JOAQUIN RODRIGO (1902-1999) -
Born in Valencia, Spain, 1902 Contracted diphtheria at 3 yrs and lost eye sight Did not play guitar even though composed many works for guitar, which constitute a substantial part of the guitar repertory. Rodrigo played piano and violin and studied under composer and folklore expert, Eduardo Lopez. In 1927, studied music in Paris for 5 years. Was taught by Paul Dukas and influenced by Manuel De Falla. Married Victoria Kamhir, Istanbul born pianist who became his copyist, in 1933. Whilst back home he received a scholarship, which enabled him to resume studies in Paris and travel through parts of Europe. Returned to Madrid in 1939.
1940 – 1st performance of Concierto Aranjuez. Concerto became famous instantly and Rodrigo received accolades re same. Its title refers to the royal and ancient palace, Aranjuez, situated between Madrid and Toledo, where Rodrigo and his wife spent their honeymoon. Concerto was written in 1939, whilst Rodrigo still in Paris. During this time - Spanish Civil War (1936-39). As a result, Francisco Franco became leader and repressed many creative artists if they did not conform to his idea of a Spanish unity or to the restrictions he placed upon their creative output. He banned the performances of folk music, which was identified with particular towns. The famous poet and writer, Garcia Lorca, was executed under his dictatorship. Concierto Aranjuez-Nationalist flavour mixed with strong Classical elements. Exemplifies Rodrigo’s neocasticismo. (Term refers to the inclusion of Spanish folk elements in music along with the inclusion of classical/Baroque/Renaissance music elements.) The concerto demonstrates Dukas’ influence on Rodrigo-esp. with the precision Rodrigo demonstrates with his orchestration. Paul Dukas – composer and master orchestrator who had a flair for rhythmic vitality. Other works- includes many guitar works, vocal and other instrumental works. He wrote four other guitar concertos. Fantasia Para un Gentilhombre (1954) gained much popularity and demonstrates Rodrigo’s interest in musicology and in the vihuela composers of the sixteenth century. In this concerto, he quotes music from Baroque composer, Gaspar Sanz.
VCE SEMINAR SUNDAY 15TH MARCH, 2009 TANIA RAVBAR COSTANTINO Music Performance – Solo Area of Study 4 Analysis of selected ensemble work from the Prescribed List of Ensemble Works JOAQUIN RODRIGO CONCIERTO ARANJUEZ, 1ST Mm (1939) 1. Describe background and/or contextual issues that may influence interpretation • -
SPAIN AND THE GUITAR – Joaquin Rodrigo was born in Spain and therefore witness to the use of the acoustic guitar as an instrument which accompanied folk song and which formed a core part of flamenco music. The guitar’s origins in Spain can be dated back to the eighth century with the arrival of the Arabs. The Arabic or Moorish guitar was introduced along with the lute. Prior to this old Spain was acquainted with the Roman ‘cithara’, a harp like instrument, introduced in c.40 AD. Over the following years aspects of both these instruments combined to eventually develop into what closely resembled a guitar. The musical culture amongst the Arabs spread throughout parts of Spain –especially Andalusia (where flamenco originated) and, later, Cordoba and Seville. The musical influence of the Moors may be heard in much of Spain’s folk music and especially in the lamentful Soleares of the flamenco idiom. Spain introduced the guitar to other parts of Europe. It remained a very strong part of Spain’s folk music in the form of the four course guitar and made its way into the courts of the 15th century in the form of the vihuela (guitar like instrument with six double strings). Many notable composers from this period wrote for the vihuela (Luys de Milan; Alonso de Mudarra; Miguell de Fuenllana; and Enriquez de Valderrabano). As the instrument continued to develop over the centuries, it maintained a strong identity with Spain and its music.
CONTEXTUAL ISSUES Rodrigo composed the Concierto Aranjuez whilst still in Paris in 1939. From 1936 to 1939 the Spanish Civil War was taking place in Spain, which resulted in a new heterogeneous government led by Francisco Franco. Several executions and killings took place during these years. Franco tried to form one ideal…one nation…and suppressed the performing of any folk music that was particular to one town or state. Franco was an autocratic leader with nationalist ideals who despised communism. His reign suppressed the creativity in many artists and he executed the famous poet, Garcia Lorca, despite pleadings from Manuel de Falla at the time. The civil war caused Rodrigo to lose his Paris scholarship. This, along with a lack of enough work in Paris, prompted his return to Madrid in 1939. •
STYLE OF THE WORK-Spanish Neoclassicism and neocasticismo
2nd half of 15th century – music thrived as cante flamenco (flamenco song) for gypsies in Andalusia. 1783-Carlos III 2nd grants citizenship to gypsies without persecution and flamenco becomes popular again. Flamenco based mainly on songs about dreams of a better life and became very popular by 1860. Along with other Spanish folk music and song from Andalusia and other Spanish regions, this music became known as musica aflamencada (gypsified music) -
This flamenco music was performed by professional and amateur musicians, which included accompanied and unaccompanied singers, guitarists and pianists. By 3rd quarter of the 19th century, many Spanish composers who felt a claim to them were using many of these folkloristic characteristics. During this time, Spanish composers were also incorporating other aspects of their rich musical culture and were important in the development of Spanish music and musicology. Composers were beginning to study sixteenth century Spanish music, which was to affect their own composition output. CASTICISMO (=A love for cultivating a purity of culture and language, free of foreign influence) – A Mm developed in early 20th century by group of musicians, including Manuel De Falla. In music this implies a return to authentic traditional values and ethnic roots. -
Casticismo mm represented Spanish neoclassicism for Spanish composers of the early 20th century. It was very similar to French neoclassicism and hence the French became the model for Spanish composers.
