KARPELES, MAUD 153 KAIPOKOK BAY (pop. 1935, 41). A deep inlet on the Labrador coast north and west of Makkovik. In 1990 Postville qv was the only per...
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KAIPOKOK BAY (pop. 1935, 41). A deep inlet on the Labrador coast north and west of Makkovik. In 1990 Postville qv was the only permanent settlement in Kaipokok Bay, but before that community was begun in the early 1940s several trapping families lived at various sites in the Bay. Extending some 75 km inland, Kaipokok Bay was used as an Innu route between the inland barrens and the coast. To take advantage of this migration route, a post was established in 1792 by a French-Canadian named Makko (likely Marcoux). Little is known about Makko's activities and he appears to have left Kaipokok Bay in the early 1800s. He reportedly "preached" to the Innu, to the consternation of the Moravian missionaries, who had previously been the only whites in northern Labrador.

(1976; 1986), Census (1884-1945), Them Days (vol.6 #1, 1980). RHC

KALLEO, JOSEPHINE (1920- ). Artist. Born Nain. Educated Moravian Mission School. Memories - of homemade clothing fashioned of animal skins and decorated with band-woven designs, puncheons brimming with fermented fish and molasses, the warm flickering light of seal oil burning in a tin can - were the inspiration for Kalleo's beautifully detailed and colourful creation, Taipsumane: A Collection of Labrador Stories (1984).

Life Long Ago, by Josephine Kalleo

Jacque house at Kaipokok Bay, 1930

In about 1830 D.R. Stewart of Quebec City established a fur trading post at the later site of Postville. The post was purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1837 and two French-Canadian fur trappers arrived shortly thereafter. Jean-Baptiste Jacque settled southwest of the post and Antoine Perrault near the head of the bay, where be began trading independently with the Innu. The HBC relocated its post to Ailik qv, near the mouth of the bay, in 1879. In 1884 there was a population of 24 people at scattered homesteads in Kaipokok Bay, including the Jacque, Perrault and Goudie families. The inhabitants supplemented their income from trapping by the summer cod fishery at Ailik. By 1921 there were 40 people living in the Bay. Attempts by outside interests to establish a sawmill in the 1930s were unsuccessful and the inhabitants remained widely scattered. Beginning in 1941, when Pentecostal pastor William Gillett qv built a church at the site of the old Hudson's Bay post, the population of Kaipokok Bay became increasingly concentrated at the emerging community of Postville. By the early 1950s Postville was the only site of permanent settlement in Kaipokok Bay, although such former stations as Rapid Point and English River continued to be used seasonally by Postville residents. W.A. Paddon (1989), F.W. Peacock

While in her early 60s and working at the Torngasok Cultural Centre in Nain, Kalleo began a collection of felt-tipped pen drawings depicting the traditional life of the Inuit in Labrador. A grant from the Department of the Secretary of State later allowed her to complete the project and have her book published. Kalleo's works were also exhibited in various centres throughout the province, starting in 1984 with the Memorial University art gallery. Through her drawings Kalleo recaptured the old way of life in Labrador in the 1920s- a time when men and women bunted and fished for a living and children learned arithmetic and grammar in Inuktitut. In a further effort to preserve the Inuit culture, Taipsumane's text was written in Inuit syllabics and in Moravian Inuktitut script using the English alphabet, as well as in standard English. Josephine Kalleo (interview, July 1990), Arts in Formation (vol. 2, #4; 1985), Sunday Express (April 19, 1987). CSK

KAMA[R]SUK. See NAIN. KARLSEFNI, THORFINNR. See THORFINNR KARLSEFNI THORDARSON. KARPELES, MAUD (1885-1976). Folklorist. Born London, England. Educated England. An internationally renowned folklorist, Karpeles was awarded an honorary doctorate by Memorial University in 1970 for "bringing before the world the wealth of Newfoundland folk song" (MUN Gazette).

154 KATEM, MICHAEL Karpeles, a colleague of the famous English folk song collector Cecil Sharp, visited Newfoundland in 1929 and 1930, and collected over 200 folk songs. "Newfoundland," she wrote "has not brought forth any new type of tune, but ... has ... produced a number of songs and ballads which have an individual beauty and are in themselves sufficiently distinctive to merit publication." In 1934 her Folk Songs from Newfoundland Vols. 1 and 2 were published. An expanded and updated volume was published in 1971. Of one song in particular, "She's like the Swallow," Karpeles remarked "My life would have been worthwhile if collecting that was all I had done." In addition to being honoured by Memorial University, Karpeles received an honorary doctorate from Universite Laval and was named a member of the Order of the British Empire. Frederick R. Emerson (BN I, 1937), Maud Karpeles ed. (1934; 1971), J.R. Smallwood (1975), MUN Gazette (May 1, 1970; Oct. 15, 1976). BWC KATEM, MICHAEL. An Irish settler at Caplin Cove, Conception Bay, who enters history as the subject of persecution under Governor Richard Dorrill qv. In 1755 Katem (Keating?) was arrested and fined £50 for allowing a Roman Catholic priest to hold public mass in one of his fish rooms and for attending the service himself. Katem's fish room was then destroyed and all his possessions sold. Although religious persecution was then widespread, it was pronounced under Governor Dorrill. D.W. Prowse (1895), F.W. Prowse (1980). EMD/CSK

KAUK BIGHT. See NAIN. KAUMAJET MOUNTAINS. A coastal mountain range in northern Labrador, ending at Cape Mugford, about 140 km north of Nain. The "shining top" mountains average 1000 to 1300 meters in height and at several points plunge almost vertically into the Labrador Sea. The Kaumajets are characterized by deep and dramatic gorges, most notably at Mugford Tickle qv, and the peak known as the Bishop's Mitre, described by Vaino

The Bishop's Mitre (left)

Tanner as "a scene in its way unrivalled in Labrador." V. Tanner ( 1944 ). PANG KAVANAGH, ED (1954- ). Writer; musician; actor. Born St. John's, son of Edward Patrick and Loretta (Harvey) Kavanagh. Educated St. John's; Memorial University; Carleton University. Having won ten provincial Arts and Letters Competition awards for writing, Kavanagh published three children's books: Amanda Greenleaf Visits a Distant Star (1986), Amanda EdKavanagh Greenleaf and the Spell of the Water Witch (1987) and Amanda Greenleaf and the Boy Magician (1991); and a collection of plays, The Cat's Meow (1990). With degrees in music as well as education, in 1990 Kavanagh released Alison Gross . . . and other Wickedly Wonderful Songs. A founding member of the Writers' Alliance of Newfoundland and Labrador in 1987, Kavanagh served as its president in 1988-89. Ed Kavanagh (interview, 1991), ET (Feb. 17, 24, 1991 ), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Ed Kavanagh). BWC KAVANAGH, JAMES V. (c.l868-1946). Longshoreman. Born St. John's. Kavanagh led a longshoremen's strike in 1903 thatled to the formation of the *Longshoremen's Protective Union (L.S.P.U.) qv. "A man of more than average ability" (White), Kavanagh was a waterfront labourer in St. John's in May of 1903 when he led a strike by longshoremen, demanding an increase in James Kavanagh wages. He was subsequently a member of a committee which negotiated a successful end to the strike, with the assistance of lawyer Michael P. Gibbs qv. The strike led to the formation of a Steamboat Labourers' Union (later the L.S.P.U.). Kavanagh later served the union in several executive positions and was honoured as its founder when made honorary president upon his retirement. Bill Gillespie (1986), Thomas White (BN II, 1937), DN (Oct. 31, 1946), DNLB (1990). RHC KAVANAGH, JOHN (1814-1884). Businessman; politician. By the early 1860s Kavanagh had become a prominent merchant on Gower Street. He was elected as a Liberal member for St. John's East in 1859 and was re-elected in 1861, garnering more votes in his district than former Prime Minister, John Kent qv.

KEAN, ABRAM 155 Kavanagh's business began to fail in 1861 and by 1865 he had declared personal bankruptcy. He was elected for a third term as a Liberal in 1865, but crossed the floor in 1868 to join the coalition government of Frederick B.T. Carter qv and did not stand for re-election in 1869. In 1870 Kavanagh secured the position of road inspector, which he held until his death in 1884. Devine & O'Mara (1900), James Hiller (1980), D.W. Prowse (1895), ET (Aug. 6, 1884), Our Musty Past (n.d.). PANG/CSK

KAWAJA, ELIAS (19061979). Businessman. Born North Sydney; son of Salem A. and Ballah A. Kawaja. Educated Cheticamp; North Sydney. Married Suzanne Lemoine. AI Kawaja moved to Corner Brook with his parents in 1928 and over the next 20 years established himself as a leading businessman, known for his volunteer work at the community, provincial and naElias (Al) Kawaja tiona} levels. Elected to the town council of Corner Brook West in 1949, he played a key role the next year in the formation of the Humber Municipal Association. Upon the amalgamation of the town councils in the Corner Brook area in 1955, he became the first deputy mayor of the new city - a position he filled again in 1962-1963. Kawaja died at Corner Brook on July 30, 1979. Harold Horwood ( 1986), DNLB ( 1990), Who's Who Newfoundland Silver Anniversary Edition ( 1975). BWC KAYAK. A light, skin-covered canoe, totally enclosed except for a small manhole, adapted primarily to the hunting of sea mammals in open water and flow ice. No item of their technology is more strongly identified with the Inuit than the kayak, nor has any other of their inventions gained, in adapted form, such worldwide use. The kayak is surmised to have existed in the Alaskan region by 1700 B.C. Archaeological evidence points to its certain use in the Bering Sea by the beginning of the Christian era. The Thule, ancestors of the modern Inuit, brought it into prominent use in the eastern arctic as recently as the twelfth to fifteenth centuries. The sighting by the Norse of "skrrelings" in skin boats (c. 1000 A.D.) is most likely a reference to Indians in canoes. The building of a kayak was a co-operative venture. The men made the frame, the women the skin covering. The preferred framing material was light driftwood. Because the kayak had no keel, it was built deck first. Suitable pieces of driftwood were carefully chosen, shaped (using knife and adze) and lashed together to form the frame; or steamed and fastened in a circular shape to form the cockpit. Holes were drilledinto which ribs were fitted, lashed and secured with

pegs. Five or six cross-pieces finished the frame. The seal-skin covering, (made preferably from the hides of the largest species, the bearded seal), was placed on while still wet, so that it shrank wrinkle-free, onto the frame. The women worked in a group so that the labour of double stitching the entire cover could be completed before the skin dried. Use of the kayak in hunting demanded considerable skill. Care had to be taken that drift ice did not pierce the fragile skin covering, and the craft had to be handled in the rough seas which afforded the best hunting conditions. The kayak had little balance but great speed- a-necessity in the pursuit of sea mammals and waterfowl, as often the chief means of capture was wearing down the prey. The hunter travelled fully equipped with harpoon, harpoon rack and bladder on one side and bird spear on the other. To the rear were his seal hook and killing lance. In later years the gun replaced the harpoon. Use of the kayak on the Labrador coast declined rapidly throughout the nineteenth century. "The art of using the kayak is becoming a thing of the past," noted A.P. Silver after a summer of sailing the Labrador coast. "This picturesque little craft, into which a man could lace himself so tightly that he can laugh at the crested billows ... is now put aside generally for the more clumsy wooden boat or 'dory'." In the early 1940s V. Tanner saw only two kayaks in use in Labrador. E.Y. Arima (1975), H.G. Bandi (1969), George Cartwright (1911), E.W. Hawkes (1916), S.K. Hutton (1912), A.P. Silver (1902), V. Tanner (1944). PANG

KEAN, ABRAM (1855-1945). Mariner; politician. Born Flowers Island, son of Joseph and Jane Kean. Educated Pool's Island; Greens pond. Married Caroline Yetman. Father of Westbury Kean qv. Kean was Newfoundland's most successful seal hunter, bringing in more than one million pelts in 48 springs at the ice as master. The youngest of nine children, Kean had four years' schooling while living with an uncle, William Kean qv, before persuading his father to let him begin fishing with his uncle at the age of 13. He became captain of a fishing schooner in 1878. The next year he moved his family to Norton's Cove (which he renamed Brookfield) near Wesleyville qv. He made his first trip to the seal hunt under his eldest brother. He was later master watch, second hand, and master of the family schooner Peerless at the seal hunt. With the ambition of becoming captain of a sealing steamer, he joined Captain Joe Barbour as bridgemaster on the Ranger in 1884. In 1887 Kean moved to St. John's, after having been elected MHA for Bonavista, and enrolled in courses for his Master's Certificate, qualifying in 1888. Shortly thereafter he took command of the Labrador mail steamer Curlew. The next year he was given command of the S.S. Wolf at the seal hunt. On his first trip to the ice as commander of a steamer he made a record-setting round trip which lasted only 11 days and brought in 26,912 pelts. With the proceeds from that voyage he established a mercantile business at

156 KEAN,ABRAMJR. Brookfield. In 1917 he and his sons formed the Little Stephano Co. (later reorganized as A. Kean & Sons). In succeeding years Kean commanded eight other steamers at the seal hunt. His years as a sealer were not, however, an unbroken string of successes. The Wolf sank off Fogo while under his command in the spring of 1896; he made a very poor voyage in the Hope in 1897 and in 1898 his crew was accused of stealing pelts panned by the S.S. Greenland qv and contributing to the deaths of 48 sealers. But his fortunes turned in 1898 when he began his long association with Bowring Brothers, bringing in over 25,000 pelts in the Aurora. He made seven more voyages in that ship, each averaging more than 25,000 pelts, before commanding the Terra Nova qv in the spring of 1906. The "millionaire in seals" gazing across the ice

Captain Abram Kean

Kean later wrote that in entering political life in 1885 he had been "pitchforked into a position which I had neither sought nor desired." A dedicated Methodist, Orangeman and temperance advocate, he easily . won election in Bonavista district, but did not stand for elective office again until 1897, when he was elected in Bay de Verde as a Conservative. When the administration of James S. Winter introduced legislation to establish a Department of Marine and Fisheries in 1898, Kean was appointed acting Minister and helped steer the legislation through. He did not stand for public office again until 1919, when he was defeated in St. Barbe. In 1927 he was appointed to the Legislative Council and sat as a member of the upper house until its abolition in 1934. Kean left his mercantile business in 1903 to take charge of Bowring's

coastal steamer service, bringing the Portia qv to Newfoundland the next year. For the next 15 years he was in charge of Bowring's coastal service and master of the Portia and later the Prospera qv. In 1910 he took Bowring's Florizel to the ice and brought in 49,069 pelts- a record which stood until1933. While master of Bowring's Stephana qv in the spring of 1914, Kean was a central figure in the controversy over the S.S. Newfoundland qv sealing disaster and was held by some people to be responsible for the deaths of 78 of the ship's crew. Although exonerated by an inquiry, there was widespread criticism of his conduct in dropping the Newfoundland's crew off on the ice with a storm approaching. In 1934 Kean, at the age of 78, brought in on the Beothic his millionth seal. With over 48,000 pelts, this was his second largest catch. St. John's was seized by a "million craze:" Kean was feted at "the world's largest flipper dinner" by the Board of Trade and presented with the Blue Ensign by Governor Anderson and a medal by Bowring Brothers. In June he was awarded an O.B.E. That summer he was appointed fishery officer on the Labrador coast. He published an autobiography, Old and Young Ahead, in 1935 and made two more trips to the ice in command of the Beothic before retiring in 1936. He died in St. John's on May 18, 1945. J.P. Andrieux (1984), Cassie Brown (1972), James E. Candow (1989), L.G. Chafe (1923), George A. England (1969), Abram Kean (1935), Patrick O'Flaherty (1979), Shannon Ryan (1987), DNLB (1990), NQ (July, 1913), Who 's Who in andfrom Newfoundland 1930 (1930), Newfoundland Historical Society (Kean family). RUTH KONRAD/RHC KEAN, ABRAM JR. (1887-1958) . Mariner. Born Flowers Island, son of Stephen and Jessica (Rogers) Kean. Married Elizabeth White. A Labrador fisherman and schooner captain, Kean is best known as having been master of the S.S. Viking qv when that ship exploded on March 15, 1931 , with the loss of 27 lives. Abe Kean Jr. (as he was usually known, to distinguish him from his cousin) began his involvement in the Labrador fishery at an early age. He was given his

KEAN, WESTBURY B. 157 first command of a sealing steamer in 1927, when he took out the Ranger for Bowring Brothers. In the spring of 1931 Kean was given command of Bowrings' Viking and took out a crew that included film maker Varick Frissell qv. On March 15 the Viking was "burned down for the night" off the Horse Islands, when it was racked by a series of explosions. Abram Kean Jr. After the first explosion Kean hurried to the deck and was subsequently thrown clear and badly injured. After recovering from his injuries, he was not offered another command at the seal fishery. Kean continued as skipper of his Labrador schooner, based at Hermit Cove. After retiring from fishing in the early 1950s he moved to nearby Badger's Quay, where he died on November 18, 1958. L.G. Chafe (1923), Mrs. Lester Kean (interview, May 1991), Clayton L. King (BN I, 1937), Naboth Winsor (interview, May 1991). RHC

KEAN, JACOB (c.18641939). Mariner. Born Flowers Island, son of William and Rebecca (Granter) Kean. Educated Pool's Island and Greenspond . Married (1) Mary Ann Hann; (2) Minnie Dalton. Kean was captain of several coastal steamers and made 20 trips to the spring seal hunt as master. Kean was involved in the Bonavista North and Labrador fishery for several JacobKean years in partnership with his uncle, Abram Kean qv. In 1907 he held his first command of a steamer at the ice, the Virginia Lake. Kean left the fishery in 1911 to take command of the coastal steamer Home and remained in the coastal service for the rest of his career, as captain of the Invermore, the Susu and finally the Prospera, retiring in 1935. In his career as a sealing skipper Kean commanded several vessels, notably the Adventure 191115 and the Seal1921-25. He made his last spring trip to the ice as master of the Thetis in 1936. Abram Kean (1935), Shannon Ryan ed. (1989), ET (Aug. 21, 1939), Who's Who in and from Newfoundland 1927 (1927). RHC

KEAN, JOB (c.l863-1945). Mariner. Born Flowers Island, son of William and Rebecca (Granter) Kean. After Kean's father died c.1878 he went to live with his uncle, Abram Kean qv, at Brookfield. Married Virtue Hann.

