactory explanation about that word class. Because they analyze the adjectives apart from the communicative context, it’s almost impossible know the underling motivations of their use. Considering those facts, here I intend to discuss the multifunctional use of the adjective as a nounreferential modifier, trying to find out cognitive and pragmatic factors involved in its use and propose a new semantic typology for adjectives based on the different functions they play. The articulation between the modifier adjective and the noun it is related to I call “referential construction”, which can be a partially-closed construction, a partially-open construction or an open construction. The corpus is composed by thirty written texts of fifteen different genres (two texts of each genre) from several contexts of communicative interaction. The analysis is supported by the Cognitive-functional Linguistics (the usagebased model), represented by Tomasello (1998, 2003), Bybee (2010) and others, as well as the Construction Grammar proposed by Godlberg (1995).

A PROPOSAL FOR A PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE TEACHING: THE USE OF THE ELEMENT “ASSIM” UNDER A FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE Karine Lôbo Castelano – UENF [email protected] Eliana Crispim França Luquetti – UENF [email protected] Abstract: This search has as objective to demonstrate the use of the element “assim” in the different approaches to the study of Portuguese language, but mainly from the perspective of grammaticalization, one of the tenets of Functional Linguistics. In addition, we intend to analyze the occurrence of this operator in narratives of personal and retold experience, reporting procedures, reporting of opinion and description of local - in oral and written of informants from the Fluminense Northwest Region - as it explores the realm of personal experience with events of everyday life, recorded in the memory told for others. For data analysis, we selected three uses of the element under study, according to Martelotta et al. (1996) and Luquetti (in press): deictic anaphoric, deictic cataphoric and filler of pause, taking into account the context of its realization. The study of grammar must be related to the effective use of language, encouraging students to consciously develop their language skills. It is hoped this research contribute to filling a huge gap between the theories produced in the academy and school, that is, between the researcher and teacher, who is experiencing in the classroom all the clashes that teaching offers. Key Words: Argumentative Operator; Grammaticalization, Teaching.

Resumo- Apresentação de painel. Aluna: Monique Pétin Kale dos Santos.

Ordering of adverbial pronouns in opinion pieces in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries This academic work is an analysis of the sort of locative adverbs opinion pieces in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries under the assumptions of American North functionalism. We check the profile of the authors in relation to the target audience to which the works are intended, because we believe that this characteristic influences the manner of use of locatives. We also observed the process of change and variation that led to the grammaticalization, characterized the polysemy of these uses and the ordering of locative adverbs in relation to the verb of the sentence. The corpus analyzed show that, in eighteenth- century works surveyed, most adverbs are in preverbal position, which is considered more regular position of adverbs in synchronicities of the oldest in the English language. On the other hand, in the nineteenth century, the ordering of pronominal locative adverb tends to be after verbal, reaching the adverb usually immediately after the verb. We also believe that the high occurrence of spaces “abstract” or “virtual” spaces are due to the opinionated and the more frequent sequences present in expository texts.

GRAMMATICALIZATION OF CONSTRUCTIONS THAT HAVE AN APPROXIMATE VALUE Priscilla de Almeida Nogueira - USP [email protected] This work aims to investigate the mechanisms that may have culminated in the emergence and / or incorporation of constructs that encode the intentions of uncertainty, inaccuracy, approach and doubt in the written language. That purpose involves the preliminary task of analysis of structures with degree of negative polarity in terms of certainty and conviction of the speaker. As a result of this analysis, is expected to identify the processes of grammaticalization of the structures whose degree of certainty and affirmative conviction explicit various degrees of manifestation that can be read as uncertainty, vagueness, approach and doubt. One of the objectives of this work is the verification and analysis of possible processes of grammaticalization of structures that were identified in a pilot study, which was developed during a study that had as "corpus" one extensive amount of dissertative redactions of candidates for the tests required for entry into two universities: Fuvest ("Fundação Universitária para o Vestibular") and Comvest ("Comissão Permanente para os Vestibulares da Unicamp"). During one stage of the development of this research, the student book will become an object of observation, since it is imposed as another objective of this project the recognition of how deep was the focus, in this material, of contexts enablers of functional slides as a way to incentive or create a model or pattern of the normative use. Due to the great weight carried by the intentional and cognitive processes in the development of grammaticalized items and constructions in the language, it is necessary to perform an analysis also focused on the cognitive motivations of these functional slides. Keywords: grammaticalization of intent, cognitive mechanisms, normative use of Portuguese language.