Manuel de Falla, who was strong in his use of casticismo, studied in France and befriended Debussy and Ravel. He influenced many Spanish composers, including Rodrigo.
After the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) casticismo was very much seen as a restoration movement. Composers were looking for something new to inject in the neo classicist style Spain had developed. Many composers admired the culture of the eighteenth century
zarzuela (Spanish operetta incorporating music, lyrics and dance), which included aristocracy, majesty, bullfights, festive regional parties and guitar playing. The public enjoyed the nuances, gestures and dances of the zarzuela and these elements became incorporated in the new music. This new combination was one of neoclassicism (or casticismo) and nationalism. It became known as ‘neocasticismo’. This term does not only refer to music of the eighteenth century however, but may include that of the Renaissance, Baroque, Classic and Romantic periods. The references may also relate to purely instrumental music. Therefore, each work is unique because of its reference to a different past. Joaquin Rodrigo was in the forefront of neocasticismo. Concierto Aranjuez represents neocasticismo. • With its three movements -fast slow, fast - it characterises the eighteenth century style concerto with references to Spanish dances and rhythms. • By situating it in Aranjuez, he wanted to specify a particular time – the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. • Each movement is titled with its tempo marking. The first movement is Allegro con Spirito; • The tonalities used are conventional. The first movement is in D major and establishes the dominant key in the second part. After visiting various keys through a wild flurry of notes it returns, with the theme again, in D major. Furthermore, the opening tonalities are based on a simple I-ii-V-I progression over a pedal D note; • Similar to a classic style concerto, the first movement employs a sonata form in 6/8 time comprised of two parts – the first in the tonic key, (forming the exposition) and the second, from rehearsal number 10, in the dominant key although it opens in A minor to begin with. (Example 2). The second part comprises the development section and the recapitulation which returns to D major before ending with a coda section; • There is a clear sense of balance between the solo and tutti passages • The melodic phrasing is concise and contained within a limited range • The melodic lyricism reflects an eighteenth century style Italianate style The movement’s references to Spanish casticismo or Spanish folk elements are clearly heard also. In the opening of the first movement of the Concierto Aranjuez, performance indicators written by Rodrigo strongly suggest certain playing techniques that are related to Spanish folk music. •
(Example 1) – 1st chord below guitar part - a Spanish performing instructionRasguedo. This word is a term that refers to a Spanish style guitar strum, often associated with flamenco music. In common rasguedo techniques, the player uses the nails of the four fingers of his/her right hand to roll, in a strum like manner, down across the strings.
Especially prevalent during the second section of the first movement are the many virtuosic semiquaver runs Rodrigo writes for the guitar. As well as forming an integral part of flamenco guitar technique, these virtuosic displays form an inherent part of the traditional classical concerto.
Rodrigo draws on elements of the Fandango dance in the first movement. This is a lively folk and flamenco couple dance, which was originally notated in 6/8 time, but later in 3/8 or 3/4. Guitar and castanets or hand clapping traditionally accompanied it. The 4 fandango usually has an instrumental introduction followed by variations. Similarly, in the first movement of the Concierto Aranjuez, the guitar enters with the opening theme (Example 1). This does not conform to the classical concerto conventions in which the orchestra usually plays before the solo instrument enters. The fandango style can also be noted in the coda section where all the instruments, including the brass, combine to culminate in a rhythmically spirited and lively manner. Example 1
Example 2 (Part 2)
Although conventional classical elements are demonstrated in the above examples, the movement is dotted with Rodrigo’s signature dissonances, in which a simple classical style harmonic progression will suddenly introduce a chord which constitutes the majority of its notes being a semitone higher than the implied resolution, or a sweet melodic line will be interceded with a dissonant play of intervals to link the phrases (Example 3) This is reflective of Rodrigo’s influence by what was occurring in European music trends at the time with many composers using forms of atonalism to compose. The performer should strive to clearly articulate these dissonant elegances, which form part of Rodrigo’s trademark. Example 3 (from Reh. #6)
HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION •
Early twentieth century - lasting effects of romanticism still lingered and performances often oozed with a richness of sound and sonority that may not have been indicative of the style of music performed. Many guitarists from the mid 1900s performed with strong expressive qualities and may not have adhered so strictly to the notation on the page. This often overshadows the intended style for the music.