Job Kean became a schooner skipper in the Labrador fishery and also made sealing voyages as master watch and second band in steamships under his uncle and other masters from the Wesleyville area. In 1896 he was given his first command at the seal hunt, the Leopard qv. From 1902 be commanded Job Brothers' Erik for 12 springs. When Job Brothers sold the ship in 1914, Kean retired from sealing to run the family mercantile business at Brookfield (although he did take the Diana to the ice in 1917). He built up a successful business at Brookfield over the next 30 years, and built several Labrador schooners in partnership with his sons Baxter and Charles (who also became a noted sealing master). L.G. Chafe (1923), Abram Kean (1935), Shannon Ryan (1987), ET (Nov. 15, 1945), Newfoundland Historical Society (Kean family). RHC

KEAN, WESTBURY B. (1886-1974). Mariner. Born St. John's, son of Abram qv and Caroline (Yetman) Kean. Kean spent 17 springs at the seal hunt as master and is chiefly remembered as captain of the Newfoundland in 1 9 14, when 78 men died in one of the worst sealing disasters. Kean made his first voyage to the Labrador fishery out of Brookfield, Wes Kean Bonavista Bay, in 1900 for the family firm of A. Kean & Sons. He later became a Labrador skipper for the firm and in 1911 assumed command of the Newfoundland at the seal hunt. In 1914 the Newfoundland got jammed in the ice and Kean sent his men, under the command of second mate George Tuff qv, in the direction of his father's vessel, the Stephana. Abram Kean took the men aboard and carried them to a patch of seals, then left them on the ice, where they were stranded for the next 53 hours during a storm. A subsequent inquiry into the disaster largely exonerated Wes Kean, but he did not get another command at the seal hunt until 1921. From 1921 until 1926 Kean commanded the Ranger at the ice, continuing in the fishery and coasting trade for the rest of the year. He was master of the Eagle II for three springs, beginning in 1930. In 1934 Kean was master of the government steamer Portia when he was accused of trying to smuggle beaver skins out of the country and was dismissed. Kean's appeal was one of the first tests of the newly-established Commission of Government. He was finally successful in having charges dismissed in 1937. He later moved to Halifax as agent for Imperial Oil. Kean returned to "the front" as master of the Imogene in 1938 and 1939. Shortly thereafter he moved to the United States and died at Merrick, New York, on January 20, 1974. Cassie Brown (1972), L.G. Chafe (1923), Peter Neary (1988),


Shannon Ryan (1987), DNLB (1990), ET (Jan. 23, 1974), Who's Who in and from Newfoundland 1927 (1927). RHC

KEAN, WILLIAM ( 18101887). Mariner; merchant. Born Flowers Island, son of Joseph and Mary Kean. Married Anne Janes. Kean was a pioneer sealing skipper out of Pool's Island, Bonavista Bay, where he was also the major merchant. A Labrador fisherman, sealer and schooner owner, Kean moved from Flowers Island to Main Pool's Island c.1850. From his base William Kean in Pool's Island he was in charge of the sea-going operations of one of the larger fishing and sealing firms in Bonavista North, in partnership with his brother Joseph, who remained based at Flowers Island. William Kean became the leading merchant and schooner-owner of Pool's Island and was the driving force in the building of St. James Church there in 1862. By 1871 the partnership owned four schooners (the Shaver, Gleaner, Emerald and Barbara) and was a leading factor in establishing Bonavista North as a centre for the Labrador fishery and the seal hunt. Kean's ability as a sealing master was acknowledged throughout Newfoundland and when the first two steamers went to the front in 1863 he was chosen by Grieve and Co. to take command of the Wolf. Many of the Bonavista North captains who later went on to long careers as sealing masters and Labrador skippers began under him (including his nephew, Abram Kean qv, whose autobiography describes his uncle as being. a more significant influence than his own father). William Kean died at Pool's Island on May 2, 1887. L.G. Chafe (1923 ), Abram Kean (1935), E.R. Seary (1977), Naboth Winsor (1988), Newfoundland Historical Society (Pool's Island). RHC KEARNEY, MICHAEL CONDON (1811-1885). Shipbuilder. Born Ferryland. Married Bridget Blackler. Kearney's career as perhaps Newfoundland's most celebrated naval architect began around 1827 when he went to Ireland to apprentice for three years with the Waterford Shipbuilding Co. He became a construction superintendent with that firm before moving to another firm at Youghal in South Waterford County for two years. Returning to Newfoundland in 1838, Kearney began building boats at Ferryland, but by the 1840s he was living in St. John's where he owned a shipyard on the south side of the harbour. Many wellknown vessels were constructed at Kearney's yard, particularly the brig Mary Hounsell, the yacht Gauntlett, and the clipper barque Rothsay. Kearney also supervised the construction of ships in various

Conception Bay communities, particularly the brig Thomas Ridley in Carbonear for the Harbour Grace firm of John Rorke qv. In 1855 he built the brig Ida, the largest wooden vessel to have been built in St. John's up to that time and which later set a record in making a round-trip between St. John's and Bristol in 26 days. Such was his reputation that his expertise was sought by the English firm constructing the famous cable ship the Great Eastern. Kearney served a single term representing Ferryland in the House of Assembly from 1865 to 1869. He died in St. John's on March 4, 1885, while overseeing the construction of the Shamrock. M.E. Condon (1925), Anna Kearney (1973), L.B. Moakler (letter, n.d.), J.R. Thoms (1975), Evening Mercury (Mar. 7, 1885), Newfoundland Historical Society (Michael Kearney). BWC

KEARNEY'S COVE. See LONG ISLAND, P.B. KEATING, JOHN STEPHEN (1857-1942). Civil servant. Born St. John's, son of Thomas and Bridget Keating. Educated St. Bonaventure's College. Married Mary Ann Meehan. After ten years with the St. John's brokerage firm W.H. Mare & Son, Keating joined the civil service in 1889 as a second clerk in the treasury department. He became deputy minister of Finance in 1905 and remained the civil service head of Finance until J.S. Keating his retirement in 1931. Keating died at St. John's on February 9, 1942. P.J. Cashin (1967), Who's Who in and from Newfoundland 1927 (1927). RHC

KEATS, RICHARD GOODWIN (1757-1834). Governor. B~rn Chalton, Hampshire. Keats joined the Royal Navy 10 1770, and his numerous achievements and skills earned him quick promotion through the ranks. Ill health forced him to retire in 1812. The following year he was appointed Governor of Newfoundland and held office until 1816. During his term the British government agreed for the first time to let Newfoundland settlers lease land for cultivation. Keats granted 110 leases around St. John's in the first year Sir Richard Keats alone. In 1816 he returned to England and was succeeded as Governor of Newfoundland by Francis Pickmore qv. Charles Pedley (1863), DNB X, DNLB (1990). EMD/CSK

KEELS 159 KEDRA. See CANADA HOUSE. KEEGAN, LAWRENCE EDWARD (1868-1940). Physician. Born Dublin, Ireland. Educated Jesuit College; Marist Fathers' School; Trinity College; Dublin. Keegan came to Newfoundland to practise medicine in 1889. From 1898 to 1901 he acted as superintendent of the city's mental hospital and for a number of years was district surgeon for St. John's East. In 1909 he was appointed Chief Surgeon and Resident Superintendent of the General Hospital. During his years there Keegan was responsible for introducing many greatly needed medical facilities, including a sterilizing apparatus, modern operating rooms and a nurses' home. Keegan was also founder and first president of the Newfoundland Medical Association. After his resignation from office in 1925 he was named the association's first Honorary President. DNLB (1990), NQ (Oct. 1935), Who's Who in and from Newfoundland 1927 (1927). EMD/CSK

Dr. L.E. Keegan

KEEGAN, NORA HEALEY (1902- ). Teacher; librarian; writer. Born Sandy Point, daughter of Francis and Anne (O'Reilly) Cashin. Educated St. George's. Married (1) Leo Healey; (2) Andrew Keegan. Keegan is the author of Footprints in the Sand (1979), a book of essays recollecting her childhood on the West Coast. Soon after completing high school Keegan began teaching at Loch Leven and later at Rencontre East and in Nova Scotia. She also served as Librarian of the regiona11ibrary in Corner Brook for about eight years. Before writing Footprints in the Sand, Keegan had short stories published in the Family Herald, the Evening Telegram, and in some American periodicals. Rosemary Bryant (interview, Aug. 1990), Nora Healey Keegan ( 1979). CSK KEELS (inc. 1966; pop. 1986, 115). A fishing community located on the headland that separates Blackhead

Bay from southwestern Bonavista Bay. The origin of the name Keels has been the subject of speculation. Although the surname Keel is found in Bonavista, the community name apparently predates that family. Local traditions include suggestions that John Cabot's ship left the mark of its keel in the sand when stopping at the site for fresh water and that the first settlers found keel-shaped timbers on the beach. (This has led some writers to suggest the timbers could be traced to the Vikings and that Keels might be Kialarness of the Norse Sagas). A more mundane explanation is that Keels Cove was named for the shape of the rocks at its entrance or for the family name Keough, while it is also possible that the name is a corruption of an earlier Portuguese or Latin designation. The community is unquestionably one of the oldest on the northeast coast. The site is identified on one map as early as 1582 (as carenas, possibly an abbreviation of Cape Arenas) and was an English fishing station by 1675. A settlement at Keels was recorded in 1702, at which time the only other occupied sites in Bonavista Bay were Bonavista, Salvage and Greenspond. Early settlers were attracted by a location close to fishing grounds which offered access to the resources of both Blackhead Bay and southern Bonavista Bay. The earliest family names recorded at Keels include Elliot, Hobbs and Turner - all of whom were in possession in 1805 of fishing rooms acquired "by inheritance." The other family in 1805 bore the name Fitzgerald, suggesting that the pattern of both Irish and English settlement at Keels is long established. Keels grew rapidly during the early 1800s, as world demand for salt fish increased during the Napoleonic Wars. Family names first recorded in the community in those years include Mesh, Yetman, Penney and Moss (of English origin) and Byrne, Carew and Ducey (from Ireland). By the first Census in 1836 there were 296 residents, making Keels one of the larger communities in Newfoundland. In 1845 there were 450 people at Keels and nearby Castle Cove. The present-day community is clustered around Keels Cove, which is encumbered by rocks and best suited for small craft. However, Castle Cove, of which Keels Cove is the southeastern extremity, offers space for larger vessels. In 1845 there were nine schooners recorded at Keels and Castle Cove, which had begun to play an important role in the development of the Labrador fishery. There were also two schools and a Church of England church recorded in that year. In 1869 there were 518 inhabitants at Keels and 72 at Castle Cove. Lumbering "up the bay" had assumed increased importance, with most families at Keels and virtually all at Castle Cove getting at least part of their income from it. While little is known of the heyday of Keels, it would appear that its prosperity was based on the opening up of lumbering in southern Bonavista Bay and on the construction of schooners by residents supplied by the major traders, Barnabas Moss at Keels and James Pitts at Castle Cove. The 1874 Census


Keels, 1990

shows a marked drop in population - to 450 for the two communities. This striking decline over five years may be traced to a decision by many families to leave overcrowded conditions at Keels and move permanently to their winter quarters up the bay (especially give·n that many were involved in the Labrador fishery and :Keels' barren headland location was no longer an advamtage). Communities which received a substantial influtx of settlers from Keels include Jamestown, St. Brendan's and Happy Adventure qqv. Meanwhile, Castle Cove had its population halved between 1869 and 1874 and was abandoned by 1884. Mos t family names of Castle Cove are now found at Canming's Cove qv (Penney, Pitts and Chatman), or Bloo·mfield and Clade Sound (Peddle). After the lumbering boom of the 1860s the population 10f Keels remained static at about 450 people and it apiPears that the community lost ground to King's Cove qv as an entrepreneurial centre and base for the Labnador fishery. At the turn of the century (according to Mcr:Alpine Newfoundland Directory), Keels was one of few communities in Newfoundland to boast a hotel, whiclh catered to the personnel of a slate quarry on Keels Point - there is, however, no further record of slate being exported from Keels. The decline of Keels to a small inshore fishing village was a gradual one. The lbuilding of the Newfoundland Railway in 1893 drew settlers up the bay, as did construction of the Bona-vista branch in 1911. A dramatic drop in population lbetween 1935 and 1945 (from 372 to 283) occurred in part because of a fire in 1934 that burned 22 houses and the Church of England school. After Confedenation people continued to leave to find work elsewhere and by 1990 the community had less than 20% of its former population. Edward Feild (1847), M.F. HowLey (191 0), Kevin Major (1979), E.R. Seary

(1977), H.A. Wood (1952), Census (1836-1986), Lovell's Newfoundland Directory (1871), McAlpine's Newfoundland Directory (1898). RHC

KEEN, WILLIAM ( ?-1754). Magistrate. Born Boston, Massachusetts. Ke~ was a merchant at St. John's and Greenspond in the early 1700s. Like many Newfoundland residents, he spent much time fruitlessly arguing with the British Board of Trade for a year-round system of justice on the Island. Keen's concern about the prevailing lawlessness even led him to apprehend capital offenders and send them, at his own expense, to England for trial. In 1723 Keen and several others tried to organize a local government to administer justice. This effort met with little success, but when Henry Osborne became Newfoundland's first governor in 1729 he appointed Keen justice of the peace. Keen was later made Naval Officer, Health Officer, Prize Officer and the first judge of the vice-admiralty court. He remained magistrate almost until his death and many Newfoundland governors over the years came to rely on his experience and advice in local judicial matters. In the early 1750s Keen was brutally murdered by a group of nine Irish fishermen and soldiers in the course of a robbery. The killers were later captured and found guilty by the new court, which Keen himself had worked so hard to establish. Many St. John's residents were alarmed by Keen's murder, fearing it was the beginning of trouble from the Irish who were migrating to Newfoundland in large numbers at the time. R.G. Lounsbury (1934), Charles Pedley (1863), D.W. Prowse (1895), F.W. Rowe (1981), DCB III, DNLB (1990). EMD/CSK KELLAND, OTTO P. (1904- ). Author. Born Lamaline. Educated Lamaline. Father of O.P. James Kelland

KELLIGREW, WILLIAM 161 qv. In 1924 Kelland joined . the Newfoundland Constabulary and in 1939 became the superintendent of Her Majesty's Penitentiary in St. John's, where he remained until his retirement in 1966. He then joined the staff of the Fisheries College for ten years as a model shipbuilder. Kelland is the composer of one of Newfoundland's best-known folk songs, "Let Me Fish off Cape St. Mary's" (1947). He also wrote five books: Anchor Watch: Newfoundland Stories in Verse (1960), Dories and Dorymen (1984 ), Newfoundland Stories and Verse : Strange and Curious (1986), Beautiful Ladies of the Atlantic (1987}, and Bow Wave (1988). Kelland became an expert model boat builder, especially of dories and schooners. His models have been displayed in various centres across North America. DNLB (1990), ET(May 30, 1987). BWC

KELLAND, OTTO PAUL JAMES. (1933- ). Politician. Born St. John's, son of Otto Kelland qv. Educated Bishop Feild College, St. John's Vocational Institute. Jim Kelland was elected Liberal MHA for Naskaupi in 1985 and was appointed to cabinet when Premier Clyde K. Wells formed an administration in 1989. Kelland was employed in the communica~ions industry for 25 years as a radio operator and administrator. He entered public life in 197 4, becoming the first mayor of the amalgamated town of Happy ValleyGoose Bay. Kelland served as mayor of the town until 1983 and entered provincial politics in 1985. He was a member of the Public Accounts Committee after 1988 and was appointed Minister of the Environment and Minister respon- - • sible for Wildlife and Parks James Kelland upon the formation of a Liberal government the following year. In June of 1991 be resigned from cabinet. Jim Kelland (letter, July 1990}, Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Jim Kelland). JJH

Hutchinson (1864), D.W. Prowse (1895), Newfoundlander (July 12, 1878). PANG

KELLIGREWS. Since 1971 Kelligrews has been part of the incorporated community of Conception Bay South qv. Local tradition associates the name with a seventeenth-century pirate, Captain Kelly (see KELLY'S ISLAND), surmising that it is a corruption of Kelly's Grove. However, some scholars have suggested that the community takes its name from Kelligrew's Point, after a Conception Bay merchant family. Although a few fishing families settled c.1800, the area did not have a substantial permanent population before the 1820s, with the arrival of families from older fishing comrtlunities (especially Port de Grave qv), some of whom had had gardens in the area. There was a William Kelligrew in Port de Grave as early as 1760. Among the first settlers of Kelligrews were families named Anthony, Dawe, Dwyer, Hibbs, LeDrew, Nugent, Tilley and Walsh. The community was first recorded in the Census in 1845, with a population of 78. The relatively late date of settlement is accounted for by the fact that southeast Conception Bay was remote from most inshore fishing grounds and did not have a good harbour. By the 1840s, however, Kelligrews was connected by road with St. John's and between 1845 and 1857 the population nearly doubled. From 1884 there was also a rail connection with St. John's and Harbour Grace.

Kelligrew's Point

KELLIGREW, WILLIAM (1813-1878). Merchant. Born Peignton, Devon. Kelligrew (also spelled Killigrew and Kellegrew) came to Newfoundland in 1824 with his father John, later a partner in the firm of Goodridge & Kellegrew. Within a decade of his father's death in 1853, Kelligrew had established his own small importing firm on Water Street. He was elected to the House of Assembly as Liberal member for Twillingate and Fogo in 187 4. In 1877, along with W.V. Whiteway, W.J.S. Donnelley qqv and several prominent merchants, Kelligrew was active in the preparation of Newfoundland's successful claim for reparations submitted to the Halifax Commission on the Washington Treaty. Devine and O'Mara (1900), T.

In 1891 there were about 300 people at Kelligrews, most of whom were farmers. A factor which contributed to the growth of the community was the beginning of iron mining on Bell Island qv in 1894. (An early miners' strike was settled at a local hotel on July 23, 1901, with an agreement known as the "Treaty of Kelligrews.") By 1907 Kelligrews station served as the railhead for Conception Bay residents who worked in the mines, and there were two steamers on the crossing to Bell Island. Kelligrews is probably best known to many Newfoundlanders for the song "The Kelligrews Soiree," written by Johnny Burke qv. The song is about a fall

162 KELLOW AY, SIMEON festival that has been held annually in the community since the early days of settlement. With few exceptions, most of the "local characters" mentioned in the song were residents of St. John's, as was Burke. Although the nearby resorts of Topsail and Manuels were considered somewhat more fashionable, after the rail connection with St. John's was established Kelligrews became a popular area for summer recreation for city residents- "the usual end of half-holiday excursions from town" (Browne). After Confederation Kelligrews became less a farming community than a residential area for people commuting to St. John's. By 1961 there were more than 1,000 people, with growth occurring mainly along the Conception Bay Highway in housing developments situated on former farmland or in previously undeveloped areas south of the Highway. W.J. Browne (NQ, Spring 1935), Jack Fitzgerald (1974), W.G. Handcock (1979), Hochwald and Smith (1988), Horwood and Butts (1984), M.F. Howley (NQ, Nov. 1935), E.R. Seary (1971; 1977), H.F. Shortis (NQ, Dec. 1915), Conception Bay South Municipal Plan (1984 ).

traditionally identified as the leader of the great sealers' strike of 1902. Kelloway spent his first spring at the ice when he was 10 years old. He fished at the Labrador and was one of the first to settle the mainland adjacent to Pool's Island, Badger's Quay. In March of 1902 he and two young sealers from Conception Bay, Albert Mercer and Robert Hall, led a strike by 3,000 sealers in St. John's, protesting a rumoured decrease in the price that the men would be paid for seals and demanding that the practice of vessel owners charging the men "berth money" be stopped. The strike lasted from March 8 to March 12 and was eventually settled on terms favourable to the sealers, who had the assistance of lawyer and politician Alfred B. Morine qv in negotiations with the shipowners. Kelloway died of heart failure the following fall. His early death is likely one of the reasons that he is regarded as having led the strike, which was commemorated in two songs by Johnny Burke qv. L.G. Chafe (1923), Aubrey Kelloway (interview, Sept. 1989), DNLB (1990), Evening Herald (Mar. 6-12, 1902). RHC


KELLOWAY, SIMEON (1858-1903). Born Pool's Island. Married Clara Jane Jeans. Kelloway (or Calloway) was a fisherman of Badger's Quay who is

KELLY, BREN (1953- ). Athlete. Born St. John's, son of Ignatius and Helen (Reelis) Kelly. Educated Brother Rice School; Memorial University. Married Janet Horwood. At the official opening ceremonies of the 1977 Canada Summer Games in St. John's, Kelly

A. B. Morine addressing the sealers during the Great Sealers' Strike, 1902

KELLY, TERRY 163 ran one lap of the Summer Games Park to thunderous applause in recognition of his cross-Canada run marking the first staging of the Games in Newfoundland. When he began his run in Vancouver in April, Kelly was an assistant store manager for Dominion Supermarkets. Too young to participate in the previous Summer Games and too old for the 1977 games, the cross-Canada run was his way of participating. Following the run, Kelly completed a physical education degree at Memorial University and from 1984 to 1987 taught at Norris Arm. In 1990 he was living in St. John's, where he operated two small businesses. Janet Horwood (interview, Oct. 1990), Sunday Express (July 19, 1987). BWC

