KARL MKKARX. Chapter 3 Karl Marx

KARL MKKARX Chapter 3 Karl Marx KARL MARX (1818–1883) Key Concepts Class Bourgeoisie Proletariat Forces and relations of production Capital Surplus...
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Chapter 3 Karl Marx

KARL MARX (1818–1883) Key Concepts Class Bourgeoisie Proletariat Forces and relations of production Capital Surplus value Alienation Labor theory of value Exploitation Class consciousness The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. (Marx and Engels 1848/1978:473)

Beginnings • Born: Trier, Germany 1818 • Died: March 17th, 1883 • One of 9 children • Only one to live until 40 • Father: Lawyer from long line

of rabbis

Videos about Marx • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ztVeUX8Hpo&feat

ure=related • Marxism made simple

• Do you know how to make a shirt? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QbWbwj7-


Biographical Sketch: Karl Marx • University career (1835-1841): • History, Philosophy, and Law

• Academic career ambitions ended • Berlin Ministry of Education

blacklisted him due to radical views

Biographical Sketch: Karl Marx • Early 1840s, Began longtime

friendship and collaboration with Friedrich Engels

• Marx and family died due to poverty

and ill health (early 1880s)

Environment and Focus

• Reaction to dire economic and social


• Due to industrial revolution

• Theory: Not only to

but also to change it

• Focus: • Economy • Classes • Forces of production

interpret the world,

Economy • Ways in which people satisfy their material


• Food, clothing, shelter, etc.

• PRODUCTION: Transform raw materials

into things people use • Products

Means of production & Relations of production • The Means of Production:

• Land • Natural resources • Technology • Factories

Relations of Production Social and technical relationships • Among people as they • Use the means of production • Relations

among individuals • Between or among groups of people or classes

Mode of production • Means of Production + Relations of

Production= Mode of Production

• Mode of production changes • Primitive Communism • Feudalism • Capitalism • Socialism • Cause of change: • Process of “dialectical materialism”

Process of Dialectical Materialism • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9Cpuv4tSyo

• Each historical period’s mode of

production--economy (thesis)

• Challenged by a set of social forces (anti-


• New mode of production (synthesis)

Economy: Basic Issues • What goods & services to produce? • In what quantities? • How scarce resources are allocated? • How goods and services are distributed? • What price should be charged for goods &


Capitalism • Natural resources and means of

producing goods and services are privately owned

• Ideal capitalism: 3 Features

1. Private ownership of property 2. Pursuit of personal profit 3. Competition & choice

Socialism • An economic system in which the

means of production are owned by the public and • Operate for the welfare of all.

Socialism • Essential Industries & Services are: • Publicly owned • Democratically controlled • Equal opportunity for all • Equal benefit for all

Communism • “The workers of the world have nothing to

lose, but their chains, workers of the world unite.” - Marx “From each according to his/her ability, to each according to his/her need."

Communism • Economic system in which: • All means of production are owned

by the people, • Private property does not exist, and • All goods and services are shared equally

Dialectical Materialism • Materialism=Material world, perceptible to


• Objective reality • Independent of mind or spirit

• Ideas arise • As products and reflections of material


• “I labor (work), therefore I am.”

Materialism vs. Idealism • Materialism->Opposite of Idealism

• Idealism: • Matter dependent on mind or spirit • Mind or Spirit • Exists independently of matter

• “I think, therefore I am”

Species Being Essence of creative nature • Humans live off nature (as do other animals) • Express “species being” through free,

conscious activity

• Estranged labor makes work only a

means to existence

Alienation and Capitalism • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KCOdHcRkd0E&feature=


• Alienation: • Separation of people from aspects

of their human nature

Alienated Labor: “Alienation” • Worker spends 2/3 of waking

hours in meaningless activity

• Little or no interaction with others • Alienated from other people • Alienated from humanity

Alienation Worker Alienated from: 1. Products of labor 2. Process of production 3. Co-workers 4. Species-potential (species being) 5. Self (self-estrangement)

Capitalism • Benefits owners of capital • Prevents workers • From realizing essential human capacity

for creative labor

• Inherently exploitative • Leads to monopoly

Social Class • Class: Relationship to means of production • Class consciousness: Recognize common

relationship to means of production

Social Class • False consciousness: • Unable to recognize oppression &


• Incorrectly identifying source of problems

Marx’s Model of Social Change • Generate class consciousness—Awareness by working

class of common relationship to the means of production

The Communist Manifesto • Manifesto is a “scientific prophecy” detailing

the downfall of the capitalist class and the rise of the proletariat

• **The Communist Manifesto Cartoon • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KUl4yfABE4&feature


• Communist Smurfs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qra0hlO6hZk&NR=1