Dominating force of this movement is rhythm. Based on traditional folk dance, the performer cannot afford to deviate from the rhythmic driving force so integral to the music. In performing the concerto, a guitarist would be wise to have some aural familiarity with Spanish folk music or flamenco. Replacing a rasguedo strum with a more contemporary 6 strum would certainly take from the composer’s intention for the music. CONTEMPORARY CONVENTIONS Amplification or not??? •
Although orchestrated for small orchestra and avoiding the use of rich textures so as not to impinge on the guitar’s sonorities, realistically, today’s instruments are louder. It is true this can also be said for the classical guitar. However, the performing spaces are also larger with the acoustics often not being sympathetic to the guitar’s natural sound. Being larger, they can often fit more people. All these considerations should be addressed when performing the concerto to obtain the best result possible. There is no point performing it if the guitar can barely be heard over the orchestra. Similarly, the orchestra should not sacrifice the integrity of the music by playing so softly that the subtleties of the musical whispers are not heard. PERSONAL INTERPRETATIONS OF EXCERPTS
Rasguedo - Where and how often? Whilst limiting oneself to the notation on the manuscript, a guitarist may use his/her artistic license to add to the Spanish style of the work. As well as performing the opening with a rasguedo attack, the same attack, when played much more quickly, may be used to embellish a single chord. This technique serves to enhance the Spanish flavour of the music. In the comparisons of the two performances, we will see how and where the different guitarists inject this embellishment.
Guitar runs – rest stroke or free stroke? A decision guitarists often need to make. Stylistically, flamenco music and most traditional Spanish folk music are played by guitarists with rest stroke. This gives the sound a much deeper tone.
Does the tempo matter? Of the concerto Rodrigo stated – “The first movement (allegro con Spirito) is animated by a rhythmic spirit and vigour without either of the two themes contained within it interrupting its relentless pace.” (Henning N., Rodrigo Concierto de Aranjuez for guitar and orchestra, Ed. Eulenberg No. 1809, pg vii)
The music indicates MM dotted crotchet = 84. The indication ‘Allegro con Spirito’ implies a fast, happy and spirited pace. Bearing the above in mind, it is important the guitarist maintain the spirit of the piece without restricting the rhythmic consistency throughout the movement. #2
Ways elements of music are interpreted to give meaning FORM – 1st mm is based on classical sonata form. - 1st theme appears in D major with guitar at opening of concerto and is homophonically based (Example 1). This forms the exposition of the work. The melody that pertains in the first theme unfolds with the violin and oboe at rehearsal number 2. - 2nd theme appears at Reh. # 4, still in D major, with melodic development focusing on thirds and smooth lines confined within octave limits. - 3rd theme begins in fourth bar (last quaver) of rehearsal number 6. Thematic material is repeated in different keys and interspersed with runs before second part at rehearsal number 10. - The second part forms the development, recapitulation and coda of the work. It establishes the dominant key, A major, after eleven bars of the open theme in A minor. A minor is merely used as a temporary tonal contrast (Example 2). The composer then uses a series of virtuosic runs to modulate through various tonalities whilst still maintaining strong thematic rhythmic and melodic quotes throughout the section. -
At Reh. # 16 the orchestra establishes the key of D major with parts of the original thematic material again (~recapitulation).
Coda appears at rehearsal number 22 and the piece ends with the guitar restating the opening bars in the last 2 bars of the movement.
MELODY – -
The opening theme is predominantly harmonically and rhythmically based with the use of repeated notes, ascending semitone and descending minor third in its top voice for the first two bars. The rhythm here is more intrinsic to the opening theme than any melody. The melody of the first theme unfolds more realistically at Reh. # 2 (bar 44), with the violin and oboe stating it. (Example 4).
Example 4 (Reh. # 2-3)
The melody is usually confined to the limits of an octave in all three themes and is predominantly based on thirds with the use of repetition and neighbouring tones. It gracefully appears throughout the movement and although Rodrigo may often use dissonances in his harmonies, his melodies remain tonally expressive. (Example 5) (Excerpt from reh. # 4 to 5)
Example 5 (Reh. # 4-5)
In 6/8 time, the opening theme appears in a clear compound duple meter in the first bar then transits into a simple triple meter in the next bar. The use of these rhythmic hemiolas is not foreign to Spanish folk music. Rodrigo referred to them as “insistent rhythmic surges”. (See example 1) These hemiolas can also be observed between the orchestral instruments, playing against one another. The first instance of this is at bars 19 to 22, between the guitar and bassoon parts. (See example 6)
Example 6 (Bars 19-22)
Development Section (from Reh. # 10 or bar115) -
Features virtuosic guitar semiquaver runs, which carry the music through various tonal centres. Intermittent demisemiquaver flurries from the strings and woodwind can also be heard. Thematic material juggled between various instruments of the orchestra heard with flurries of notes and insistent rhythmic feature of opening theme. (CD-3:003:26)(Example 7)
Example 7 (Bars 138-145)
Semiquaver triplets – often used by the guitar to link semiquaver runs. These groups of 3 notes are a form of tremolo technique, which is associated with Spanish guitar technique (Example 7-bar 142).