Mercy Convent, St. John's; Convent of the Sacred Heart schools, Montreal and Halifax; Memorial University. Married Paul Kelly. Kelly opened Auntie Crae's, a specialty food shop in St. John's, in 1977. In 1978 Auntie Crae's- named after a great aunt, Elizabeth McCrae, who operated a corner store on Water Street- moved to Churchill Square, and a bakery and coffee roastery was opened in St. Phillips in 1990. Kelly has long been involved in the promotion of small business, including work with the funds committee of the YM- YWCA Enterprise Centre, the Business Development Centre for the Northeast Avalon, and the Churchill Square Business Improvement Area board. Janet Kelly (Interview, July 1991). CSK

KELLY, JAMES BUTLER KNILL (1832-1907). Clergyman. Born Standish, England. Educated privately; Cambridge. Kelly was ordained deacon of the Church of England in 1855 and priest in 1856. In 1864 he came to Newfoundland following an appeal by Bishop Edward Feild qv and was appointed incumbent of St. John's and archdeacon of Newfoundland, in which capacities he served until 1867. In 1867 on Bishop Feild's recom, mendation he was appointed the first coadjutor bishop of Newfoundland, with the right of succession to the see (which occurred on Feild's death in 1876). But the next year he returned to England, where Bishop Kelly he held various posts until he was enthroned as Bishop of Moray Ross and Caithness in Scotland in 1886. In 1901 he was elected Primus of Scotland. C.H. Mockridge (1896), O.R. Rowley (1928), E of C.N. (1949). ROBERT WELLS

KELLY, MICHAEL JOHN (1815-1890). Politician; school inspector. Born St. John's, son of Gilbert and Margaret (Knee) Kelly. Married Bridget Doohan (alt. Droohan). Kelly served as a member of the first House of Assembly under Responsible Government and was also the first Roman Catholic school inspector in Newfoundland. Elected as a Liberal MHA from Placentia-St. Mary's in 1855, Kelly served as acting Colonial Secretary for two months in 1857. In the same year, he served as honorary magistrate of the French Shore from Cape Ray to Quirpon, as Placentia representative for the Roman Catholic board of education, and as acting fisheries superintendent. When the Act for the Encouragement of Education was passed in 1858, Kelly became the first Roman Catholic school inspector for Newfoundland. Resigning his seat in the Assembly, Kelly spent the next 21 years visiting schools and reporting on the sad state of local education. Decrying the "apathetic indifference exhibited ... by the people to everything connected with education" (cited in DCB XI), he advocated establishing libraries in the main schools and offering awards to dedicated students. Kelly retired in 1879 and was succeeded by Maurice Fenlon qv. Gertrude Gunn (1966), DCB XI, DNLB (1990). CSK

Janet Kelly

KELLY (nee MCGRATH), JANET (1940- ). Entrepreneur. Born Harbour Grace, daughter of Anita (Kearney) and James M.F. McGrath qv. Educated

KELLY, TERRY (1955- ). Musician. Born St. John's, son of Desmond and Josephine (Penney) Kelly. Educated St. John's; Sir Frederick Fraser School for the Blind, Halifax; Queen Elizabeth High School, Halifax; St. Mary's University. After moving to Nova Scotia at the age of seven, Kelly and several visually impaired schoolmates formed a country and western band, and performed throughout the Atlantic provinces and Ontario. On the Move, his first solo album, hit the Newfoundland charts twice in 1984. His second album, Face to Face, was released in 1986. By 1991 Kelly had also Terry Kelly made guest appearances on

164 KELLY'S ISLAND shows, including Atlantic Airwaves, Live it Up and Ryan's Fancy. In addition to his musical career, Kelly was a track athlete, becoming the third blind man to run a mile in less then 5 minutes, and earning a place on the Canadian Olympic team by placing first in the 1500-metre class "A" (completely sightless) trials. Josephine Kelly (interview, June 1991), Terry Kelly (interview, July 1991), Tony Kelly (interview, July 1991), Atlantic Advocate (Nov. 1980), Newfoundland Herald (Jan. 12, 1985), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Terry Kelly). CSK

KELLY'S ISLAND. An island located in Conception Bay, south of Bell Island qv. In 1990 the 3 km 2 island was occasionally visited by picnickers and used as summer pasture for sheep. Tradition has it that Kelly's Island took its name from a seventeenth-century Cornish pirate who used the island as a rendezvous point. Captain Kelly is also said to have buried treasure on the island and local tradition has it that the treasure was located by unknown visitors in 1920. During the late nineteenth century Kelly's Island was inhabited and a 1706 census of Conception Bay noted the presence of residents engaged in fishing and farming. It is likely, however, that these early inhabitants had taken temporary refuge on the island to avoid the French and that the island afterward remained uninhabited for some years. Charles Butler of Port de Grave had been granted land on the island in the early 1800s, but when Bishop Michael Fleming oversaw quarrying on Kelly's Island in 1839, he and his men built rough huts for shelter. It appears that for many years Kelly's Island was used as a source of wood by families from Port de Grave and was settled by families from that community. The Census of 1874 recorded 23 people. In 1901, the last year in which a resident population was recorded, the population was 26. The last resident is said to have been Sam Bussey, who moved to Foxtrap in 1932.

Kelly's /sland,from a hydrographic chart

Kelly's Island continued to be frequented by fishermen from the Port de Grave area, who set nets around the island and carne in winter to cut wood. Sandstone was also quarried on the island in the 1800s, with some Kelly's Island stone being used in the construe-

tion of the Basilica of St. John the Baptist, the courthouse at St. John's, and the Harbour Grace courthouse. In 1989 island stone was used to construct a monument commemorating Villa Nova orphanage at Manuels. A Toronto resident in 1989 offered to sell 120 acres of the island for $1.2 million, claiming that her grandfather had purchased the land in 1887. Sam Bussey (interview, Dec. 1990), L.E.F. English (1988), Hochwald and Smith (1988), Census (1836-1921 ), ET (Oct. 27, 1989), Program for the Villa Nova Monument Unveiling (Sept. 1989), Rounder (Vol. 7 #1, 1981 ). GEORGE CORBETT

KELP. See SEAWEEDS. KELSON, WILLIAM (1782-1866). Businessman. Born Hereford, England. Coming to Newfoundland around 1805, Kelson fished ,jff:. at Labrador for several years before becoming a clerk for the firm of Robert Slade in Trinity. In 1809, a year after joining the firm, Kelson was made agent and remained in that position until retirement. Although he was never a partner, the firm operated under the name Slade and Kelson in 1822. In 1838 the name was William Kelson changed to "Executors of the late Robert Slade Sr." During his years in Trinity Kelson served on social committees and participated in activities such as building a church, school and courthouse. In 1822 he was made a magistrate, and sometimes acted as coroner. Kelson retired in 1851 because of ill health and died 15 years later. N.C. Crewe (1963; 1964), W.G. Handcock (1981), H.F. Shortis (vol. V: 491). EMD/CSK KEMP, THOMAS P. ( 1880-1964 ). Merchant; shipwright; ferry operator. Born Jerseyside, son of Lucy (Connors) and Patrick Kemp. Married Mary Smith. A grandson of Irishman Patrick Kemp, who began the ferry service across the Placentia Gut in 1850 with the Black Punt, Thomas Kemp was the founder of one of the largest fishery firms in Placentia Bay. Becoming manager of the Rosiru Whaling Company at Merasheen Island in 1902, Kemp later served as director of Job's fish plant at Argentia and continued in this position when the plant was taken over by an English company, G .C. Fearn and Son Ltd., in 1913. When Fearn returned to England soon after, Kemp took control of the operation as T.P. Kemp and Co. in partnership with his three brothers, Jack, Jim and Patrick. The firm's involvement in the fishing, boatbuilding and ferrying industries soon provided employment for up to 200 people. After the failure of T.P. Kemp and Co. in the 1920s, Kemp resumed his business as a boat builder. Kemp's daughter, Alice, was the only person of that name in Jerseyside in

KENEMICH 165 1991. Alice Kemp (interview, Feb. 1990), ET (Aug. 17, 1962; March 7, 1983). CSK

KEMPTHORNE, THOMAS (1677-1736). Naval captain ; commodore. Born in England, Kempthorne was a captain in the Royal Navy when, in 1715, he was appointed commodore of the fishing convoy which sailed yearly to Newfoundland. In response to petitions from people concerned about the lawlessness characterizing the Island, Kempthorne was asked to report on the state of the fishery's operation and to note any deviations from the Newfoundland Act of 1699. Kempthorne's brief stay in Newfoundland from July 8 to October 15, 1715 was enough to convince him of the greed and iniquity of the fishing admirals. Asserting that they complied with laws only when a man-ofwar was present and that the winter months provided a "respite from all observance of law or government" (DCB //), he recommended the appointment of a British authority on the Island year-round, but it was not until 1729 that a governor was appointed. R .G . Lounsbury (1934), DCB //. EMD/CSK KENDALL, JOHN WILLIAM (1877-1964). Businessman. Born Pass Island, Hermitage Bay, son of Robert and Harriet Kendall. Married Elizabeth Roberts . Kendall founded the community of Morrisville qv, Bay d' Espoir in 1914 and for the next 25 years was that community's leading citizen.

John Kendall (right) conducting a burial service

A sawmill owner, along with his brothers Albert and James, Kendall also operated a shipyard. He was to build over a hundred boats, the largest of which was the 91-ton schooner Gladys Bullion. He also had a church erected, and, when no clergyman was available, performed such ceremonies as burials and christenings. He operated the sawmill until 1950, when his son Karl took over. Kendall died at Morrisville on July 11, 1964. Lloyd Kendall (interview, 1991), Eric B. Legge (1972), Ross Strickland (1973). BWC

KENEMICH (pop. 1945, 12). Located in central Labrador approximately 25 km across Hamilton Inlet from North West River qv, for part of its history Kenemich

had a year-round population, but by 1990 had reverted to use as a summer salmon station. The station takes its name from the Kenemich River, which empties into Carter Basin. It was one of the sites in Hamilton Inlet first inhabited by Europeans, providing access to a salmon fishery at the mouth of the Kenemich and to the Kenamu River to the south.

At Kenemich (1-r, Rev. Lester Burry, Malcolm McLean, Mrs. McLean, Mrs. Burry)

The salmon station at Kenemich was established c. 1808 by J. Bird and Co. of Sturminster Newton, Dorset, which had premises at Forteau. "Kinnamus Brook" was visited by the first court of civil jurisdiction in Labrador, when there was a dispute between Bird's company and J.O. Brunet and Co. of Quebec over the salmon fishery. This early case was later of some importance in the *Labrador Boundary Dispute qv. In 1837 the Hudson ' s Bay Company qv established a post at North West River, purchasing both the Kenemich station and a winter house across the Inlet at Sebaskachu from Bird's agent for £40. The HBC continued to fish for salmon and established a subpost, as the Kenemich and Kenamu provided access to an important trapping area in the Mealy Mountains. In the 1860s the Company began canning salmon at Kenemich, bringing in as many as 10 "tinmen" each summer to run the cannery. In 187 4 12,000 tins were produced, but the cannery was closed two years later. In 1875 an HBC employee, Malcolm McLean qv, built a winter house at Kenemich and took charge of the sub-post. By the 1880s he was running the establishment independently, living with his family at the mouth of Carter Basin, which came to be known as McLean's Point. The McLeans also did some gardening at Kenemich and kept livestock, including "the only cow in Hamilton Inlet." In 1901 Kenemich had a population of 11 - the McLeans - who were engaged in trapping, small farming and the salmon fishery. In 1901 the Grand River Lumber Co. established a logging operation and sawmill at Carter Basin and the community was renamed Gillisport, after the company's manager. In 1921 five families were recorded at Gillisport and Kenemich River, with a total

166 KENNEDY, MICHAEL J. population of 23. By this time, however, the lumbering operation had already passed its peak, as in 1906 the Quebec government sent a ship to Gillisport, claiming that the lumber had been cut on Canadian territory. The mill closed in 1910, although for some years the McLeans were paid to cut 5,000 cords each year to retain the company's timber rights. By the 1930s neither salmon nor furs were as plentiful or as lucrative a business as formerly, while after 1942 wage employment was increasingly available at the Goose Bay air base. In 1945, therefore, there were only 12 inhabitants and soon Kenemich reverted to summer occupancy only, as the remaining residents joined other family members who had earlier moved to Mud Lake, North West River and Happy ValleyGoose Bay. In 1990 Kenemich was used as a summer residence for the salmon fishery by a single family of McLeans from North West River. A.B. Dyke (1973), Austin McLean (interview, Oct. 1990), E.M. Plaice (1990), V.R. Taylor (1985), Census (1901-1945), Archives (P4/17). RHC KENNEDY, MICHAEL J. (1858-1917). Building contractor; politician. Born St. John's. As a young man Kennedy worked as a plasterer in his father's employ. In 1892 he started, in partnership with his brother, theM. and E. Kennedy construction firm. The two contributed much to rebuilding St. John's after the Great Fire of that year, their construction work on public buildings including the General Hospital, the LunaM.J. Kennedy tic Asylum and St. Bon's School. Kennedy entered politics in 1902, winning election to the St. John's municipal council and returning for a second term in 1906. He won a seat in the House of Assembly as a member of Edward P. Morris's qv People's Party, successfully contesting the district of St. John's West in the 1908 election. Re-elected in 1909 and again in 1913, Kennedy did not live to complete his final term. Melvin Baker ( 1976), H.M. Mosdell (1923), ET (Jan. 23, 1917), NQ (Sept. 1902; Mar. 1906; Apr. 1917). RHC/CSK KENNEDY, RONALD KELLY (1881-1942). Educator. Born Harbour Grace, son of Charles L. and Frances Kennedy. Educated Harbour Grace Academy; St. Bonaventure's College; University of London. When Memorial University was established in 1949, Kennedy, having been a founding trustee of Memorial University College in 1925, was recognized as one of its founders. Kennedy began teaching in Harbour Grace in 1896 and had been principal of Harbour Grace Academy for 11 years when he was appointed superintendent of

Roman Catholic education for the diocese of Harbour Grace in 1916. Four years later he was appointed superintendent of Catholic education for all of Newfoundland. He was a strong supporter of the efforts of his predecessor, Vincent Burke, to establish an interdenominational college for Newfoundland and played a key role in convincing Archbishop Edward Roche R.K. Kennedy that such an institution would actually ensure the future of a separate Roman Catholic school system. Kennedy's major role in establishing Memorial University College has been somewhat obscured in the acclaim rightly given Levi Curtis, W. W. Blackall and Vincent P. Burke. Malcolm MacLeod (1990; NQ Spring/Summer 1990), Adelphian (Jan. 1943), DNLB (1990), ET (Oct. 3, 1942), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Ronald K. Kennedy). BWC KENNEDY, THOMAS H. (1914-1970). National Convention delegate. Born Harbour Main, son of Marion (Hickey) and P.J. Kennedy. Educated St. Bonaventure's College; St. Francis Xavier University. Married Vivienne Barton. As National Convention delegate for Harbour Main, Kennedy supported Responsible Government. Kennedy served as a wireless operator in the Royal Air Force during World War II, returning to assist in the management of the family general business at Harbour Main. An "affirmed nationalist," he campaigned for Responsible Government in the referenda of 1948, but was not subsequently involved in politics. He was later employed in the radio division of the federal Department of Transportation and Communications in St. John's. M.F. Harrington (letter, March 1990), Mrs. T.H. Kennedy (interview, August 1988). RHC

Kennel Club dog trials

KENNEL CLUB, NEWFOUNDLAND ALL BREED. An organization which promotes interest in purebred

KENT, JOHN 167 dogs, the Newfoundland All Breed Kennel Club was founded in 1966 and has averaged about 100 members. It meets monthly, while obedience and conformation trials are held semi-annually, in May and November. The Kennel Club classifies dogs into seven groups: sporting dogs, hounds, working dogs, terriers, toy dogs, non-sporting dogs, and other breeds. Kennel Club members subscribe to a Breeder's Code of Ethics for the protection of purchasers of purebred dogs. See also DOGS. R.B. Chisholm (interview, Jan. 1991).

auctioneer and commission agent. The success of this enterprise and the opportunities it offered to Irish immigrants likely contributed to Kent's sweeping victory in the election of 1832 as a member of the first House of Assembly established under representative government.


KENT, JAMES MARY (1872-1939). Lawyer; politician; Supreme Court judge. Born St. John's, son of Ellen (Donnelly) and Robert John Kent qv. Educated St. Patrick's Hall; Clongowes Wood Jesuit College, Ireland; Royal University of Ireland. Married Annie Walsh. On returning to Newfoundland from Ireland with a Bachelor of Arts degree, Kent studied law with his father and with Joseph I. Little. He was admitted to the bar around 1893 and went into legal partnership with his brother, John Kent, and later with Martin W. Furlong qv until 1907. He was first elected Liberal MHA for St. John's East in 1904, and in 1907 was appointed Minister of Justice and Attorney General by Sir Robert Bond. Following the defeat of the Liberal party in 1909, Kent practised law in partnership with Richard T. McGrath and also acted in that year as the Newfoundland delegate to Washington in a fisheries dispute. In 1914, when Bond had retired from politics, Kent became leader of the Liberal opposition. Two years later he was appointed to the bench of the Supreme Court. In 1918 he headed the Civil Re-Establishment Committee for rehabilitating discharged veterans. Kent was also vice-president of the Benevolent Irish James Kent Society for many years and a charter member of the Knights of Columbus. G.W.L. Nicholson (1964; 1969), S.J.R. Noel (1971), F.W. Rowe (1980), DNLB (1990), NQ (Sept. 1916), Who's Who in andfrom Newfoundland 1937(1937?). CSK KENT, JOHN (1805-1872). Prime minister. Born Waterford, Ireland. Married Johanna Fleming, sister of Bishop Michael Anthony Fleming qv. Kent was the second person to hold office as Prime Minister of Newfoundland after the granting of Responsible Government in 1855. Immigrating to Newfoundland in the early 1820s, Kent worked initially as a clerk for his uncle, Patrick Morris qv. He later opened a business in partnership with his brother James and by 1830 was an established

John Kent

Almost from the time of his arrival on the Island, Kent had been a supporter of the struggle for representative institutions. But the constitution enacted in 1832 offered him little satisfaction. It was, he argued, only "half-developed" and allowed for too much power to be held by the few delegates who comprised the Upper House. He contended that "in a council nominated by the Governor... oligarchical principles must prevail." Kent was re-elected to the House in 1836 and again in 1837. In 1838 he became involved in an infamous dispute with a local St. John's surgeon, Edward Kielley qv. Having received threats of bodily harm from Kielley, Kent had him arrested for disrespect of the privileges of the Assembly. There followed a lengthy legal battle that eventually set a precedent for privileges allowed to colonial legislative assemblies. When the Governor's Council and the House of Assembly joined in an amalgamated legislature in 1842, Kent was among the 10 members appointed by the Crown and he stayed in the council when the two chambers were separated again in 1848. During the absence of Speaker James Crowdy qv in 1846, Kent also acted as Speaker of the Hous_e. His enthusiasm for responsible government appears to have been well developed by this time. In 1850 he was appointed Collector of Customs, but soon after resigned to devote

168 KENT, ROBERT himself to the campaign for responsible government. Between 1853 and 1855 Kent was again Speaker of the House. In the first election under Responsible Government in 1855, he was returned as a member for St. John's East and was appointed Colonial Secretary in the administration of Philip F. Little. While in this position, Kent accompanied Conservative member Frederick B.T. Carter qv to Canada in 1857 in an effort to garner support against the Anglo-French Convention (see FRENCH SHORE). Little was meanwhile rallying support in London on the same issue with opposition leader Hugh Hoyles. The efforts of Kent, Little and the two Conservative representatives were successful and the Convention was abandoned by the British government. In 1858 Kent succeeded Little (who had been appointed a Supreme Court judge) as Prime Minister and remained in the office until 1861. But times were not as prosperous as they had been during the Little administration, owing to a decline in revenues in 1859 and a failure of the fishery and the potato crop in 1860. The dispensing of poor relief became a controversial issue, resulting in criticism of Kent, even within the Liberal party itself. Indeed his administration was characterized throughout by confrontation. Kent's first major dispute was with the Roman Catholic Bishop of Newfoundland, John T. Mullock qv. The dispute concerned the spending of government funds allocated for the procurement of a steam-powered coastal boat. Under pressure from members of his government, Kent had distributed the money as poor relief to the extreme aggravation of Mullock, who had taken it upon himself to make arrangements for the purchase of the steamer. Mullock charged that the government's promise of steam communication was a "humbug" and described Kent's system of taxation as little more than "legalized robbery." Kent also had a confrontation with Governor Alexander Bannerman in 1861. He publicly accused the Governor of cooperating with judges, the legal profession and the Conservative opposition in trying to defeat a government bill concerning the payment of official salaries. On refusing to explain the charge, Kent and his government were dismissed by Bannerman, who invited opposition leader Hugh Hoyles to form an administration. The Liberals were defeated in the next election. Although Kent initially retained the Liberal leadership, he was eventually succeeded by Ambrose Shea qv. Kent re-entered politics in the depression year of 1865 and was appointed Receiver General in a coalition administration under the leadership of Frederick Carter. Four years later he was a member of a delegation to Ottawa to discuss confederation. Deciding not to run in the election on the confederation issue which followed soon after, Kent retired from politics that year. He died in St. John's three years later. See GOVERNMENT: KENT ADMINISTRATION. F.E.S. Birkenhead (1920), G.E. Gunn (1966), M.F. Harrington (1962), M.F. Howley (1888), R.A. MacKay (1946), S.J.R. Noel (1971), Paul O'Neill (1975; 1976), Charles Pedley

(1863), D.W. Prowse (1895), F.W. Rowe (1980), DCB X, DNLB ( 1990), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (John Kent), Newfoundland Historical Society (John Kent), Provincial Reference Library (John Kent). CSK

KENT, ROBERT (c.1817-1880). Merchant. Born Waterford, Ireland. Brother of John Kent qv. Kent settled in St. John's in the early nineteenth century and opened an import-export business on Water Street (opposite where the Murray Premises stood in 1990). The company was run at times in partnership with other members of the Kent family and became involved in transporting Irish immigrants to Newfoundland in large numbers. Becoming a kind of "mecca" for the newcomers, the business eventually gained such popularity that the area of St. John's harbour in which it was situated (originally Beck's Cove) was renamed "Kent's Cove." Like other members of his family, Robert Kent became involved in local politics and was a member of the legislative council in the 20 years preceding his death. Hiller and Neary (1980), Paul O'Neill (1975; 1976), Belvedere Cemetery Transcriptions (1989), Newfoundland Historical Society (John Kent). CSK KENT, ROBERT JOHN (1835-1893). Lawyer; politician. Born Waterford, Ireland, son of James and Mary (Carigan) Kent. Father of James M. Kent qv. Married Ellen F. Donnelly. Moving to Newfoundland in 1856, Kent worked as a clerk for his uncle John Kent qv before studying law under Hugh W. Hoyles in the early 1860s. On completing his articles in 1864, Kent was admitted to the bar and began practising law in partnership with Joseph I. Little qv. Kent was elected Liberal member for St. John's East in 1873, 1874, 1882 and 1885. He supported the economic policies of the Conservative government, became Speaker of the House of Assembly in 1883 during the administration of William Whiteway, and later succeeded Little as leader of the opposition. But Kent's political career suffered from the government's handling of the Harbour Grace Affray in 1883 (see HARBOUR GRACE: POLITICAL HISTORY). The arrest of 19 Roman Catholics for murder led to sectarian divisions, destroying the Conservative-Liberal coalition led by Whiteway since 1882. Successfully defending several of the accused, Kent withdrew his support for Whiteway, resigned as Speaker of the House, and withdrew from politics in 1885. Kent continued his law practice and was president of the Law Society of Newfoundland between 1888 and . 1893. H.M. Mosdell (1923), DCB XII, DNLB (1990), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Robert John Kent), Newfoundland Historical Society (John Kent). CSK KENT, ROCKWELL (1882-1971). Artist; writer. Born Tarrytown Heights, New York. Kent's love of adventure led him to explore Newfoundland in 1910. Recognizing the Island as a rich source of inspiration, he returned in 1914 to settle with his family in Brigus. But Kent's unconventional lifestyle made him suspect by the community and he characterized himself as "a

KEOUGH, WILLIAM JOSEPH 169 lonely American in this dismal little British colony" (O'Flaherty). Being of Pennsylvanian Dutch extraction, Kent also sported a German-sounding accent and was eventually deported on suspicion of being a spy. Making amends in 1968, Premier J.R. Smallwood invited Kent and his wife to revisit Newfoundland.

A Rockwell Kent drawing of his cottage at Brigus

Kent often illustrated his own writings, including Wilderness ( 1920), North by East ( 1930), and his autobiography It's Me, 0 Lord (1940). His austere and striking artistic works include Winter (Metropolitan Museum) and Toilers of the Sea (Chicago Art Institute). Finding artistic inspiration in all experiences, Kent is believed to have inspired Peter Keen, a character in Margaret Duley's novel The Eyes of the Gull. He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1966. Rockwell Kent (1975), Patrick O'Flaherty (1979), J.R. Smallwood (1978). LER/CSK KENT, WILLIAM RICHARD (1905-1964). Lawyer; politician. Born St. John's, son of W.J. and Elfreda (Tucker) Kent. Educated Bishop Feild College. Married Avis Irene LeMessurier. Kent was the first MP for Humber-St. George's. Kent was admitted to the bar in 1928 and joined the law firm of J.A.W.W. McNeily. He was appointed magistrate for St. George's in 1935, but resigned in 1939 to become solicitor for Bowater's Newfoundland Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd. He remained in that post until 1949, except for the period 1942-1945 when he worked as deputy secretary for the Newfoundland Department of Justice. In the 1949 federal election - the first after Confederation - he was elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal, representing the riding of HumberSt. George's. Kent did not seek re-election in 1953 and was appointed district judge for Humber-St. George's, a post he held until his death. DNLB (1990), Newfoundland Who's Who 1952 (1952). GMW

KEOUGH (nee O'BRIEN), GERTRUDE CLARA (1912). Educator; commissioner. Born Cape Broyle, daughter of James and Julia Ann (Ryan) O'Brien. Educated Cape Broyle; St. Bride's College, Littledale; Memorial University of Newfoundland. Married William J. Keough qv. On March 25, 1971 Keough was the first person to be appointed to the commission implementing the mandate of the new Human Rights Code, an act guided through the House of Assembly by her husband shortly before his death. Gertrude Keough chaired the Human Rights Commission qv until her retirement on September 30, 1981. In May, 1971, she was a member of the Canadian delegation to the United Nations session on the International Bill of Gertrude (O'Brien) Keough Human Rights. Prior to her involvement with the Commission Keough taught at Brigus South, at Lourdes, and on the Burin Peninsula. Gertrude Keough (letter, Mar. 1991), Newfoundland Historical Society (Hon. W.J. Keough). CSK KEOUGH, WILLIAM JOSEPH (1913-1971). Politician. Born St. John's, son of Joseph Patrick Keough and Mary Ellen (King) Keough. Educated St. Patrick's Hall School; St. Bonaventure's College. Married Gertrude Clara O'Brien. An articulate champion of confederation with Canada, he was one of the most influential of J.R. Smallwood's supporters. On completing his education Keough became active in the labour movement and was a co-founder and for a time editor of the Labour Herald. He was a cooperative field worker in St. George's when he was elected a delegate to the National Convention in 1946. His gifts as a speaker made him virtually indispensable to the confederate cause, as he urged delegates and voters to consider the W.J. Keough plight of "the last forgotten fisherman on the Bill of Cape St. George." Smallwood (1973) referred to him as "Perhaps the greatest phrase-maker in Newfoundland's long history." He was selected a member of the delegation sent to England to discuss Newfoundland's political future. Following the 1948 referenda, Smallwood named him to the interim cabinet as Minister of Natural Resources. Representing St. George's-Port au Port until1956 and St. George's until 1971, Keough held successively the portfolios of Fisheries and Cooperatives, Mines and


Iii ~..


Keough delivering a speech, late 1960s

Resources and, finally, Labour. As a minister he oversaw the development of the iron mines in Labrador and the Churchill Falls project, the establishment of provincial parks, and the introduction of legislation concerning collective bargaining in the fishing industry and human rights legislation. Keough was, in Harold Horwood's words, the last of "Joey's angry young men" to remain loyal to Smallwood throughout his term as Premier. When Keough died on March 3, 1971, Smallwood honoured his friend and colleague with a state funeral. "Not many men have I known in this life," Smallwood wrote in I Chose Canada, "with his sincerity, integrity, and high sense of honour." Harold Horwood (1989), J.R. Smallwood (1973, 1975), DNLB (1990), Newfoundland Who's Who ( 1961 ), Newfoundland and Labrador Who's Who Centennial Edition (1968). BWC KEPPEL ISLAND (pop. 1921, 3). A British admiral was Captain James Cook's inspiration for the naming of this island in 1767. Its location within Ingornachoix Bay, near the entrance to Hawkes Bay on the Great Northern Peninsula, necessitated establishment of a lighthouse there in 1901. That same year seven inhabitants (likely the family of C. Pike, lighthouse keeper) were listed, as Keppel Island first appeared in census records. With progress came unmanned navigational lights and after 1921 the island was once again vacant. E.R. Seary (1960), Census (1901-1921), Yearbook (1902). RHC/CSK KERLEY'S HARBOUR (pop. 1961, 27). A resettled fishing community about 10 km southwest of Trinity qv. The community was likely named for an early settler named Kearley (Seary notes a John Kearly as resident in Trinity Bay in 1777), although it appears as Careless Harbour in some records, reflecting the local pronunciation of the name. Kerley's Harbour was occupied on a seasonal basis as an outpost of Trinity from the eighteenth century, but permanent settlement likely dates from the early 1800s: tradition has it that the first settlers were Jacob Miller from Poole, England, and John Miller from Bonaventure. Others who

Homes at Kerley's Harbour

arrived in the early 1800s were the Clarkes, Ivanys and Kings, all common family names of Trinity and Bonaventure. Kerley's Harbour was first recorded in the Census in 1845, with a population of 40. Despite a well-protected harbour, the community . was confined by the surrounding hills with little room for expansion. The peak population recorded for Kerley's Harbour was 90 in 1935, at which time the community relied heavily on the declining Labrador floater fishery. Although the community supported a Church of England school until 1954, it was difficult to keep a teacher and children often had to walk to New Bonaventure, where an Anglican church also served Kerley's Harbour, George's Cove and White Point. Like many other small fishing communities, there was little to keep younger people in Kerley's Harbour after Confederation. Although the community was connected to Trinity by road, the remaining residents decided to resettle in 1963, most moving to the Bonaventures, Trouty or Trinity. In 1990 the road to Kerley's Harbour was a popular trail for visitors to the Trinity area, easily accessible on foot from the Anglican church at New Bonaventure. W.G. Handcock (1989), George King (interview, July 1990), Carl Miller (1984), James Miller (interview, July 1990), E.R. Seary (1977), H.A. Wood (1952), Census (18451966), Lovell's Newfoundland Directory (1871). RHC KEROSENE. See FUEL. KERRIVAN, PETER. See MASTERLESS MEN, SOCIETY OF. KETTLE COVE (pop. 1986, 37). A fishing community located on South Twillingate Island, Kettle (or Kiddie) Cove first appears in the 1911 Census with a population of 38. Prior to this time, small communities on Twillingate Islands were not listed individually, but, as Handcock suggests, most of them were probably settled during the seventeenth century. In 1911 the predominantly Methodist population had already built a school. From then on Kettle Cove's population increased slowly until reaching a high of 77 in 1961 before going into decline. Nine people left


fied him for the Guinness Book of World Records. Inheriting the longevity of his mother (who lived to be 108) Kettle died in Grand Bay at 102 years of age, less than a mile from where he was born. Olive Kettle (letter, June 1982), DNLB (1990), WS (Jan. 28, 1963). LER/CSK

Kettle Cove, 1990

Kettle Cove for St. John's, Bishop's Falls and Gander during the resettlement years. Family names found at Kettle Cove in 1990 were Card, Granville and Hopkins. See TWILLINGATE ISLANDS. W.G. Handcock (1977), Census (1911-1986), Sailing Directions Newfoundland ( 1986), Statistics: Federal-Provincial Resettlement Program (1975). BWC KETTLE, WILSON (1860-1963). Mariner. Born and educated in Grand Bay. In his early years he fished with his father, Captain William Kettle, who had emigrated from Dorset, England. Throughout his long life he became involved in various other enterprises, including work as a diver. Kettle came into this work at 44 years of age quite by accident, when replacing a regular salvage diver who had quit, he proved to be nearly as much at home on the ocean's bottom as on its surface. He was 84 when he made his last dive. Kettle also owned and operated a schooner, the Stanley Henshaw, and took part in the annual seal hunt for 48 springs. Kettle had 13 children by two wives, 65 grandchildren, 201 great- grandchildren, and 305 great-greatgrandchildren. The death of two children left him with 582 living descendants, a figure which in 1970 quali-

Five generations of the Kettle family, on the occasion of Captain Kettle's 1OOth birthday

KEWLEY, ARTHUR EDWARD (1909- ). Clergyman. Born Sarnia, Ontario, son of John James and Rebecca Elizabeth Kewley. Educated Sarnia; University of Western Ontario. Married Esther Fay Kerr. Kewley had been a United Church minister for 34 years when he came to Gower Street United Church, St. John's, in 1965. Minister at Gower Street Church unti11975, he also served as president of the Newfoundland Conference, 1968-69, and on the board of governors of Coughlan College. He was archivist for the Newfoundland Conference from 1974 to 1979. In 1979 he retired to Peterborough, Ontario, but returned to Gower Street United Church on November 11, 1990 to conduct services on the occasion of the church's 175th anniversary. Shirley Anderson (interview, Nov. 1990), Who's Who Newfoundland Silver Anniversary Edition (1975). BWC KIAR'S [KYERS] COVE. See BLACK ISLAND, BAY OF EXPLOITS. KICKHAM, CHARLES (1812-1893). Carpenter. Born Ireland. Working in his youth as a carpenter and a sailor, Kickham later became a contractor and builder. He was a founding member of the Total Abstinence and Benefit Society and served as its first president from 1858 to 1864. In the rnid-1870s he chaired the Benevolent Irish Society's committee for the building of St. Patrick's Hall School and Charles Kickham is credited with playing a major part in bringing the Irish Christian Brothers to Newfoundland. Kickham also helped to found the Daily Colonist in 1886. J.J. Spratt (BN II, 1937), Centennial Volume Benevolent Irish Society of St. Johns (1906), ET (Nov. 29, 1893). PANG/CSK KIELLEY, EDWARD (c.1790-1855). Medical doctor. Born St. John's. Married Amelia Jackson. A district surgeon at St. John's from 1834 to 1838, Kielley was involved in a legal dispute that helped define the powers of British colonial governments. In 1818 Kielley, who had trained as a surgeon in the Royal Navy, joined the staff of the St. John's (Riverhead) hospital. He was appointed surgeon to the jail in 1826 during Governor Thomas Cochrane's administration . His supplanting of William Carson qv as district surgeon of St. John's in 1834 was contrived by Cochrane, who believed that Carson was trying to accomplish his recall as governor. In 1838 Kielley


J.P. Kiely, standing in front of the Nickel

became involved in a notorious dispute with John Kent qv, then a member of the House of Assembly. Kent had publicly criticized the management of the hospital and, in a confrontation on the street, called Kielley a "cormorant" and a "robber of the poor," while Kielley shook his fist in Kent's face and threatened him physically. Kent had Kielley arrested on the charge of breaching the privileges of the House of Assembly. The committee appointed to investigate the matter agreed with Kent's charge, believing that the incident, "if allowed to pass unnoticed, would be a sufficient cause for deterring members acting in the independent manner so necessary for a free assembly" (Prowse). Kielley, refusing to apologize, was imprisoned. Judge George Lilly qv, trying him the next day, ruled that the House had exceeded its powers and Kielley was released. Warrants were then issued by Carson, Speaker of the House, for the arrest of Kielley, Judge Lilly and the High Sheriff, B.G. Garrett. When the case came before the Supreme Court in the fall, the ruling was in favour of Kent and Carson. But in an appeal to the Privy Council in 1841142 the judgement was reversed. An effect of the Council's judgement was to limit the authority of the Newfoundland and other colonial legislatures. Keilley was the first president of the Natives' Society, established in 1840 to protect the rights of landed planters, "because strangers had been sucking the vitals of the country" (Kielley, cited in DCB Dr. Edward Kielley VIII). E.J. Archibald

(1924), G.E. Gunn (1966), M.F. Howley (1888), W.S. MacNutt ( 1965), J. W. M'Coubrey (1838), Paul O'Neill (1975; 1976), Charles Pedley (1863), D.W. Prowse (1895), F. W. Rowe (1980), TCE (1988), DCB VIII, DNLB (1990), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Dr. Edward Kielley). CSK KIELY, JOHN P. (1885-1963). Businessman; entertainer. Born Montreal. Educated La Salle Christian Brothers School, Montreal. While working with a Montreal utilities company, Kiely began singing with the Montreal-based Nickel Theatre and Keith's Theatrical Companies. In 1907 he came to St. John's to perform during intermissions at the Nickel Theatre and took over its management the next year. In 1918 the Nickel and the Crescent, owned by P. Laracy, were the only movie theatres in Newfoundland. In that year Laracy died in the wreck of the Florizel qv. Kiely, also a passenger, survived and eventually took over management of the Crescent. He also later acquired leases to the Casino and York theatres. See THEATRES AND CINEMAS. Cassie Brown (1976), Paul O'Neill (1975), DN (August 23, 1963), Who's Who in and from Newfoundland 1927 (1927). PANG/CSK

KIERANS, THOMAS. (1913- ). Engineer. Born Montreal, son of Thomas and Margaret Kierans. Educated McGill University. Kierans is perhaps best known in Newfoundland for his proposals for the development of St. John's harbour. Beginning in 1933 Kierans worked as a miner, foreman and mine safety engineer in Quebec and Ontario. He first came to Newfoundland in 1960 as a mining equipment sales executive and was later a hydro power development engineer at Churchill Falls. In 1973 Kierans was appointed professor of engineering

KILBRIDE 173 at Memorial University. He retired in 1979 and was for one year director of the Alexander Graham Bell Institute of the College of Cape Breton. After returning to Newfoundland in 1980 Kierans promoted the idea of tunnels and canals to develop St. John's harbour, through the Southside Hills Corporation (SOHILCO), which he helped found in 1978, and through an association called Friends of St. John's Harbour, of which he was president in 1990. Thomas Kierans (interview, June 1990), Ron Pumphrey (1983), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Thomas Kierans). JJH

KIGLAPAIT MOUNTAINS. The "dogtoothed" mountains, the most southerly of Labrador's prominent coastal mountain ranges, are located 50 km north of Nain. Their most exposed slopes occur along a 24 km stretch starting in the east near Cape Kiglapait and running west along Snyder Bay. While they are the lowest mountain range in Labrador (900 m), many of their slopes are incredibly jagged and steep. This characteristic has earned the mountains their Inuit name. V. Tanner (1944), EC V, Labrador and Hudson Bay Sailing Directions (1974). PANG/CSK