Descending runs are often used when Rodrigo links sections, themes or even, at times, phrases (See Ex. 5) Before the recapitulation section at bar 166 (reh.# 16), in order to accommodate a descending flurry of 11 notes played by seven parts of the orchestra in an intense climax, Rodrigo changes the meter of the bar to 9/8. This is the only instance of a compound triple meter being used in the 1st Mm (Example 8)
Example 8 (164-167)
HARMONY • 1st movement - D major • Harmonic progression of opening theme – I-ii-V-I over a pedal D note in bass part. Demonstrative of simple Classical tonalities. • 2nd & 3rd themes do not stray far from these tonalities (See Ex. 5 for 2nd theme) • Development Section – Begins in A minor before dominant key, A major is established with rhythmic figure being played by string section. Guitar’s quick semiquavers lead us through various keys in this section.
The dominant of the relative minor key, B minor, is briefly visited at rehearsal number 6 but quickly returns to D major at the introduction of the third theme, five bars after, with a ii-V-I progression. During this harmonic deviation, Rodrigo plays on harmonic dissonance to cheekily colour the sonorities, disguising an F# maj chord (See example 3).
At bar 97 Rodrigo repeats the 3rd theme in F major before making his way, via other keys, to the dominant of D major. This is in preparation for the 2nd part of the movement.
Development Section –Reh. # 10- key signature change. No sharps/flats helps to establish A minor for 11 bars before establishing the dominant key, A major. Through semiquavers played on the guitar, the music travels through various keys. During this time various orchestral instruments play thematic material at any one time (Example 2) Bar 150 - B minor is visited after an intense strumming episode on a B major chord. The changes in harmony along with the different instrumental quotes of thematic material take us through an imaginary journey of places once visited. The home key, D major, is not firmly established again until bar 166 (reh. # 16).
DYNAMICS • Large variances in dynamics-from ppp to ff. Rodrigo is careful to treat the dynamics, texture and articulation so as not to overshadow the lighter sounding guitar with the orchestral instruments. • The guitar part’s dynamics are usually louder than the orchestral instruments • In certain sections the instruments come together in sheer rhythmic ecstasy with loud displays of virtuosic runs and guitar strums. This may be seen between 15 (bar 160) and 16 (bar 166) (CD-3: 30-50) and even moreso at the end of the movement where its rhythmic vitality and loud articulations conjure rhythmically spirited Spanish dances. (Example 9) (p 34-36) • Rodrigo was very clever in his use of texture and dynamics to create a concerto in which the balance between the guitar and orchestra is maintained despite the fact that the guitar is a much softer instrument.
Example 9 (Bars 213 -225)
ARTICULATION • Staccato- used extensively throughout movement by all instruments. Guitarists cannot play staccato whilst performing certain techniques, however. Guitarists in both versions of recordings use artistic license to add or subtract detached notes. • Predominance of short notes ensures a lighter buoyancy in the rhythm and is more reminiscent of many Spanish folk dances. This helps the forward rhythmic drive also and the blending with the softer guitar. • Longest held notes in the orchestral parts are held by the double bass, which holds a pedal D note, as tied dotted minims, over the first eighteen bars while the guitar introduces the first theme. • Detached articulation of the orchestral instruments also combines better with the guitar, which is a plucked instrument with a natural short decay. • Accents are often placed over notes to emphasise a three beat or two beat feel in a bar. The opening theme, which extends over three bars, has an accent over the fourth pulse of the third bar quite consistently, thus emphasising the compound duple meter here. This is a typical element of the Fandango. (See example 1). • Accents were also used by Rodrigo to help thematic imitation. Eg.-flute and oboe parts at rehearsal # 7 (CD-2:03-05) and 9. Although a pp dynamic is indicated here, these instruments have a performance instruction of ma marcato (but marked). Imitation was used much in the Baroque period. Although this movement is largely based on the Classical period, this feature is still indicative of the neocasticismo style so embedded in Rodrigo’s music. • Accents – also used with Rodrigo’s harmonic dissonances (guitar –bars 79 to 82; 84 & 86) (CD-1: 47-58). • Accents-often where orchestral instruments play trills. Use of trills clearly indicative of Baroque and Classical styles. • Legato-From bar 2 of reh. # 13, the smooth theme played by the oboe and bassoon two bars later, with a performance direction of espressivo, serves as a lyrical reminder of its introduction. This smooth and lyrical line stands out as a stark contrast to the overriding use of staccato in the movement. TONE COLOUR– Cello and double bass enters with pizzicato. As well as altering the articulation the quality of tone is affected. In being plucked rather than bowed, this more closely blends with the natural sound of the guitar and does not produce the same volume as a bowed note. The colour also more closely complements the staccato notes of the woodwind instruments here. •
At rehearsal #1, the string players are to employ a bow. At this point, however, the violin, viola and cello parts have spiccato indicated over their parts. As well as producing a shorter note, this technique produces a lighter attack that does not result in the same depth of sound as a normal bowed note.
Col talone (with the heel of the bow) – is used at rehearsal number 3 with staccato. Playing with the heel of the bow gives a deeper tone. This helps bring out the thematic material, which formed part of the opening statement, based on detached notes and mainly 4ths, 3rds and 2nds (CD-1: 13-23).
At rehearsal number 12 the trombone is played with a mute, which is used to help maintain a pp dynamic.