Ruins of the old Kilbride Church

Kiglapait Harbour

KILBRIDE (pop. 1981, 5014). An agricultural and residential area near St. John's. In 1990 Kilbride was the largest unincorporated community in the Province. It came under the jurisdiction ofthe St. John's Metropolitan Area Board and was dependent on the city for educational, church and recreational facilities. The name Kilbride (Cill-Bhrigde, Bridget's Church) is a common Irish place name and was perhaps first applied to the area after Bishop J.T. Mullock consecrated a church of that name in 1863 - although Kilbride Falls (just outside the boundaries of Bowring Park) may have had this name before the church was erected. Kilbride lies in the valley of the Waterford River, which runs into St. John's harbour. The area contains some of the best agricultural land on the Avalon Peninsula. The earliest settlers likely began farming in the area of Kilbride in the mid-nineteenth century. They were mostly of Irish origin, Census figures for 1874 showing

that the overwhelming majority of the 268 residents were Roman Catholic. Tradition among the Murphys of Kilbride is that the family settled on the Petty Harbour Road c.1840 and that the Walshes later began farming off Bay Bulls Road. Other early families include Aylward, Connolly, Densmore, Dooling, Gorman, McDonald, Purcell, Sinnott, Skanes, Stanley, Tobin and Tracey. Before the 1940s Kilbride was almost exclusively a farming community, selling produce to St. John's merchants and to the Lunatic Asylum (Waterford Hospital) which was established across the River in 1855. After the railway into St. John's was rerouted through the Waterford Valley in 1900, some railway workers lived in the area, as did some hospital employees. The population in 1921 was 431. Most of the children attended schools in St. John's or the Goulds. Kilbride Church was destroyed in a fire c.1900 and the area became part of the parish of Corpus Christi. By 1971 there were more than 2,000 people and the population was still growing. The growth of residential areas came partly as a result of the sale of agricultural land to developers. In 1977 some remaining farmland was protected by the Department of Forests and Agriculture. But by 1990, with few young people taking up farming as a career, Kilbride had more of the character of a modern suburb than an agricultural community. Brian Aylward (interview, July 1990), Jack McDonald (interview, Nov. 1990), D.W. Prowse (1895), E.R. Seary (1971; 1977), Census (1845-1981), Feasibility Report on the Extension of the Boundaries of the City of St. John's (1985), Archives (A-7-1). JAMES WADE


Clayton King attending a customer

KILLICK. A homemade anchor for nets and small boats, crafted by encasing a long stone in a frame of pliant wood strips (or killick rods) bound together at the top. The rods are attached to a base of two sticks (called killick claws) nailed across each other. Colourful use of the term occurs in the Newfoundland phrase "to have a rock in one's killick," which means to be pregnant. Alternate spellings include cillick, kellick and killock. One of the earliest printed uses of the word is seen in Winthrop's The History of New England from 1630-1649: "The wind overblew so much at N.W. as they were forced to come to a killock at twenty fathom." John Winthrop (1825), DNE (1982). LER/CSK

KILLINEK. See CAPE CHIDLEY; MORAVIAN CHURCH. KILPATRICK, ROBERT ?-1741). Church of England missionary. Born England. Kilpatrick was sent out to Trinity in 1730 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The work, especially visiting the more isolated communities of his station, proved to be "very difficult and hazardous" and despite having requested the services of a priest the settlers failed to provide support. Within 16 months Kilpatrick was requesting his "removal from this unpleasant corner of the earth" and in July 1732 was sent to New Windsor, New York. He found the situation there even more inhospitable and by June 1734 was at Placentia, where he remained until returning to Trinity in September. In 1737, having recently married, he was in England conveying a petition to the S.P.G. commending his work and seeking increased financial support. He was granted an increase of £10 and returned to Trinity, where he died on August 19,1741. F.M. Buffett (1939), DCB Ill. BWC

KING, CLAYTON LEROY (1907-1978). Telegrapher; businessman. Born Brigus, son of James and Elizabeth King. King was telegrapher on the S.S. Viking qv on March 15, 1931, when the sealing steamer exploded off the Horse Islands, killing 27 men. Most of what is known about the sinking of the Viking is based on King's account. King was in the stateroom of the Viking when film maker Varrick Frissel qv ordered a crewman to dispose of some flares which were intended to aid the motion picture crew in photographing a foundering iceberg. Minutes later the stern of the ship was blown off. King was grievously injured by the explosion and spent two days on the ice before being rescued. Both his legs were later amputated and he spent four months in hospital. With artificial limbs, he later worked for a time as a door-to-door salesman. In 1935 he published The Viking's Last Cruise (reprinted in volume I of the Book of Newfoundland). He opened a telegraphers' school in 1936 and was later involved in a succession of business ventures in St. John's, including a dry goods store and a radio and television repair shop. From 1965 until his retirement in 1969 he worked as a technician with Canadian Marconi . On his retirement he was given the C.A. Pippy Award as handicapped citizen of the year. Clayton King (1937), DN (Jan. 15, 1970), ET (Jan. 8, 1978), Newfoundland Who's Who 1952 (1952), Newfoundland Historical Society (Viking). RHC KING, EVERARD HOPE (1934- ). Educator. Born New Bonaventure. Educated Catalina; Bishop Feild College; Memorial University; University of London. King taught English in Foxtrap from 1959 to 1963. In 1963, he began doctoral studies at the University of London on a Rothermere Fellowship. He later taught

KING, ROY D.. 175 at the University of Manitoba and at Laurentian University. In 1968 he was appointed to the Department of English and as Associate Director of Junior Studies at Memorial University. He is the author of more than a score of articles on the preRomantic poet James Beattie and in 1977 published a biography, James Beattie. He has been Poetry Editor of the Newfoundland Quarterly qv since 1968. E.H . King (interview, Feb . 1982). DAviD G. PITT

E.H. King

KING GEORGE IV LAKE. This lake in southwestern Newfoundland is one of two source branches of the Exploits River qv. Named by William E. Cormack on his journey across Newfoundland in 1822, it is said to have marked the most southerly range of the Beothuk and the most westerly point of the trans-insular portage route of the Micmac. King George IV Lake is one of the few large Newfoundland lakes not flooded for hydro-electric development or for pulp and paper operations, as the delta where Lloyd's River qv feeds into the lake is an ecological reserve. W.E. Cormack (1928), J.P. Howley (1915), Gerald Penney Associates Ltd. (1987) . FAY PADDOCK KING GEORGE V SEAMEN'S INSTITUTE. See SEAMEN'S INSTITUTE, KING GEORGE V. KING ISLAND (pop. 1986, 107). A fishing community located on the northwest side of.Green Bay. The island fs connected by a short causeway to a point which separates Smith ' s Harbour and Stocking Harbour qqv. There are homes on both the island and the point. Before Confederation King Island was usually officially regarded as part of Stocking Harbour. In more recent times it has occasionally been regarded as a part of Smith's Harbour.

An aerial photograph of King Island, Smith's Harbour at bottom, left

The island (locally known as King's, rather than King, Island) probably takes its name from Jacob King. According to family tradition, Jacob was a Welsh blacksmith who moved to the island from Harbour Breton c.1830- which would make King Island the likely choice for the earliest permanent settlement in Green Bay. Levi Shiner came to King Island from Nippers Harbour during the 1840s, about the time that King moved to nearby Northwest Arm (Burlington qv), and for the next 100 years virtually every inhabitant of King Island bore the Shiner surname. The community first appears in the Census in 1869 with a population of two, likely Levi Shiner and his son Thomas. The Shiners of King Island were engaged in the inshore fishery and in fairly extensive gardening . In 1921 there were four families of Shiners, numbering 20 people. At an early date the shallow tickle separating the island and Shiner's Point was bridged, enabling residents to walk to Smith's Harbour and Burlington. By 1990 the majority of the inhabitants of "King's Island" in fact lived on the Point (where there was also a Pentecostal church). Ida Horwood (interview, Oct. 1990), M.C. Rideout (interview, Sept. 1990), E.R. Seary (1977), Census (1869-1986), Archives (A-7-1). RHC KING ISLAND, PLACENTIA BAY. See TACK'S BEACH. KING, RICHARD (1730-1806). Governor. Born Hampshire, England. He began his long and successful Royal Naval career in 1738 and was knighted in 1782 for his services off Madras, India. In the year he served as Governor of Newfoundland ( 1792-1793), the French declared war on Britain and King captured St. Pierre. Sir Richard also relaxed the enforcement of a law which discouraged permanent settlement in Newfoundland by forbidding houses to have indoor chimneys. Paul O'Neill (1976), J .R. Smallwood ( 1967), DNB XI, DNLB Sir Richard King (1990). EMD/CSK KING, ROY D. (1928- ). Pentecostal minister. Born Bishop's Falls. Educated Bishop's Falls; Eastern Pentecostal Bible College, Peterborough, Ontario. King became general superintendent of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Newfoundland in 1980. King entered bible college after his conversion to Pentecostalism in 1949. Entering the ministry in Hant's Harbour in 1952, he was elected general treasurer of the Pentecostal Assemblies two years later and held the position for 26 years, adding duties as editor of the church magazine Good Tidings in 1967. Before his 1980 election as general superintendent of the denomination, King also served as youth and Sunday school director (1956-68), executive director of the Book and

176 KING, WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE Bible House (1963- ), general secretary (1962-78), and assistant general superintendent (1978-80). After 1980 King reorganized the denomination's structure. He also oversaw the enshrinement of Pentecostal denominational education in Newfoundland and Labrador in 1987 and established a Social Concerns Committee and a Family Ministries department to address issues Roy D. King affecting the church. R.D. King (1989), DNLB (1990), Good Tidings (July-Aug. 1980). BURTON K. JANES

KING, WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE (1874-1950). Prime Minister of Canada 1921-30, 1935-48. King was Prime Minister during the negotiations between Canada and supporters of Confederation in Newfoundland and provided J.R. Smallwood with political support leading up to the 1948 referenda on Newfoundland's future form of government. King had been succeeded as Prime Minister by Louis St. Laurent when Newfoundland formally joined Canada, but in 1946-47 had helped to placate opposition to the proposal within cabinet and the Liberal caucus. His support was conditional, however, on the Confederates' winning a referendum in Newfoundland. During the debate within government circles his opinion on the issue was influenced by a personal desire to make a significant contribution to Canadian history. Following a meeting with St. Laurent, King wrote in his dairy on July 18 that he had impressed upon him "the value it would be to my name and to the future to have Newfoundland come into Confederation while I am still Prime Minister" (cited in Gwyn). Following the 1948 vote, King was uneasy about the narrow margin of victory achieved by the Confederates. His decision to honour the vote was influenced by his chief aide, J.W. Pickersgill qv, who reminded King that even he had never received more than 50% of the votes in an election. Richard Gwyn (1968), Harold Horwood (1989), J.R. Smallwood (1973). GMW

permanent settlers were ordered to relinquish to public use all such facilities they had taken possession of since 1685, they were also given ownership of any fishing premises they had constructed for themselves during this time. Although their presence in Newfoundland was only grudgingly accepted, settlers were given, for the first time in the history of the Colony, the right to hold legal title to property. While King William's Act legitimized the authority of the fishing admirals qv, it also provided for appeals to the captains of British warships (or "naval officers") stationed in Newfoundland. Also, by extending jurisdiction over capital crimes committed in Newfoundland to all courts of oyer and terminer in England, the statute attempted to bring local offenders to justice more effectively. But the problems inherent in the act- including the self-interest of fishing admirals and naval officers and the high cost of transporting criminals to England for trial - led to its abrogation in 1824. In that year the Newfoundland Supreme Court was established and the governor was directed to offer land grants and encourage settlement. See JUDICIARY. L.A. Anspach (1819), Rupert Bartlett (1984), Leslie Harris (1968), D.W. Prowse (1895), John Reeves (1793). CSK

KINGFISHERS (Family Alcedinidae). There are 86 known species of kingfisher, but only one of these, the belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon), has been observed in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Belted kingfisher

KING WILLIAM'S ACT. Passed by the English Parliament in 1699, this piece of legislation was known also as the First Newfoundland Act or the Statute of William III. While its primary purpose was "to encourage the Trade to Newfoundland," it was also designed to use the fishery to build a strong naval defence of experienced seamen. To this end, the act specified that summer fishing crews must include "at least one fresh man that never was at sea before, in every five men they carry" (Prowse). Favouring the migratory fishermen, the act also allowed Western adventurers to seize the choice portions of the harbours and to leave their fishing facilities standing throughout the winter. But while

The belted kingfisher is grey-blue above and white underneath and around the neck. The large head, with a ragged double crest, is grey-blue, as are the legs and feet. Both the male and female have a broad, grey-blue band across the breast, but the female has an additional band, which is chestnut in colour and extends down the sides. Belted kingfishers are from 28 to 37 em long and have a wingspread of 53 to 58 em. The kingfisher's rattling cry is long, loud and harsh and can be sounded either when the bird is perched or in flight. Belted kingfishers are common in Newfoundland and Labrador and breed here. Their nests are located at

KING'S COVE 177 the ends of long burrows, excavated by the birds in sandy, clay, or gravel banks. The five to eight eggs, laid in April through July, are small and white. These birds can be found, in spring, summer and fall almost anywhere in Newfoundland - along streams and ponds, on the seacoast, and in estuaries. They have also been observed in many areas on the Labrador coast. As the name implies, the belted kingfisher is primarily a fish-eater and can dive for its prey from up to 15 m. It migrates to the United States and northern South America for the winter months. Like other migratory birds, it is protected by federal law in Canada. Peters and Burleigh (1951), J.K. Terres (1980), W.E.C. Todd (1963), Tuck and Maunder (1975), Birds Protected in Canada under the Migratory Birds Convention Act (1978), EC V. EPS

KINGLETS. See GNATCATCHERS AND KINGLETS. KINGMAN'S (pop. 1971, 94). A fishing settlement on the Southern Shore of the Avalon Peninsula, located on the south side of Fermeuse Harbour.

Kingi1Uln 's

Kingman's, originally known as "Viceadmiralls Cove," appeared in The Journal of James Yonge in the mid-1600s as well as on a map of the same period. The name "Kingman's" is thought to have come from the Dorset surname of an early settler, although it appears that most of the community's pioneers were of Irish birth or descent. While Lovell's Newfoundland Directory does not specify inhabitants of Kingman's in 1871, the listing of Fermeuse qv settlers suggests the surnames Neil (also O'Neill) and Walsh were common in the area at that time. In the early 1900s these family names were still found in Kingman's, as were the names Brennan, Dutton, Harte, Jackman, 0' Shaughnessy, Reddy and Rogers. Kingman's first appeared in the Census as "Kingsman's Cove" in 1911, before which it was enumerated with Fermeuse. In that year the settlement had 149 inhabitants, all Roman Catholics. A small school had been operating in Kingman's since 1860 (excluding a period between 1875 and 1879), with a Miss Coady as the first teacher. After the Kingman's

school closed in the late 1960s, children attended school in Fermeuse, Renews or Ferryland. Kingman's never had its own chapel or graveyard, but was included in the parish of Renews, created in 1835. It was during Father John Walsh's tenure as parish priest of Renews between 1925 and 1930 that the various inhabited coves in Kingman's received their names. Travelling east towards the mouth of the harbour, these included Lance Cove, Blomidon, Trixie's Cove and Black-smith. The last family had moved out of these coves by the late 1950s, leaving only the main part of Kingman's inhabited. The main source of income for Kingman's residents was always the inshore cod fishery. In 1921 only one of the settlement's 106 residents was engaged in work other than fishing. In the mid-twentieth century the people of Kingman's typically shared fishing grounds with others from nearby communities such as Port Kirwan and Riverhead. Most fish was sold to a salt fish plant operating in Renews from the mid-1800s to the late 1970s, or to various other salt and fresh fish plants in Fermeuse and Riverhead. In 1967 Kingman's was included in the incorporated town of Fermeuse. In the early 1970s it began to experience its first steady population decline and by 1990 there were no more than 75 people living there, most of whom were still making their living from the fishery. C. Grant Head (1963), Felix and Judith 0' Shaughnessy (interview, Nov. 1990), E.R. Seary (1971), Census (1911-1971), DA (Apr. 1980), Stacey Collection. CSK

KINGMINGUSE (fi.1776-1792). Angakok (shaman) of the Labrador Inuit. First of his race to be baptized by Moravian Brethren stationed in Labrador. Renouncing his traditional beliefs, Kingminguse was baptized "Peter" on February 19, 1776. At first a model convert, he became a popular curiosity among the local Inuit, and as the tribe lost interest in him Kingminguse began to experience the difficulties of ideological solitude. Within a year of baptism he had begun to relapse into traditional beliefs and in 1783 he renounced his new faith. Returning to N ain in 1785 and enjoying again the respect his position as an angakok commanded, Kingminguse could not be persuaded to rejoin the congregation. Mission records of 1792 last describe him as being "sunk in heathenism" on Nukasusuktok, an island near Nain. W.G. Gosling (1911 ), DCB IV. CSK KING'S COVE (inc. 1966; pop. 1986, 255). A fishing community located in a steep-sided cove on the western side of Blackhead Bay, approximately 20 km by sea southwest of Bonavista. An early fishing station, King's Cove acquired prominence in the early 1800s as the location of the major premises of merchant James MacBraire qv. According to Lawton and Devine, the name of the community may be a corruption of Canning's Cove. Tradition has it that the first permanent settler was an Irishman named Aylward, who originally fished at


King's Cove in the 1920s

nearby Keels. The next arrival was an Englishman named Hancock, who relocated his fishing room from Bonavista. (Lawton and Devine state that the headstone of a Mary Handcock who died in 1784 was still visible in the Church of England cemetery in 1944.) Other early English settlers at King's Cove were families named Green, Saunders, Dicks and Brown. Several Irish families arrived in the late 1700s, including the Ryans, Walshes and Sullivans. In 1804 there were 10 fishing rooms. Three had been acquired by inheritance, the remainder cleared by their present inhabitants. Around the turn of the century, St. John's merchant James MacBraire established his major station at King's Cove. The community boomed during the Napoleonic Wars, up until 1815, when there was a large worldwide demand for salt fish. (Another early trader in fish and seals to base a business at King's Cove was William Brown, a native of Poole, Dorset.) MacBraire apparently encouraged considerable settlement in the early 1800s: by the first Census in 1836 there were 413 people and this may be fewer than the number during the peak of MacBraire's involvement. At that time there were only about 5000 inhabitants in all of Bonavista Bay. One indication of the importance of King's Cove was the election of William Brown as the first Member for Bonavista Bay in 1832. Although King's Cove was originally settled by families from older centres, such as Bonavista and Trinity, the community was one of the few on the northeast coast to attract many of the Irish immigrants that arrived in Newfoundland between 1800 and 1815, apparently through the recruiting efforts of MacBraire. The 1836 Census recorded 283 Roman Catholics at King's Cove and in 1857 there were still 27 people who had been born in Ireland. After leaving Newfoundland in 1817 MacBraire retained his premises in King's Cove and during the 1820s the station produced 16,000-20,000 quintals of fish each year and harvested 4,000-8,000 seals. MacBraire's long-time King's Cove agent, Michael Murphy, died in 1831, MacBraire himself in 1832. The MacBraire firm closed its premises in 1839.

The Roman Catholic parish of King's Cove was the earliest established north of Harbour Grace, with the first resident priest, James Sinnott qv, arriving in 1815. Sinnott originally held mass in a store belonging to MacBraire, but had a chapel built in 1825. The first resident Church of England clergyman arrived in 1838 and a church was constructed early in the incumbency of Rev. Benjamin Smith, who served there from 1841 to 1853. While the early settlers of King's Cove were mostly engaged in the local shore fishery, the merchants also employed a variety of tradesmen and the community became an administrative and religious centre for surrounding communities. MacBraire and Brown were also involved in the spring seal hunt and King's Cove had a reputation for its successful schooner captains. J.W. McGrath believes that this tradition was established by MacBraire in the early 1800s, when he brought several young men to St. John's during the winters for training in navigation. By 1857 there were seven schooners fishing out of King's Cove and Lovell's Newfoundland Directory noted that "most of the fishermen pass the summer at Labrador." Family names in the community at that time included Aylward, Barron, Brown, Carroll, Curtis, Devine, Doyle, Hancock, Hartery, McGrath, Martin, Monks, Murphy, Ryan, Sullivan and Weeks. The Labrador fishery increased in the mid-1800s, supplied by Michael Murphy and Sons (established on MacBraire's old premises in 1845 by a son of the former agent) and by Muon and Carroll from about 1858 to 1868. As an important home port for the Labrador fishery, King's Cove flourished in the 1870s and 1880s and was an attractive enough posting that several clergymen and other professionals made the community their home. A new Church of England church was built c. 1873, under the direction of the Rev. William Kirby qv, who served 49 years in the community from 1859. Beginning in 1874, with the arrival of Dr. Philip Levisconte qv, King's Cove also had a resident medical practitioner. Among the Roman Catholic population, "new life [was] instilled into church affairs" (Lawton and Devine) by William Veitch qv,


King's Cove, 1980s

parish priest 1872-73 and 1875-91. Taking special interest in improving the quality of education, Father Veitch established a lending library. He also had a new Roman Catholic church constructed, begun in 1884. The community earned a reputation for producing a variety of prominent people (including John Devine, GeraldS. Doyle, J.T. Lawton and P.K. Devine qqv), as well as mariners. By the early 1880s the largest mercantile concern in King ' s Cove was James Ryan & Co., a Bonavista firm with an extensive King's Cove branch overseen by Daniel A. Ryan qv, who purchased the former premises of Munn and Carroll. Ryan supplied planters to go up Bonavista Bay to cut timber for Labrador schooners and outfitted crews for the northern fishery. In 1884, 98 men and 26 women went to the Labrador fishery from King's Cove. The heyday of this fishery was, however, short lived. By 1891 only 52 people went to the Labrador, less than half the 1884 number. This sudden decline reflected a general decline in markets for Labrador cured fish, which became more acute in the closing years of the nineteenth century. James Ryan & Co. also became a less dynamic force and concentrated on the local supply trade following losses in the 1890s and the death of the founder in 1917. Although there had been 550 people in King's Cove in 1869, little increase occurred in later years, partly because there was no longer shore space available in the small cove. In 1901 there were 582 residents, but the population declined thereafter. Some people found work in railway construction, in Boston, or in lumbering "up the bay" (where the country had been partially opened up by King ' s Cove residents building Labrador schooners). The decision, taken in 1909, that the Bonavista branch railway would pass through Catalina rather than King's Cove was another blow to the

community's prospects. By 1921 there was only one vessel fishing at the Labrador, the community having become merely a moderately large inshore fishing community. A population of 345 was recorded in 1935. By 1961 the population had shrunk to 201. In 1990 most King's Cove residents were employed in the inshore fishery or found work elsewhere. The community still manifested some evidence of its former prosperity: impressive church buildings and some large houses, once occupied by the local gentry. An abandoned section of the community, east of the Roman Catholic church, also gave evidence that King's Cove had once been a much larger place . Cyril Byrne ed. (1984), W.G. Handcock (1989), Lawton and Devine (1944), J.W. McGrath (1970), H.M. Mosdell (1923), E.R. Seary (1977), J.R . Smallwood (1941), Census (1836-1986), DCB V (James MacBraire), Lovell's Newfoundland Directory (1871), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (King's Cove), Newfoundland Historical Society (King's Cove; James MacBraire). RHC

KING'S COVE (pop. 1956, 18). An abandoned fishing and logging community in Notre Dame Bay on the Green Bay side of the promontory separating Western Arm from Green Bay. King's Cove first appears in the 1857 Census , with a population of 44. The population reached its peak of 51 in 1874. Lovell records six families living in the community: Samuel and William Austry, William England, George Piewood, James and William King. The community name probably comes from the family name, which was common in the area. There is no record of a school or church in the community. In 1956, when King's Cove last showed up in the Census, there were four men in the community, employed as loggers . See HARRY'S HARBOUR. J.R . Smallwood (1941), Baie

180 KING'S POINT Verte Peninsula Regional Study (1960), Census (18571956), Lovell's Newfoundland Directory (1871) . BWC KING'S POINT (inc. 1957; pop. 1986, 923). A community at the head of Southwest Arm in Green Bay, 14 km by road from Springdale. Settlement of the site that became King's Point was predicted by J.P. Howley as early as 1878 because of its nearness to mining interests then being developed on the Baie Verte Peninsula, and its rich soil. According to local tradition, the community, listed in Census records as Southwest Arm before 1911 , was named after a merchant in the early 1900s. The first settlers at Southwest Arm, except for those at the mine sites, were involved in the fishery on a small scale. It is said that the Thistle and Starkes families were among the first to settle in the community. When the community first appeared in the 1884 Census, 13 people lived there, one of them born in the British Colonies. Five more people were reported at nearby Location Mine and another 24 at Colchester Mine (see COPPER). Since then the population has steadily increased, making King's Point the largest community on the east coast of the Baie Verte Peninsula. Bulley's Cove, just to the north of King ' s Point, was first reported separately in Census records in 1921, with 86 residents, but by the 1960s it was again considered part of the larger community. The area's topography, with level land and fertile soil, is unique in a region noted for rugged and unproductive land. Consequently, King's Point became an important agricultural area. By 1891 residents were farming 195 acres. In the 1950s a mixed farming in-

dustry was supplying vegetables to communities all along the northeast coast. The timber reserves around King's Point also provided employment. The 1911 Census reports 16 loggers and one sawmill in the area and by the 1950s Bowater's had also begun to exploit the area' s timber reserves.

King's Point, 1940

Most early settlers of King's Point were members of the Church of England or Methodists, with 10 Roman Catholics reported in the 1884 Census. A Methodist school was recorded in 1901 and by 1911 Church of England and Methodist churches had been built. In the 1970s, however, the Salvation Army, first reported with three adherents in the 1891 Census, made up more than 60% of the population. Principal family names found in King's Point in 1936 were Adams, Bowers, Bridger, Budgell, Burt, Card, Foster, Gillingham, Janes, Matthews, Newbury, Noble, Oxford, Richards, Rideout, Starkes, Strong, Thomas, Thistle, Tilley, Toms, Tucker, White and Yates . Children in 1990 attended Valmount Academy, an all-grade school in the community. See BAlE VERTE PENINSULA. Darrell Budgell (interview, 1990), Wendy Martin (1983), J.R. Smallwood (1941), Baie Verte Regional Study ( 1960), Census (1884-1986), "Church and Community: 'Things to Remember"' (n.d), Newfoundland Directory 1936 (1936), Stacey Collection. BWC

Colchester Mine

KINGSTON (pop. 1986, 149). A fishing community on the Conception Bay North Shore, about 10 km northeast of Carbonear. The community was first listed separately in the 1857 Census as Upper Small Point. It was rename(,i Kingston in the early 1900s in honour of one of its earliest families. In 1857 Upper Small Point had 104 residents, two of whom were born in England and Ireland and all but one of whom were Roman Catholics. The tiny cove had undoubtedly been visited long before as this stretch of shoreline was being heavily fished by the late 1600s, but its earliest known permanent settlers, John King and Timothy O'Leary, were not recorded until 1793 and 1794 respectively. Local tradition

KINSMEN 181 holds that O'Leary may have been the first settler, partly on grounds that his property completely enclosed the inlet's small beach. Other families at Upper Small Point by 1871 (pop. 114) included the Clares, Faleys, Hurleys, Kirbys, Shorts, Southwells and Traverses. While fishing was the main activity, the land could sustain subsistence mixed gardening. Timothy 0' Leary eventually established mercantile premises at Upper and Lower Small Point, and by 1871 Richard and Timothy Headen were trading there. When the community was first listed as Kingston, in the 1921 Census, its population had peaked at 195. But as the local and Labrador fisheries experienced periodic failures many people chose to move to the North American mainland, while some turned to farming or to work in nearby commercial and service centres such as Carbonear, Harbour Grace, and later St. John's. By 1935 Kingston's population had dropped to 129, but gradually rebounded until reaching 159 in 1951. Derrick Atwill (MHG, 41-A-1-37), Brian Murphy (MHG, 41-A-1-38), E.R. Seary (1977), Census (1857-1986). Lovell's Newfoundland Directory (1871). BWC KING WELL (pop. 1966, 108). A resettled fishing community on the west side of Long Island qv, Placentia Bay. Fishing grounds just outside of the harbour in Placentia Bay's Central Channel were good, with only small boats needed to prosecute the inshore cod and herring fishery. Known as Kingwell only since 1921, the community was first recorded in the Census as Mussel (or Muscle) Harbour Arm in 1884. Probably enumerated in previous years with Mussel Harbour (Port Royal qv) to the south, Mussel Harbour Arm had 148 people of the Boutcher, Hann, Miller and other families in 1884, with the surnames Barry and Hayes also becoming common over the next two decades. Although the 1901 Census indicated that the community's Church of England people had claimed the north side of the arm while the Roman Catholics had claimed the south, by 1921 there were no Catholics remaining in the community, which now comprised 155 Church of England people, 10 Methodists, and 52 Salvation Army followers.


While it was the convenience of a lucrative inshore fishery that first attracted settlers to Kingwell, the third and fourth generations had to travel farther to find fish. Larger boats were required and the introduction of cod traps transformed the local fishery from a one-person affair into a cooperative effort. Herring, which had originally been packed in barrels by the fishermen themselves or by "shoremen" (who received a quarter of the boat-owner's catch in return for his help), was thereafter packed on a larger scale by local merchants such as Freeman Wareham in Spencers Cove and Alberto Wareham qv in Harbour Buffett. Lobster was also canned, a Maritime Packers lobster factory employing nearly 50 residents by 1944. By this time Kingwell also had a co-operative society of the kind encouraged in many Placentia Bay communities by the Commission of Government. From a peak of 243 in 1935, the population had dropped to 108 by 1966. Under the centralization program instituted after Confederation, the remaining residents moved to Arnold's Cove, Clarenville, Little Harbour East and other areas. C.F. Ingram (n.d.), F.W. Rowe (1964), Census (1845-1966), DA (Dec. 1974; Oct. 1976; Dec. 1977), Lovell's Newfoundland Directory (1871), McAlpine's Gazetteer (1898), McAlpine's Newfoundland Directory 1904 (1904), Statistics, Federal-Provincial Resettlement Program (1975?). CSK KINNEY, MARY DOLOROSA (1886-1979). Sister of Mercy. Born Newry, County Down, Ireland. Educated Belfast; Leeds. Kinney was the last Irish-born sister to serve in Newfoundland. Entering the Mercy Order at Littledale in 1907, Kinney was professed on April18, 1911. She taught at Littledale for four years before moving to the Mercy Convent school in 1915. In 1931 and 1934 she was superior of the Motherhouse and was a councillor of the governing body (the General Chapter) of the Mercy Order between 1949 and 1955. She was also president of the Children of Mary youth organization for 20 years. She died at Our Lady of Mercy Convent at 92 years of age and was buried in Belvedere Cemetery. Williamina Hogan (1986), DN (Feb. 19, 1979), ET (Feb. 17, 1979), obituary (Feb. 19, 1979: clipping - source unknown). EPK/CSK KINSMEN. On February 20, 1920 Harold A. Rogers and a dozen other men founded the Kinsmen Club of Hamilton, Ontario, the first chapter in the International Association of Kinsmen clubs. In 1939 the first Kinsmen club outside of Canada was formed in Newfoundland by Norman Macleod and Hal Hawkins, two life insurance agents who had been associated with the Kinsmen in Canada. The old Newfoundland chapter was the only Kinsmen club ever established outside of Canada. The Kinsmen, a male organization, are dedicated to the goals of fellowship and service to the community. One of the Newfoundland Kinsmen's earliest programs was to provide funding for hearing- and speech-impaired people to attend special schools in Halifax - a project which expanded so rapidly that it

182 KIPPENS was soon taken over by the Newfoundland government. The Kinsmen also helped to raise money for a national project to provide milk to Britain during World War II, and themselves raised money to send cigarettes to Newfoundland servicemen overseas. "Nuts to you, smokes to them" was the slogan for one venture, in which Kinsmen wives raised money by selling peanuts on the street. Over the years the Kinsmen in Newfoundland have also engaged in fund-raising for local charities and have sponsored such youth groups as the Cadets, Scouts and Guides. In 1948 the Kinsmen Club of St. John's established a camp for underprivileged children in the old naval recuperative camp at Donovans. The St. John's Boys (and later Girls) Club had evolved from this venture by 1960. Membership in Newfoundland peaked at approximately 1600 in almost 50 Kinsmen clubs in the early 1980s. In 1990 there were approximately 45 Kinsmen clubs in Newfoundland, with a total membership of almost 1 ,000. An auxiliary body of Kinsmen wives, the Kinettes, was established in 1942. Newfoundland's first Kinette club was chartered in St. John's in 1958, with Isabelle Goodridge serving as the first president. In conjunction with the Kinsmen, the Kinettes have provided many community services, including fund-raising for the Sick Children's Hospital, the Crippled Children's Fund, the Cancer Fund and the Red Cross. Other community projects have included pre-teen dances, flea markets, Christmas celebrations for senior citizens and the supplying of Christmas hampers to the needy. Originally restricted to wives of Kinsmen, membership in the Kinettes was opened to all women in the mid-1980s. By 1990 there were 31 Kinettes clubs in Newfoundland, with a total of almost 400 members. AI Clouston (interview, Nov. 1990), Fraser Eaton (interview, Nov. 1990), Anne Marie Flemin (interview,

Nov. 1990), ET(Feb. 21, 1987; Nov. 18, 1987), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Kinsmen). CSK

KIPPENS (inc. 1968; pop. 1986, 1556). A fishing, logging and farming community at the bottom of St. George's Bay, near Stephenville. The community was first established behind a long, sandy beach, but settlement has extended along the highway constructed to the Port au Port Peninsula in 1945. The popular local theory for the origin of the name traces it to a Captain Kippen, an Englishman said to have been shipwrecked around the time settlers first arrived in the rnid-1840s. But another theory is that the community was named after an early settler named Keeping. The Micmac from Cape Breton and the Montagnais from Quebec's Lower North Shore were likely among the earliest visitors to the Kippens area, for they were in St. George's Bay at least by the early 1600s (and much earlier according to Micmac tradition). French, and later English, migratory fishermen were frequenting the area by the 1700s, but permanent settlement did not occur until Acadians from Cape Breton began arriving. Local tradition maintains that the first settlers at Kippens were the Doucette family who, after having home and land seized to repay debts, left Cheticamp with their belongings, including several head of cattle. Another early settler was Hughie Campbell, who lived at Kippens before settling at Campbell's Creek in 1854. Other families followed, but when the community first appeared in the Census in 1921 only 30 people lived there. The community had a one-room school by the 1920s, which was later replaced by a five-room school. By 1935 the population had increased to 67. Family names at that time were Alexander, Bourgois, Gabriel, Gaudette, Gaulton, Laney, McLeod, Schumph and White. Early residents fished locall for cod, salmon and

Kippens, 1950s


particularly lobster, while some fished at Cape St. George in the fall and Sandy Point in the spring. Before long, seasonal work was available in the lumber woods , first with local sawmills and later with pulp and paper companies . Supplies were obtained from Nova Scotian traders and distributed by "bay boats." Later supplies were gotten from the local firm of Abbot and Haliburton at nearby Port au Port. The 1945 Census records show that Kippens' population had jumped to 493 as a result of the opening of the Ernest Harmon Air Force Base at Stephenville in 1940-41. Despite the closing of the base in the 1960s, Stephenville remained the major employment and service centre for the community. During the 1960s and 1970s resettlement resulted in large numbers of families from smaller Port au Port Peninsula and Bay St. George communities moving to Kippens, where employment was found in the construction, pulp and paper, and local service industries. Early settlers at Kippens were exclusively Roman Catholic and the denominational makeup of the community has changed little. Most early settlers were French speaking, but partly because the children had to attend English schools, the French culture has survived only with difficulty. Dorothy Anger (1988), John J . Mannion (1977), E.R. Seary (1977), J .R. Smallwood (1941), Carpe Diem: Tempus Fugit (1977) , Census , (1921-1986), Newfoundland Directory 1936 (1936), Newfoundland Herald (Oct. 14, 1989), Seafarer (n.d.), Statistics: Federal-Provincial Resettlement Program (1975), Town of Kippens Newfoundland Municipal Plan (1982-1992) (1982). awe

KIRBY, HUBERT FREDERICK GEORGE DISTIN (1883-1959). Clergyman. Son of Ellen (Shears) and William Kirby qv. Educated King's Cove; Bishop Feild College ; Queen's College. Married Flora LeMessurier. Ordained deacon in 1907, Kirby was appointed curate of the Herring Neck parish and was named incumbent there on becoming a priest the next year. From 1911 to 1915, he was incumbent of Sandwich Bay while posted at Lamaline. Made rector in 1918, he was appointed priest of Trinity East in 1926. In 1934 Kirby became rector of Harbour Grace, where he remained until his retirement in 1946. He was appointed registrar of the Diocese of Newfoundland and appointed diocesan archivist in 1952. Kirby died on August 11, 1959. Cyril Kirby (interview), Fred Kirby (letter), Diocese Archives. CLARENCE B. DEWLING KIRBY, IRIS ELIZABETH (1939-1983). Women's rights activist. Born in Cheshire, England, Kirby moved to Newfoundland in 1949 and later became one of Memorial University' s first Social Work graduates. Employed with the Y.M.C.A. for some time, she joined the department of the Secretary of State in the early 1960s. Through her work on ·the Canadian Association of Social Workers' Task Force on Interspousal Violence, Kirby became involved in the Status of Women councils in Newfoundland.