Rodrigo’s use of tone colour throughout the movement appears to be used to enhance the light texture rather than to deliberately alter the timbral result. The lightness in texture aids the light buoyant rhythms of the concerto and gives it a forward driving motion. #3
Describe characteristics and the role of instruments and the way instruments combine in each excerpt Relevant to both excerpts •
The solo instrument of this concerto- the guitar-is strongly associated with Spanish nationalist music due to the development and popularity of flamenco music, the part it played in Spain’s folk music and dances, and its development throughout the Spanish Renaissance and Baroque periods. Hence its importance in Rodrigo’s neocasticismo style of writing which combines Spanish nationalist elements with its reference to characteristics of, here, the classical period.
Small orchestra is used in this concerto with instrumentation – piccolo, flute, oboe, Bb clarinet, bassoon, French horn, trombone, violin, viola, cello and double bass. The small orchestra is used because the composer was concerned that too thick a texture would obscure the guitar’s voice. The orchestra is an essential part of the classical concerto form.
The opening movement is built on a series of alternations: the traditional alternation between the solo instrument and the orchestra, a thematic alternation between the strummed chords of the guitar and the melody introduced by the violins, and a rhythmic alternation between a duple and triple meter in which all the instruments take a part at different points in the music. This may be paralleled to a Fandango and other forms of traditional Spanish dance music, with the alternations between guitar and voice, the hemiolas, and the percussive heels of the dancers and castanets also serving to help displace the rhythm.
Throughout the work, and especially prevalent in the second part (eg bars 138 to 149), the orchestral instruments appear, in a juxtaposed manner, with thematic material and derivatives of it. These may be heard swung between clarinet (bars 138 to 141), horn (bars 141 to143); oboe (bars 143 to 147) to which part the bassoon joins (bars 145 to 147); and violins which take over with the melody at bars 147 to 149. The themes appear amongst the instruments of the orchestra, all the while being harmonically sustained by smooth shifting harmonies and often disturbed by endless flurries of notes from the guitar. This gives the movement an element of surprise constantly and a feeling of going somewhere. It also adds to the build up. (Aural eg – CD player 3:13-3:3:31)
The guitar introduces the rhythmic motif by itself; introducing the music with a strong element of Spanish flavour with its rasguedo chords and later, fast flamenco style runs.
At bar 19 the guitar plays groups of detached quavers which are built on intervals of fourths, thirds and seconds and which serve to develop the opening statement. The flutes
join the guitar here with thematic material from the opening theme, also staccato. The bassoon, on the other hand, emphasises a triple meter against the guitar’s duple meter by playing detached notes in a simple triple feel. (See example 6)
The strings from rehearsal number 1 state the opening theme. However, unlike in the guitar part, the theme here is played staccato with a spiccato bowing technique to help the light forward rhythmic drive.
At Reh. # 2 (bar 44), whilst the strings play the material from the opening at a pp level, the first violin (and oboe) parts play the melodic part of the theme for the first time. Here it is introduced f. The sameness of the articulations used by both oboe and violin here helps blend the instruments.
The clarinet, trombone and horn instruments enter at bar three of rehearsal # 2 and combine to softly articulate notes on the first, third and fifth pulses, recapturing the feel of the hemiolas so prevalent in the opening theme. The use of these instruments at this point diverts the listeners’ ears so that the shifting accentuation of rhythm is more obvious.
From 3 (bar 54), the instruments combine loudly to present part of the opening rhythmic motif (woodwind and trombone), the development of the opening statement (strings), the triple meter feel of the short quavers (horn), and a descending four note quaver pattern which helps link the phrases together (guitar and bassoon). These parts are played together and form the transition into bar 61 where the 2nd theme is stated. Rodrigo demonstrates his sophisticated orchestra scoring techniques in this passage in which he is able to combine all elements of the opening section successfully with the use of all the instruments. In so doing, the rhythm still remains light, buoyant and dance like.
Bar 142 – violin tremolo combines with guitar triplet semiquaver rhythm, sounding more unified
Reh. # 4 - second theme is introduced and is played by solo guitar, similar to the cante flamenco in which the guitar usually begins.
In the next bar, the flute and piccolo combine with the guitar to perform a trill and to add Rodrigo’s signature dissonance by creating discordant intervals between them. They appear with a pp dynamic.
The oboe and bassoon join the guitar with its detached quavers and thematic material, two bars before 5 with an f dynamic. The clarinet has its say by reiterating the last two notes of the phrase when first played by the guitar, and then when played by the oboe and bassoon. It too appears with an f dynamic. This brief imitation is reminiscent of Baroque practices (sim. neocasticismo)
At Reh. # 6, all the strings combine with an f dynamic and accent to strongly articulate the first and second beats of the bar.
Rodrigo employs a four-note semiquaver figure in the second and fourth bars of the third theme (bars 84 & 86) in the guitar part. (Ex.3) It appears on the fourth and fifth pulses. This figure contains dissonant semitones which are heard played together – another of Rodrigo’s surprises. The dissonance gives a comical effect to the music here, which is further enhanced by the use of the bassoon playing the staccato quavers. In the next two bars, the dissonant rhythm is imitated on a Bb note by the first violin part but with a pp dynamic. The imitation of material between the instruments gives a sense of cohesion, surprise and forward movement to the music.