In recognition of her work, an annual Iris Kirby Memorial Scholarship for female students of Memorial University was established in 1985. Also honouring her memory is *Iris Kirby House qv, a St. John ' s shelter for women experiencing family violence. Cheryl Hebert (interview, July 1990), Michele Holmes (interview, July 1990), ET (Feb. 2, 1983), Women Speak (vol. 3, no. 3; 1985). CSK

Iris Kirby

KIRBY, MICHAEL J. L. (1941- ). Civil servant; politician. Born Montreal, son of John and Monica (Cooper) Kirby. Educated Dalhousie University and Northwestern University: Married Dianne Latham. The son of Newfoundland-born parents, Kirby is best known in the province as author of the 1983 Kirby Report on the Atlantic fisheries. Kirby held various teaching positions from 1965 until 1970, when be became principal assistant to the Premier of Nova Scotia. From 1974 to 1976 he served as assistant principal secretary to Prime Minister Trudeau and later spent four years as president of the Institute for Research on Public Policy. When the Liberals returned to power federally in 1980, Kirby was appointed to a position in FederalProvincial Relations. In 1982 he was appointed to head a task force to examine the problems of the fishing industry in Atlantic Canada. The Kirby report recommended "restructuring" the fresh-frozen fish industry by combining several troubled processing firms under a government-owned "super company." Kirby also acted as federal negotiator during the restructuring, which gave birth to Fishery Products International (FPI). In January 1984 he was appointed to the Senate. Canadian Parliamentary Handbook (1987), Canadian Who's Who 1988 (1988), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Michael Kirby). JJH KIRBY, WILLIAM (1832-1908). Clergyman. Born London, England. Educated St. Andrew's College; Queen's College. Married (1) Amelia Skelton; (2) Ellen Shears. Father of H.F.G. Kirby qv. Kirby was Church of England rector of King ' s Cove qv for almost 50 years. Kirby entered Queen's College in 1854, was ordained deacon in 1858, and was sent to King's Cove as curate in 1858. He was ordained priest in 1860. A "broadminded Englishman, sarcastic and quick at repartee," he also had a working knowledge of pharmacy, keeping and dispensing medicines for minor medical problems before the arrival of Dr. Philip Levisconte qv. Kirby is credited with being the architect of many of the churches along the southern shore of Bonavista Bay, including a fine church at King's Cove. His fa-

184 KIRBY'S COVE. vourite pastimes were trouting and ice skating, while he also maintained a club room at Hancock's store where he provided board games. Kirby had lost o_ne eye in his youth and was eventually forced to r~tue when he suffered a cataract in the other. Rev. F. Kirby (letter, Mar. 1991), Lawton and Devine (1944), Diocesan Magazine (May, 1908). CLARENCE B. DEWLING KIRBY'S COVE. See BURIN. KIRKE, DAVID (c.1597-1654). Colonizer; governor. In 1627 an expedition commanded by Kirke sailed across the Atlantic to expel the French from Canada. In this and another later voyage Kirke successfully captured all French possessions in the country and, on returning to England in 1627, was shocked to find that, with peace between England and France, Charles I had agreed to return all of France's possessions. Kirke was nevertheless knighted for his services in 1633. According to Henry Kirke, Sir David Kirke's first acquaintance with Newfoundland occurred during the 1627 expedition, when he visited the Island bef~re moving on to complete his mission. Impressed wtth the potential of the Newfoundland fishery, Kirke appealed to King Charles I for a land grant in 1637. He and several others were granted the entire Island under various conditions: planters were not to build within 6 miles of the shore, fishing rooms could not be occupied until the summer fishing crews arrived, the settlers could not interfere with the migratory fishermen, and a tax of 5% had to be collected on fish products bought by foreign nationals. In 1638 Kirke moved to Newfoundland with his family and 100 others, taking over the Calvert property at Ferryland qv. Within a year the planters and migratory fishermen complained that he had taken the best fishing rooms for himself and his friends and had opened taverns, with injurious effects on fishermen. The outbreak of civil war in England diverted interest from Newfoundland and, while the war continued, Kirke ruled in Newfoundland without interference. With the end of the civil war, charges were again brought against Kirke. The Puritan Government feared that the well-known Royalist supporter would use Newfoundland as a Royalist base. Kirke was forced to return to England in 1651 and his property at Ferryland was seized by commissioners. Although the charges were never proven and Kirke returned to Newfoundland, he was eventually imprisoned in England following a suit brought against him by Cecil Calvert qv (second Lord Baltimore). It is ~ssu~ed by mo_st historians that Kirke died in an Enghsh pnson early m 1654, although according to Henry Kirke he returned to Newfoundland and died several years later, with his family remaining on the Island after his death. Henry Kirke (1871), R.G. Lounsbury (1934), Keith Matthews (1968), DCB /, Newfoundland Historical Society (Kirke Family). EMD/CSK KIRWAN, MARY BERNARD (1797-1857). Presentation nun; Mother Superior. Born Monivea, Ireland, daughter of Ann and James Kirwan. She was professed

Mother Bernard Kirwan

as Sister Mary Bernard of the Presentation Order in 1826. Recruited with three other nuns from the Galway convent, she became superior of the first order of Presentation nuns to serve in Newfoundland. When Bishop Fleming qv went to Ireland in 1833 looking for recruits to teach in Newfoundland there were no English-speaking orders of nuns in Canada and only two in the United States. Appealing to the Presentation Convent in Galway on June 29 of that year, Fleming found four volunteers. Sister Mary Bernard Kirwan (bursar of the convent in Ireland) was appointed superior and she departed Galway at 4AM on August 12 with Sisters Magdelene O'Shaughnessy, Xaverius Lynch and Xavier Maloney. Arriving in St. John's aboard the Ariel on September 21, the sisters were received by a throng of welcoming townspeople, Catholics and Protestants alike, before being transported to their quarters in the Bishop's residence on Henry Street. Within a month, the Sisters had opened a school in a former tavern ("The Rising Sun") and slaughterhouse, with at least 450 girls. The sisters also used the premises as their living quarters for a short time, but were resettled to a house rented from Archdeacon Edward Wix, where they remained for nine years. The new convent which they moved into in 1844 (along with a newly-completed schoolhouse accommodating 1600 children) was destroyed in the fire of 1846. In 1851 the sisters moved to their new convent (then still under construction) in Cathedral Square. By the rules of the Presentation order, Kirwan was required to step down as superior of the St. John's convent after serving in the position for six years. In 1853 she led a group of four nuns in establishing a

KITCHUSES 185 convent on the southern shore at Admiral's Cove (later renamed Port Kirwan) and was confirmed superior of this convent in 1856. She died at Admiral's Cove less than a year after her appointment. When the parish church building under which Kirwan was buried burned down in 1940, a memorial was placed over her grave in recognition of her dedicated work. Sister Dolores Hall (interview, Aug. 1990), DCB VIII, DNLB (1990), ET (Nov. 7, 1988), Remarkable Women of Newfoundland and Labrador (1976), Centre for Newfoundland Studies (Sister Mary Bernard Kirwan). CSK

KIRWIN, WILLIAM JAMES (1925- ). Professor; linguist; author. Born Newport, Rhode Island. Educated Newport public schools; Bowdoin College; University of Chicago. Between 1952 and 1958, Kirwin taught English at the University of Nebraska and then at Ripon College, Wisconsin. He was appointed to the English Department at Memorial University in 1959 and subsequently played an important part in setting up the first Linguistic Studies program in the Province.

Conservative party and in 1968 was elected provincial president. He was a candidate for the Conservative leadership in 1969, but was defeated by Frank D. Moores and was expelled from the party in 1970. The next year he joined the Liberals and in July became Minister of Education and Youth. Kitchen served as MHA for Harbour Grace 1971-1972 and for St. Hubert Kitchen John's West 1977-1979. Elected president of the provincial Liberal party in 1977, he acted in that capacity for three years. In 1989 Kitchen was elected MHA for St. John's Centre and became Minister of Finance in the government of Premier Clyde Wells qv. Hubert Kitchen (interview, June 1982), P.F. Neary (1971). RHC/CSK

KITCHEN, W.P.H. (1879-1946). Priest. Born St. John's. Educated St. Bonaventure's College; Issy, Paris; University of Louvain, Belgium. Ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1902, Kitchen was afterwards appointed curate of St. Patrick's parish in St. John's. Between 1912 and 1920 he served at St. Joseph's, where he built a church and convent. He returned to St. Patrick's in 1920 and remained there for 12 years until he became an administrator at the Roman Catholic Cathedral and Vicar-General of the archdiocese. The Monitor (Sept. 1946). EPK/CSK

W.J. Kirwin

Kirwin made a major contribution to the promotion of studies in Newfoundland English. From 1968 to 1980 he was editor of RLS: Regional Language Studies . .. Newfoundland, a journal he founded. Kirwin is one of the editors of The Dictionary of Newfoundland English (1982; 1990). He has also written extensively on Newfoundland dialect. W.J. Kirwin (interview, Feb. 1982). DNLB (1990). DAVID G. PITT

KITCHEN, HUBERT W. (1928- ). Educator; politician. Born Buchans. Educated Millertown; McGill University; Memorial University; University of Alberta. In 1949 Kitchen worked briefly with a Montreal accounting firm before returning to Newfoundland to teach. He later began graduate studies in Educational Administration and received a Ph.D. in 1966. Accepting a position with the Department of Educational Administration at Memorial University, Kitchen was appointed department head in 1981. After returning to Newfoundland in 1966 Kitchen also became involved in politics with the Progressive

KITCHUSES. Located on the western side of Gasters Bay, Conception Bay, since 1972 Kitchuses has been part of the incorporated community of Conception Harbour qv. The origin of the name is uncertain. It has been suggested that it is a contraction of Christopher Hughes's (although nobody of that name can be found in records for the area). In 1901 Archbishop M.F. Howley recorded that a local man suggested that the name came from Kate Gushue's, while Seary has suggested that the name may originate in an Indian word for breast, "quitouche," in reference to two hillocks behind the settlement. The area has been settled since at least the late 1700s: residents named Costello and Kenny were recorded in the 1770s, while other families such as Gushue, Kelly, Mansfield, Murphy and Wade were noted by the early 1800s. Kitchuses was first recorded separately in Census records in 1874, with a population of 208, most of whom combined fishing with subsistence farming. It is located on steeply sloping land with poor shelter for boats. Kitchuses men participated in construction of the Harbour Grace railway line in the 1880s, the main line to Port aux Basques in the 1890s, and the branch railways after 1909. In 1921, of the 250 people at Kitchuses, there was only one full-time farmer and a handful of fishermen, while most people worked in the mines at Bell Island or

186 KITTY VITIY North Sydney. In part because of the traditional mobility of its work force, the population of Kitchuses had decliaed to 168 by 1945 and to 144 by 1971 (the last year in which its population was recorded separately). A Roman Catholic community, its residents have attended church and school in Conception Harbour since the 1850s. M.F. Howley (NQ Nov. 1935), E.R. Seary (1971; 1977), Census (1836-1971), List of Electors (1897), Lovell's Newfoundland Directory (1871), Archives (A-7-1). RHC/GEORGE CORBETT KITTY VITTY. See QUID I VIDI.

north Labrador coast for the seasonal summer cod fishery. The Kite was, coincidentally, Captain Bob's first command, in 1901. In charge of 107 men he sailed it into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where at the mouth of the Miramichi River, the crew took 7,000 seals, shooting about 1,200 more almost at the Miramichi breakwater. After a succession of hair-raising adventures, including stranding near Escumiac and striking the river-bottom at Richibucto Bay, the Kite managed to get back to St. John's with about half a load. MICHAEL F. HARRINGTON


Kitty's Brook siding

KITTY'S BROOK (pop. 1945, 14). A railway siding east of Howley, named after a nearby tributary of the Humber River which flows into Sandy Lake. Kitty's Brook first appeared in the 1911 Census when one family of five, no doubt the station manager and his family, resided there. The site, however, was occupied as early as 1903, when an express train was held up there for 17 days by snow. In 1935 the population of Kitty's Brook was 11. Residents included Stanley George, Arthur Peddle and Mundon Smith, all woodsmen. Kitty's Brook appeared in the Census for the last time in 1945, with three families. A.R. Penney (1988), Census (1911, 1935, 1945), DA (Vol. 10, #4). FAY PADDOCK

KITE, S.S. Built in Norway in 1877 and christened Norwegen, this vessel was 280 gross tons. Renamed Kite, it became another in the long list of "wooden walls" going to the seal fishery. First owned by Bowring Brothers Limited, it was operated by that firm until it was sold to the fishing and shipping company Gorton, Pew Fisheries Limited, Gloucester, Massachusetts, to be used in freighting and for other purposes. At one time the Kite was commanded by Captain Will Bartlett, father of the Arctic navigator and explorer, Captain Robert Abram ("Bob") Bartlett qv of Brigus. Captain Will's main association with the Kite was in taking large numbers of east coast fishing crews and their families, floaters and stationers, to the

KIWANIS INTERNATIONAL. When first organized in Detroit by Allan Browne on January 21, 1915, this fraternal service organization was christened "The Supreme Lodge of Benevolent Order of Brothers" or "BOBS." When members later decided to change the unwieldy name, Browne derived the term "Kiwanis" from the Chippewa Indian phrase "Nun-Kee-wannis," suggested by C.M. Burton, a Detroit historian. According to Browne and Burton, the phrase meant "We trade." This being the objective of the early organizers, "Kiwanis" was readily accepted as an appropriate name. It was later believed the phrase actually meant "We have a good time - we make a noise," or that it had no meaning but merely sounded interesting. Kiwanis' introduction to Canada occurred in 1916, when a club (whose first interest was not in trade, but service) was chartered in Hamilton, Ontario. Its members garnered crops, sold Victory Bonds, helped disabled soldiers, and distributed Christmas cheer. This 26th Kiwanis club was the first established outside the United States, giving the organization its international status. But Browne was still the official owner and continued to collect a $10 enrolment fee from each new member. In 1918 Kiwanis members paid Browne $17,500 and became the first large service organization owned entirely by its members. Kiwanis International had expanded rapidly and wanted to avoid any further foreign expansions because of distance, expense, language and communication problems. But after Newfoundland confederated with Canada, a group of Kiwanians from Nova Scotia wasted no time in establishing a charter on the island. Spearheading the group were two former Kiwanians living in St. John's, Earl Holtzman and Grant Jack. They established a charter in St. John's on January 9, 1951. The next evening a club, led by Dr. Walter Templeman and John Brown, was chartered on Bell Island, both clubs beginning with approximately 50 members. Since then nine more clubs have been established in Newfoundland, with a total membership of about 350. The Newfoundland clubs belonged to the Eastern Canada and Caribbean District, which began at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, ran east to St. John's and extended south to the coast of South America. Projects of Kiwanis clubs have included summer camps, sports leagues, housing and transportation initiatives, aid in the war effort, selling of UNICEF


The Kite

cards, delivery of Christmas hampers, and the support of schools and churches. The association is best known in Newfoundland for the music festivals it has sponsored each year since it established the Music Festival Association of Newfoundland in 1951. In the first Music Festival held in 1952, approximately 1400 students participated in competitions and by 1990 there were about 10,000 competitors. The association has also made scholarships and cash awards available to exceptional music students. In 1987 Kiwanis International voted to allow women to join the traditionally male club. Until then, wives of members had to take part in the association as a separate body called "Kiwaniettes." David Peters (1990), F. Rowe (1976), ET (July 10, 1987; Jan. 20, 1990). CSK

KNEE, JOB (1852-1924). Mariner. Born Pool's Island, son of Priscella (Brown) and William Knee qv. Married Esther Kean. Knee was one of the best-known masters of his day, as a sealer and as captain of the coastal steamer Clyde. Knee was involved in the Labrador fishery from an early age and made voyages to the seal hunt under both his future father-in-law, William Kean qv, and (later) his father. In 1889 he made his first voyage to the ice as master of the Bowring's steamer Falcon,

bringing in over 22,000 pelts. He commanded the Falcon at the ice until 1895, when he took Bowring's Algerine. He made the spring voyage to the ice for 24 consecutive years in a variety of commands, after 1905 with A.J. Harvey and Co., and making a particularly notable catch of nearly 35,000 pelts in the Bellaventure in 1910. In 1899 Knee had been recruited by the Reid Newfoundland Co. to take command of one of their new Alphabet Fleet qv of coastal steamers. He remained in command of the Clyde on the Notre Dame Bay run until shortly before his death. Knee took the railway company's Sagona to the ice in 1921 and again in 1922, helping to rescue the crew of the Diana when that vessel became jammed in the ice and sank. His final voyage was made in 1923. L.G. Chafe (1923), Nina Snow (interview, Oct. Job Knee 1990), Rev. M. Waye (letter, Oct. 1990), Naboth Winsor (1988). RHC


KNEE, WILLIAM (1821-1902). Mariner. Born Pool's Island, son of Philip and Jane (Barnes) Knee. Married Priscella Brown; father of Job Knee qv. "Billy Knee the Jowler" was one of the earliest captains of Bonavista North to make a reputation as a master of steam sealing vessels. Knee was a successful fisherman at the Labrador fishery and had commanded schooners at the ice for several years when, in 1877, he was engaged by Bowring Brothers to take command of the steamer Kite on its first sealing voyage. The next year he took out the Eagle, then commanded the Falcon each spring until 1889, when his son took the Falcon and he returned to the Kite. Before making his last trip to the ice in 1893, Knee took over 200,000 seals for Bowring Brothers. L.G. Chafe (1923), Nina Snow (interview, Oct. 1990), Rev. M. Waye (letter, Oct. 1990), Naboth Winsor (1988). RHC KNIGHT, JOHN ( ?-1606). Explorer. While exploring coastal Labrador as commander of the Hopewell in June 1606, Knight was forced to go ashore near Nain when his ship was damaged in a storm. The shore party - consisting of Knight, his brother Gabriel and two other companions - was never heard of again, as they were abandoned by the ship's crew, ostensibly because of threatening ice conditions and hostile Inuit. Nothing is known of Knight before 1605, when as an English navigator he was captain of the Marekatten or Katten for a Danish expedition to Greenland. Engaged by East Indies and Russian companies, he visited Labrador the next year in search of a northwest passage, with the intention of exploring throughout the summer and camping for the winter. Knight's journal of his final voyage was continued by a crewmember after his disappearance and was published in the 1877 edition of The voyages of Sir James Lancaster, Kt., to the East Indies ... and the voyage of Captain John Knight (1606) to seek the North-West Passage (editor C.R. Markham). DCB I. awe KNIGHT, MICHAEL THOMAS (1832-1916). Politician; civil servant. Born St. John's, son of Thomas Knight. Knight began his working life as a clerk with the firm of P. Rogerson and Son. Well connected politically - his father was Conservative MHA for Twillingate and Fogo from 1855 to 1869 and Michael Knight married a daughter of Old Perlican merchant Stephen March qv- in 1864 he was appointed the first customs collector for the Labrador coast. He retained 1 that position until 1876, when the position was abolished and Knight was ap- .....~s=::s•-... Michael Knight pointed bookkeeper of the Board of Works. In 1882 he first stood for election to the House of Assembly, unsuccessfully, in Bay de Verde. He was

elected in 1885 in Twillingate as a supporter of the Reform party of Robert Thorburn, but was again defeated in 1889 before being re-elected as a Conservative in 1893. Knight was Surveyor General in the short-lived administration of A.F. Goodridge qv in 1894, but was again defeated in Bay de Verde in 1897. He was finally successful in this district in 1900, but as a supporter of the Liberal party. Knight retired from active politics shortly thereafter, to become deputy minister of Public Works. H.Y. Mott (1894), Blue Book of Newfoundland (1870), DN (Aug. 7, 1916). RHC

KNIGHT, RICHARD (1789-1860). Missionary. Born Devonshire, England. After several years as a Methodist local preacher, he was accepted as a candidate for missionary work, ordained, and posted to Newfoundland in 1816. Appointed to the Fortune Bay-Grand Bank mission, he subsequently served the Methodist Church at Bonavista, Port de Grave, BrigusCupids, and Blackhead. In the summer of 1825, as the Rev. Thomas Hickson qv had done in 1824, Knight spent several weeks on the coast of Labrador, "preaching the gospel among the fishermen and natives and . . . making investigation concerning the advisability Rev. Richard Knight of establishing a mission among the Eskimos of Hamilton Inlet" (Young). Transferred to the Maritime Provinces in 1833, for the next 27 years Knight not only served, as his biographer phrased it, "our most important stations, and always left his mark," but also "filled with great credit ... the most important offices of our Church" (Huestis). He died suddenly at Sheffield, New Brunswick, on May 23, 1860, in the forty-fourth year of his ministry. G.O. Huestis (1872), D.W. Johnson (n.d.), Arminius Young (1916). DAVID G. PITT KNIGHT, WILLIAM C. (1815-1900). Mariner. Born St. John's. He engaged mainly in the coastal trading business and prosecuted the seal fishery for many years both as crewman and as captain. In June 1859 Knight commanded the schooner Integrity chartered by the American painter Frederic Edwin Church qv to sail to Labrador in search of icebergs, which he wished to use as painting subjects. (A detailed account of the voyage, written by Church's friend the Rev. Louis Noble, who accompanied him, was published in 1861 under the title After Icebergs with a Painter.) Knight's later voyages to the seal hunt were made in steam-powered ships, from 1870 to 1872 in the Ospray and from 1873 to 1875 in the Hector. Knight was the maternal grandfather of the poet E.J. Pratt qv. He died at St. John's in 1900. L.G. Chafe (1923), F.E. Church (1859), William Knight Jr. (interview, June 1968), L.L. Noble (1861), ET (Feb. 7, 1964 ), "Wesleyan Trustee and Quarterly Minute

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS 189 Book, St. John's Circuit: 1840-78" (unpublished, United Church Archives, St. John's). DAVID G. PITT

KNIGHTS COVE (pop. 1986, 103). A community in Blackhead Bay, approximately 20 km southwest of Bonavista. Knights Cove was probably first settled in the 1790s or early 1800s by families from nearby King's Cove qv. At that time King's Cove was growing rapidly and several outlying coves were settled for shore space to prosecute the inshore fishery. A local tradition has it that Knights Cove was originally known as Night Cove, and that the inhabitants of King's Cove caroused there in the evenings in order to avoid "dirtying their own nest." Settlement was also attracted to Knights Cove by the availability of land for gardens and livestock, as surplus produce found a ready market in King's Cove. Families that moved from King's Cove included the Aylwards, Ryans and Walshes. Family tradition has it that Vincent Ricketts arrived from England c.1825, establishing what remained the dominant family name in the community in 1990. Knights Cove had a population of 48 by the first Census in 1836. By 1857 the number of inhabitants had risen to 96 people, occupying nine fishing rooms, with two full-time farmers and four lumbermen. There was a Roman Catholic school/chapel between Knights Cove and Stock Cove qv.