Six bars before 10 (bar 115), Rodrigo writes a continuous flurry of semiquaver and triplet semiquaver notes for the guitar to lead us into the new section. This demanding technique is idiomatic of the Spanish guitar and may be noted throughout much of the next part also. The strings are used in these bars to accent, very loudly, the first beat in these measures. Hence, the first section culminates with intensity, before the guitar triplet semiquavers land at 10. Rodrigo commonly uses a descending flurry of notes to link themes and sections. (See Ex. 9, guitar part, bars 215-217).
At reh. # 10- pp dynamics again. Opening rhythmic theme now in A minor. The cello enters in the third bar with a legato and expressive reflection of what comprised part of the first theme. Its mellow expression draws out these notes sonorously.
The flute pays a very gentle (ppp) flurry of notes over the lyrical theme of the cello, gently enhancing its expression.
At 11, the dominant key is established – A major. Here, the guitar states the opening theme in the new key before it is joined by the violin with a descending flurry of notes, as though pre-empting what the guitar is about to embark upon. Like the traditional Spanish folk music and flamenco, the guitar is often used to introduce material.
The second bar of 13 alludes to the lyrical cello playing just after 10, with the oboe playing the theme in the same vain but a semitone lower. Here, the guitar plays semiquaver runs beneath it. (Ex. 7) Previously, however, the flute was used to play the runs above the cello part. The stating of thematic material by different instruments is a common device used by Rodrigo. He does not assign any one instrument solely to any one particular theme. This gives the movement a sense of blend, surprise, musical interest and a forward urge.
5th bar of reh. # 14 - the texture is thicker; f marking for all the instruments with many of them playing demisemiquaver notes, adding to the intensity of the music. Guitar here strums chords strongly on beat. The brass instruments combine with it to further add strength.
The intensity continues to increase into reh. # 15 by the use of the accented trills on the violins, the higher tessitura of the flute, piccolo and oboe and the use of fff, 5 bars later, for all instruments.
The last demisemiquaver run, before the recapitulation at 16, combines the flute, piccolo, oboe, clarinet, violin one, two and viola in a fff flurry of eleven descending notes which land on a D note. Here, the recapitulation begins in D major, with the violin and oboe stating thematic material from the beginning of the movement in a proclamatory manner.
The coda enters at 22 with a thick texture (all the orchestra instruments are playing) and with a ff dynamic. The higher range of the flute and piccolo are used and there is substantial repetition in the main melody, which is played by all the woodwind instruments in unison. The rhythmic intensity here is reminiscent of the strong rhythmic elements of the Fandango, with the movement concluding with a grand finale sound (Ex. 9, from bar 217).
The guitar enters at 24 strumming a D chord very loudly and imitating the rhythm presented in the previous bars by the other instruments. The repetition here is reminiscent of a Beethoven style coda. Eight bars before the end, the guitar plays the staccato quaver figure from the opening statement. It is accompanied by a similar figure in the bassoon and trombone parts where it is thrown between them as though in some form of dialogue. The texture has suddenly become thinner and all three instruments are playing softly.
The piece quietly ends with the guitar stating the opening theme. The bassoon accompanies the guitar as it lightly plays the last four notes … a form of repose after the energetic display of the preceding material. (Example 10) Throughout the work the pulsating rhythm continues, elegantly combining with instruments playing themes and runs. Even when melodies unfold with various instruments, the woodwinds may always feel the underlying rhythmic pulse – at times, other times with the strings.
Example 10 (last 8 bars)
Excerpt one – Angel Romero
Introduction of third theme, (bar 83), Romero plays the 3rd pulse as a strummed chord and sustains it over the 4th pulse, leaving out the bass A note which would otherwise be here. This gives the bar a simple triple feel rather than a compound duple feel. In so doing, the part blends more closely with the bassoon accompaniment here, which has a simple triple feel.
At the end of some phrases, certainly leading into new sections, Romero may hold onto the note, which he lands on after a run. Instead of making it a short note as is indicated on the music, he lets it ring through the bar, which creates an overlapping effect with the new phrase introduced by the orchestra Ex.-bar 26, reh. # 1. (CD-0:36-40).
Romero more consistently articulates his notes to make them short, thereby combining more closely with the orchestral instruments that share the same material. Exampleupbeat to bar 70 – 75, (CD-1:37-42). Here the guitar combines more closely with the oboe, clarinet and bassoon, which have interspersed short quavers similar to the guitar part.
In general, orchestra in Romero version seems louder and more strident, adding to the exciting Spanish dance feel of the movement. The orchestra in excerpt 2 seems more constrained. Although this could also be due to audio compression techniques used in a studio.
Describe characteristics of excerpts from works selected, including excerpts that have meaning or contribute to expressiveness
CHARACTERISTICS that have meaning and contribute to expressiveness -
Many excerpts from the 1st movement clearly display Rodrigo’s style of neocasticismo;The first movement of the concerto is based on the classical concerto form – sonata form His use of classical concerto elements can be reflected in his choice of simple tonalities and predominantly conventional modulations which adhere to the sonata form; virtuosic runs; smooth and lyrical melodic lines; use of trills; use of orchestra to accompany the guitar; balanced solo and tutti passages; each movement is titled with its tempo indication. The light textural orchestration, although appropriate to accompany the guitar, also reflects the lightness of classical music.