Knights Cove

By 1884, with King's Cove in its heyday as a commercial centre, the population of Knights Cove had risen to 157. Although the community earlier had a mix of Catholic and Protestant inhabitants, by 1884 it was almost exclusively Roman Catholic, as Church of England residents had either moved or (like the Ricketts family) converted to Catholicism. In the twentieth century lumbering increased in importance as a source of employment and many Knights Cove residents began to work outside the community. By Confederation the local inshore fishery had all but died and the community's population began to decline. Brian Ricketts (MHG, 41-A-1-40), E.R. Seary (1977), H.A. Wood (1952), Census (1836-1986). RHC

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS. A fraternal organization of Roman Catholic men devoted to the principles of charity, unity, patriotism and support for the priesthood. Arising out of Father Michael J. McGivney's concern for poor Irish immigrants in the United States, the organization was founded in New Haven, Connecticut on March 29, 1882. Its name derived from the belief that Knights represented the ideals of spirituality and service to Church, country and fellow men, and that Columbus was a symbol of the Catholic contribution to American culture. By 1905 there was an Order in Eastern Canada. Newfoundland received an Order within the next few years, although not without difficulty. A charter of at least 60 members had to be first obtained and the permission of Archbishop Michael Howley qv secured. While the first condition posed no problems, Howley was suspicious of the secret initiations and activities of the organization. His reluctance to approve the Knights led to efforts to establish an Order in Harbour Grace, where Bishop John March qv not only agreed to the proposition, but became a charter member as well. Witnessing the strong interest in the organization and the number of leading Catholics involved, Howley finally gave his approval for the inception of a St. John's council in August 1909. The John Dalton Council in Harbour Grace (named after the first Bishop of that Diocese) was established and accepted 63 members on November 29, 1909. Its first Grand Knight was M.A. O'Brien. The following day 73 men became charter members of the Terra Nova Council in St. John's, with John Barron acting as the group's first Grand Knight. The organization grew rapidly, with membership five times the original number by 1918. On December 8, 1918 the Conception Council was instituted on Bell Island, composed predominantly of members who had transferred from the Dalton and Terra Nova Councils. Its location was convenient for members living on Bell Is- Grand Knight John Barron land who otherwise had to travel by boat to participate in club activities. More importantly, it fulfilled the requirement that three councils were a prerequisite to the establishment of a Newfoundland State Council separate from that of the Maritime provinces. In subsequent years the K of C established councils in numerous areas throughout the province, including Grand Falls, Corner Brook, Stephenville, Labrador City and Gander. By 1990 there were 58 councils with a total membership of approximately 6,700. Two notable incidents drew public attention to the organization in Newfoundland. The first occurred

190 KNOB LAKE when a chain of solid-gold rosary beads was given as a donation to Sister Clare English of the Presentation Convent, who was raising money to open a city hostel for outport girls. Sister Clare originally planned to sell the rosary for $100, but Supreme Council officials decided to present it as a gift to Cardinal James Gibbons (patron of the Knights of Columbus) on his Golden Jubilee in 1911. In appreciation for her generosity Sister Clare was later presented with a cheque from the organization for $1,000. The second incident threatened to destroy the organization's reputation. It involved the circulation of a "bogus oath" which had originated in Washington in 1912. Until its bogus nature was established, this violent and discriminatory oath led to much bad publicity for the organization. Activities of the organization have included the assistance of the ill and impoverished through such programs as the Armstrong Christmas Dinner Fund and the Sick Benefit Fund. Also established were the Primary Education Fund (which provided children of deceased brethren with the financial means to complete a secondary education), and the Death Benefit Fund which assisted the families of deceased Knights with funeral expenses. The organization has also sponsored army cadets, cub and scouting troops, teen clubs and youth public-speaking competitions. Additional undertakings have included endorsing the pro-life movement, forming blood donor groups, donating used clothing to the needy, raising money for parishes, crusading against obscenity in radio broadcasts and literature, arranging annual parties and outings for orphanage children in St. John's, and encouraging the preservation of historic Roman Catholic landmarks. The most impressive project of the Terra Nova Council was the construction of the K of C Memorial School (since renamed Our Lady of Mercy) in St. John's. Built in remembrance of fellow Knights killed in World War I, the school was officially opened on October 12 (Columbus Day), 1921 with the Sisters of Mercy taking charge of administrative duties. The era of accomplishment for the K of C was also tainted with tragedy. On December 12, 1942 what has

A K. of C. "entertainment"

been described as the "most tragic indoor fire in Newfoundland or Canada" (The Monitor) occurred in the Knights of Columbus Canadian Army Huts (the K of C Hostel). This recreation centre for servicemen was on that night the location of the radio broadcast of "Uncle Tim's Barn Dance." As Canadian soldier Eddie Adams sang "Moonlight Trail" to the crowd of about 500 people, the building burst into flames. Inward-opening exit doors and plywood blackout shutters made escape difficult and 100 people died in the fire. One hundred and seven more were injured. The judicial report suggested the fire was likely a result of arson. See FIRES. Brian Dunfield (1943), Kathryn Pike (1985), Leonard Squires (interview, May 1990), Monitor (Aug. 1980), NQ (March 1911; Oct. 1921; Dec. 1921). CSK KNOB LAKE. Near the Quebec border in western Labrador, the lake is 1.8 km long. It was given its English name in 1929 by James E. Gill, a geologist with the New Quebec Company. Exploration in the region was conducted throughout the 1930s and 1940s. The Quebec and North Shore Railroad was built along the western shore in 1954, to service the Iron Ore Company of Canada's mining operations in Schefferville qv. The iron ore deposit exploited by IOC was known as Knob Lake. Peter Armitage (interview, Feb. 1991), Geren and McCullogh (1990). GMw KNOTS. See WOODCOCKS. KNOWLING, FANNY. See MCNEIL, FRANCES (KNOWLING). KNOWLING, GEORGE (1841-1923). Merchant. Born Exeter, England. Father of Frances (Knowling) McNeil qv. Knowling came to Newfoundland in 1857 to work as a clerk in the St. John's mercantile firm of his uncle, Philip Hutchins. He left after two years to return to England and later worked in New Brunswick and the Canadas, until returning to Hutchins's employ in 1868. On his uncle's death in 1886 Knowling took over the business, and over the next three decades built up George Knowling one of the largest retail establishments in St. John's. He was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1897 under the last administration of William V. Whiteway qv, and was the only member of that body to vote against the railway contract as re-negotiated in 1898. In 1900 Knowling was appointed minister without portfolio in the cabinet of Robert Bond qv, and filled that post until Bond's administration left office in 1909. Know ling remained a member of the Legislative Council until his death on November 23, 1923. H.M.

KOREAN COMMUNITY 191 Mosdell (1923), Paul O'Neill (1975), J.R. Smallwood (1975), ET (Nov. 23, 1923), NQ (Oct. 1901; June 1902), Newfoundland Historical Society (Knowling family). RHC KNOWLING (nee AYRE), KATHLEEN LEAH (1927- ). Artist. Born St. John's, daughter of Ronald H. and Kathleen M. (Johnston) Ayre. Educated Bishop Spencer College; Netherwood School, Rothsay, New Brunswick; Columbia University; Mount Allison University; Newfoundland Academy of Art; Memorial University of Newfoundland Extension Service; Nova Scotia College of Art and Design. Married William A. Know ling.

Kathleen Knowling

Studying at the Newfoundland Academy of Art in the late 1950s and later in Memorial University's Extension program, Knowling was especially influenced by artists Susan Wood and Don Wright. By the late 1970s her work was being displayed, with her first solo exhibition ("Watercolours") occurring in 1978. Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s Knowling was also featured in several juried shows (including "Newfoundland in a Nutshell"), as well as in anumber of two-artist presentations. In an exhibition with Shawn Steffler in 1988, she showed her representations of Bathsheba, the Concubine, the Virgin Mary, and other "Biblical Women." Know ling also displayed a number of hooked mat drawings in "The Sparrow's House" exhibition of 1991. Describing her own work as "honest and straightforward, but not part of a general Newfoundland school" (Sunday Express), Knowling has worked mainly in the media of oilstick, oil pastels and col-

oured pencils on paper. A writer as well as an artist, her work has appeared in the anthology From This Place (published in 1976), and in local magazines including ArtsAtlantic and Waterlily. Kathleen Know ling (interview, Dec. 1990), ET (Mar.12, 1988), Newfoundland Herald (Jan. 17, 1979; March 19, 1988), Sunday Express (Apr. 10, 1988). CSK KOHLMEISTER, BENJAMIN GOTTLIEB (17561844). Moravian missionary. Born Posen (Poland). Married Anna Reimann. Kohlmeister served as a missionary in Labrador from 1793 and explored much of northern Labrador and Ungava Bay. Kohlmeister was a cabinet maker by trade and was received into the Moravian church in 1778. He worked at a Moravian settlement in Germany until 1790, when he began training for missionary service. In 1793 he started missionary work at Okak, then the most northerly of the Labrador mission stations. He was transferred to Hopedale in 1802 and in December of 1803 preached a sermon there, beginning a great revival, which spread to the Inuit of Nain and Hopedale in 1804 (see MORAVIAN CHURCH). While on leave in Europe in 1806, Kohlmeister sought permission to expand the Moravian missions further into the north. He returned to Okak in 1810 and the following June began a journey of exploration into Ungava Bay, accompanied by George Kmoch and a party of 15 Inuit. Kohlmeister and Kmoch made a systematic exploration of Ungava Bay and named the George River after King George III. Although the missionaries wished to establish a mission in the area, the Hudson's Bay Company qv objected to their plan to add to the support of their missions by trading with the Inuit. It was, therefore, decided instead to establish a mission at Hebron in 1814. Kohlmeister, based at Nain, became superintendent of the Labrador mission in 1819. He retired to Germany in 1824. J.K. Hiller (1967), DCB VII, DNLB (1990). RHC KOMATIK. A large dogsled of simple construction, used as a means of winter transport in Labrador and in many parts of the Island. The word, variously spelled as comatic, comatick, kamutik, komatik, is from Inuit qamutik. The komatik fell into disuse in the 1960s and 1970s with the advent of the snowmobile. George Cartwright (1911), S.K. Hutton (1912), Lawrence Jackson (1982), H.H. Pritchard (1911), DNE (1982). RHC

KOREAN COMMUNITY. Newfoundland and Labrador residents of Korean origin first arrived in the late 1950s. With the increased demand for professionals to fill positions at institutions of higher learning and in health care in the 1960s, several Koreans (who had largely been trained in other Canadian provinces or in the United States) were recruited by the provincial government. The family of Dr. C.W. Cho, who was appointed to the department of physics at Memorial University in September of 1958, were the first Koreans to live in

192 KOREAN WAR the province. The family was later joined by Cho's brother, Choong Won Cho, who arrived with his family directly from Korea in 1964 to take a teaching position with the newly-established College of Fisheries, Navigation, Marine Engineering and Electronics in St. John's. The third Korean family to take up residence was that of Dr. Dook T. Kim, who was appointed District Medical Officer at Lourdes in February of 1962. Another notable early arrival who took up permanent residence was Dr. Jae R. Lee of Grand Falls. Dr. Lee first arrived in St. John's in 1963 to work at the General Hospital and the family later settled in Grand Falls, where Dr. Lee established a private medical practice. Dr. Yong Kee Jeon has been chief medical officer at the Brookfield Cottage Hospital since 1968 and in 1988 was named Canadian family physician of the year.

Arnold Cho, the first baby of Korean extraction born in Newfoundland

The Korean community has grown slowly, but steadily, since the 1960s and by 1982 there were 73 Korean-born residents in the Province. Although in 1990 the majority lived at St. John's, there were several residents of Korean origin in a number of communities, including Corner Brook and St. Anthony, working as medical doctors, educators, researchers and technicians. An informal organization, the Newfoundland Korean Society, was formed in 1968 to promote fellowship among Korean residents and among Korean students at Memorial University. B.K. KIM KOREAN WAR. The outbreak of this war in 1950 and Canada's decision to participate in a United Nation's South Korean defence force marked the first military involvement for Newfoundland following Confederation. The exact number of men from the Province who fought in Korea was not known in 1991, nor was the number who died, but the local branch of the Korean War Veterans' Association estimated that some 250

men from the St. John's area alone fought in Korea either as part of the Canadian Army Special Force recruited specifically for the war or as members of Canada's regular forces. That Association meets annually in one of the Atlantic provinces. In August 1991 the meeting was held in St. John's for the first time since 1983. John Grenning (interview, May 8, 1991), TCE (1985). BWC KOUGH, PATRICK (c.1786-1863). Contractor; politician. Born Wexford County, Ireland. Kough arrived in St. John's in 1804 and by the 1830s had become a prominent contractor, constructing, among other buildings, the Harbour Grace Courthouse and, in St. John's, St. Thomas' Church, the Colonial Building, Presentation Convent, and his own stone house on Kenna's Hill. He also worked, with James Purcell qv, on the construction of the Roman Catholic Cathedral. In 1834 he was made Superintendent of Public Buildings and held that position until his death in 1863. It was Kough who pointed out that the Water Street site originally chosen for the Colonial Building (the present site of the courthouse) was unsuited to Purcell's design and who recommended the location on Military Road. In 1832 Kough was elected to the recently formed House of Assembly, narrowly defeating William Carson qv. Carson petitioned the Assembly for his removal, objecting to Kough's membership in the Assembly on the grounds of his being a government office-holder. Carson's petition was easily defeated by the Assembly. Kough attempted to retain his seat in the 1836 election, but met with opposition from the Roman Catholic hierarchy. On polling day a crowd sympathetic to reform interests prevented the "orange catholic" from speaking and, by intimidating his supporters, forced his withdrawal from the race. Kough was active in many societies in St. John's. He captained the Central Ward of the Merchants' Society Fire Brigade, the first company of fire fighters in St. John's (1826), was president of the Mechanics Society qv, and secretary and later vice-president of the Benevolent Irish Society. In later years he established a large farm, Ken Mount, on the outskirts of St. John's. In 1860 he was appointed to the Legislative Council and in the same year became president of the Agricultural Society. G.E. Gunn (1966), H.W. LeMessurier (1928), R.G. Moyles (1975), D.W. Prowse (1895), J.R. Smallwood (1978a), Centenary Volume Benevolent Irish Society of St. John's (1906?), DCB IX, A Gift of Heritage (1975), Newfoundlander (Nov. 12, 1863), The Story of the Colonial Building (1972). PANG KTAQAMKUK MI'KMAWEY SAQIMAWOUTIE. A Micmac phrase meaning Newfoundland Micmac Government (literally, "Newfoundland Micmac chief's way"), which was adopted as its formal name by the Federation of Newfoundland Indians in 1979. Prior to the nineteenth century Newfoundland Micmac were administered by the grand council in


Nova Scotia. In 1810 a chief (saqima) was appointed for life, to be spiritual, cultural and administrative head of the Newfoundland Micmac, based at Conne River qv. In 1924 chief Noel Jeddore qv left Newfoundland, following a dispute with the Roman Catholic church over the use of the Micmac language in services. Thereafter administrative leaders for Conne River were selected, but the traditional post of chief remained vacant.

Chief Michael Joe meeting with government

In the early 1970s the Miawpukek band was reorganized at Conne River. Two years later a conference was held at Gander to found a provincial federation affiliated with the National Indian Brotherhood (renamed the Assembly of First Nations in 1982), including representatives of the Micmac and the Innu of Labrador. In 1975 the Innu decided to pursue an independent course and founded their own lobby group (see INNU NATION). The offices of the Federation of


Newfoundland Indians were moved from St. John's to Conne River and in 1979 the Federation adopted the Micmac name. The Conne River Micmac had instituted a new band structure in1973, consisting of an elected council and a chief. Following William Joe's re-election as chief in 1975 he assumed the title of saqima. He died in 1983 and was succeeded by Michael Joe. In 1988 a dispute arose between factions at Conne River, one item of contention being whether the position of chief was a traditional lifetime position or an elective office. Michael Joe was replaced as band leader by Marilyn John qv, but some Micmac continued to regard Joe as saqima. Melvin Jeddore (interview, Feb. 1991), Michael Joe (interview, Feb. 1991), Wentzell et al (1980). GMW/RHC KYLE, S.S. Built by Swan, Hunter and Co. at Newcastle-on-Tyne, England in 1913 for the Reid Newfoundland Co., the Kyle arrived in St. John's on May 20 and was described as a "Splendid specimen of marine architecture." In the 1990s it was the only surviving member of the Alphabet Fleet qv still in Newfoundland. In 1915, after two years as a coastal boat on Newfoundland's Northeast Coast, the Kyle served as ferry on the North Sydney-Port aux Basques run. In 1926 the ship returned to Labrador service, beginning 33 years of operation during which it became a vital part of Labrador life. Each year Newfoundland "stationers" relied on the Kyle for transport to and from Labrador. Often the only link between Labrador and the outside world, it provided both stationers and "livyers" with supplies, transportation, mail service and medical care. The vessel also enabled clergy to visit isolated communities and carried children to and from boarding schools.

The Kyle under steam

194 KYLE, S.S.

The Kyle lying derelict at Harbour Grace

The Kyle could also provide entertainment: in the late 1920s a film shown in the ship's common room marked the first time native Labradorians saw themselves on film, while Ted Russell's poem Smokeroom on The Kyle illustrates a typical story-telling session aboard ship. The Kyle attracted world-wide attention in 1927 when it picked up the wreckage of the American aircraft Old Glory, which had departed from Maine, hoping to become one of the first to cross the Atlantic, and went down off Cape Race. In 1959 Shaw Steamships of Halifax bought the Kyle and renamed it the Arctic Eagle. Two years later, it was purchased by Earle Brothers of Carbonear and given back its original name. The Kyle operated as a sealer off coastal Labrador until 1967. When it returned from the front that year with heavy damage, it was decided to "lay up" the vessel. It was anchored in Harbour Grace, where during a violent storm it grounded at Riverhead. In 1991 the ship was still visible from the highway entering Harbour Grace. ET (1913, 1986), Them Days (1984), Centre of Newfoundland Studies (Kyle), Newfoundland Historical Society (Kyle). FAY PADDOCK

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