These are the ‘neo’ components of the ‘caticismo’. The ‘caticismo’ relates to the Spanish folk elements inherent in the music – -
His juxtaposition of duple and triple meters is typical of many Spanish folk dances; His use of Spanish style rasguedo guitar strums; Quick semiquavers on guitar which are an inherent part of flamenco guitar music; Use of staccato articulation, which gives the rhythm a strong forward drive whilst making it light and buoyant. This gives the music a dance like feel and is reminiscent of Spanish folk dances; Use of accents on the fourth pulse of the opening theme, in the third bar, which further emphasises the dance like meter. (The theme occurs over three bars) The use of all the instruments playing together towards the end of the first movement, with a ff dynamic, emphasise the fandango dance like character of the movement with its use of hematomas; The spasmodic use of harmonic dissonance represents Rodrigo’s style of writing and reflects his influence from the atonal stream of his European counterparts. The entrance of the guitar, predominantly by itself at the beginning of the movement, alludes to flamenco, where the guitar usually introduces a song/dance. Even though Rodrigo uses many classical concerto elements in this movement, this strays from the convention. Usually the classical concerto begins with the orchestra. The continuous staccato indication, especially above the rhythmic theme, gives the movement a light continuous rhythmic movement and forward surge The appearance of the melodic theme played legato instead of staccato (eggs - cello from bar 117; oboe from bar 143; bassoon from bar 145) gives a lamentful feel to the thematic quote whilst still being accompanied by a detached rhythmic theme. This is similar to a lamentful flamenco song, which is still accompanied by a strong sense of rhythm. The continuous change in metric feel - from compound duple to simple triple time, gives it a strong Spanish dance feel and a feeling of forward movement The descending semiquavers, which lead to a new theme, section, or even, at times, phrase, give a sense of leading somewhere new. Explain and discuss similarities and differences between excerpts from two different interpretations in performance of works DIFFERENCES
Excerpt 1 (Angel Romero & San Antonio Symphony Orchestra)
Excerpt 2 (Slava Grigoryan & The Qld Orchestra)
1. Recorded in 1967 in an auditorium for tape. Digitally remastered in 1996 2. Tempo is faster 3. Guitar opens with a rasguedo chord. 4. In bar 15 Romero only plays top note of chord on pulses 5 & 6. At his faster tempo, this makes the transition clearer. 5. Double bass is difficult to discern with sustained D note in opening 18 bars. 6. Guitar emphasis is felt more strongly on dotted crotchet beats of opening rhythmic figure 7. Double bass is much more prominent at bars 9 to 24 8. When Romero plays last note in descending run, leading to a D (bar 26) it is sustained for whole bar.(CD-0:36-0:40) 9. In bar 61 Romero draws out the opening chord of the rhythmic theme with a thumb strum(CD-1:221:24) 10. At bar 64, Romero repeats previous melodic theme ponti (close to bridge) to create a sharper and more metallic quality in sound. He goes back to ‘natural’ position for next two bars then repeats those bars in the ‘ponti’ position also. This alters the timbral result and is a common ploy used by guitarists to add musical interest to what they play. It may also be used to help more clearly define phrasing, imitation, repetition and accents (CD-1:26-1:29) 11. On 5th & 6th pulses of bars 65 & 67guitar notes are played detached. 12. Bar 73, 1st pulse, Romero plays principal notes only. 13. Romero clearly detaches quaver upbeat notes to bar 70. 14. Romero plays notes from upbeat to bar 72 to 1st beat of bar 73 with RH in nat. position. 15. At bar 79 (reh. # 6), violin 1 trill is heard more stridently. 16. Beginning of 3rd theme (bar 83) Romero strums full chord on the 3rd pulse, with A note in the bass. He lets the chord ring over the 5th pulse instead of plucking the A bass note here. Repeats on 3rd pulse of bar 85. This tends to shift the accent onto the third pulse, giving the bar more of a simple triple feel than a compound duple feel.(CD_1:52-58
Digitally recorded in a studio in 2005
2. Tempo is slower 3. Grig. first uses rasguedo when chord position changes in bar 7 then when chord position changes again in bar 13 and on the middle chord of bar 14. 4. Grig. plays full chord changes here. 5. bars
Double bass plays sustained D for 1st 18
6. Guitar emphasis is not so clearly indicated on dotted crotchet beats. Often more weighty on 2nd & 5th pulses of bar 7. Double bass part is much more subtle. Accents on 1st note of 3 note descents, bars 20 & 22 not heard. 8. After same run, Grig. cuts note short in bar 26 like guitar part suggests (Play CD- 0:34-0:36) 9. At bar 61 Grig. emphasises the first chord of the rhythmic theme with a rasguedo (CD-1:231:25) 10. Grig. stays predominantly in normal position, with hand playing at right side of bridge, throughout these bars (CD-1:27-1:30) 11. On 5th & 6th pulses of bars 65 & 67, guitar notes are played smoothly 12. On 1st pulse of bar 73, Grig. plays a mordent (decorative note) to embellish the melody. 13. Grig. Does not detach upbeat notes to bar 70 14. From upbeat of bar 72 to 1st beat of bar 73, Grig. Plays notes ponti 15. Violin trill here is difficult to discern 16. Grig. Plays notes as written in music. He plucks a 4 note chord and plays the A bass note on the 5th pulse maintaining a compound duple feel in the bar. ( CD 1:55-2:01)
17. In bar 88, Romero only plays top notes in quaver passage. This may be for technical ease and a clearer result (CD- 1:57-2:01)
17. Grig. Plays notes as written in music. He plucks a 4 note chord and plays the A bass note on the 5th pulse maintaining a compound duple feel in the bar. (exemplify/ CD 1:55-2:01)
18. In bar 95, Romero strums both chords as a straight strum.
18.In bar 95, Grig. strums these chords rasguedo
19. In bars 97 and 99, like in bars 83 & 85, Romero plays 19. Grig. plays the notes as are written here, a full chord on pulse 3, without playing the bass note on maintaining the compound duple feel (CD-2:15-2:22) the 4th pulse. Unlike in bars 83 & 85, however, he does not let the chord ring over the 4th pulse but cuts it. This still lends itself to more of a simple triple feel in the bar (CD-2:11-2:16) 20. Romero only plays the top notes of the quavers on pulses 5 & 6 of bar 97, and pulses 1 & 2 of 98. He does similarly on pulse 5 of bar 99 and pulses 1 & 2 of bar 100. To play the bass notes also here is very jumpy and may not be convincingly performed at the speed Romero plays this movement.
20. Grig. plays the notes as written.
21. In bar 102, although Romero does play the bottom quaver notes here, he descends to an F in the lower part, on the 5th pulse, instead of ascending to a Bb as indicated. Accidental or memory of pattern slightly altered?? Perhaps as the Bb note is situated directly under the F note Romero played.
21. In the lower voice, Grig. ascends to a Bb note on the 5th pulse as indicated in the music.
22. At bar 109, Romero performs a basic strum on the two chords on beats 1 and 2 but adds a D note on the 3rd and 6th pulses. This note is indicated in the violin 1 part and acts as the resolving note of the trill on the 1st and 2nd beats. Romero adds attention to this note by playing it also, even though it is not indicated in the guitar part.(CD-2:28-2:30)
22. Grig. Performs a rasguedo on these chords to add strength with Spanish flair as this bar is marked ff for the string section which accompany the guitar here also. He does not add any note, which is not indicated in the music. (CD-2:33-35)
23. Romero holds the resolution of the run –an A note, for a full bar in bar 115 (2nd part of movement). Romero did the same after a run in bar 26, overlapping the previous phrase with the new one.
23. Grig. Only holds this note for a quaver’s worth as indicated in the music.
24.On the 4th pulse of bar 123, the cellist detaches the 4th pulse (CD-2:43-46)
24. On the 4th pulse of bar 123, the cellist maintains a legato line (CD-2:50-54)
25. At bars 119, 122 and 124, there is a natural harmonic indicated in the music. In this version, it cannot be heard. It is not known whether Romero did not play it or
25. The harmonics in these bars are quite audible in this version (CD-2:46-55)
whether the older recording was not sophisticated enough to pick it up over the string section (or is it my stereo system??)(CD-2:40-50) 26. In bar 133, Romero does not play the chord on the first beat but just the top note, which initiates the run. This may be for technical ease. 27. Romero plays 1st chord in bar 150 straight and does not play the next 2 semiquavers & quaver evenly but rolls them in one rasguedo pattern to emulate a Spanish feel more closely.
26.Grig. plays the A chord on the first beat here.
27. Grig. Plays 1st chord in bar 150 with rasguedo. (exemplify)
28. On the 6th pulse of bar 150, and the 1st pulse of the next bar, Romero does not play the chords beneath those notes.
28. Grig. Plays all notes as indicated.
29.At bar 157, 159, and 161,instead of playing the run as 2 groups of 6 semiquavers, Romero plays 6 semiquavers, 4 demisemiquavers and two detached quavers.(CD ex. 3:32-3:40)
29. Grig. Plays semiquavers evenly here (CD ex. 3:403:48)
30. Bars 164 & 165-trombones do not play trills (CD3:42-45)
30. Bars 164 & 165-both trombones play trills in 3rds (CD-3:50-54)
31. Bar 183- Romero strums chords straight 31. Bar 183-Grig. plays both chords rasguedo 32. Bars 187&188, Romero plays ponti 32. Bars 187 & 188,Grig. Plays chords nat. 33. In bar 198, Romero, like seen much earlier on, strums chord on 3rd pulse, without playing 4th pulse. He does similarly in bar 201, also leaving out the 6th pulse here. This gives a stronger triple feel than duple feel. 34. At bars 200 and 201, on the 4th and 5th pulses 4 semiquavers are notated. Romero plays these as 3 triplet semiquavers and a quaver (CD-4:36-40) 35. Romero plays chords on beats 1 & 2 of bar 211, and beat 1 of bar 212, straight.
33. Grig. Plays the notes as are written, predominantly maintaining a compound feel in these bars.
34. Grig. Plays these as stated – 4 semiquavers. (CD-4:47-51)
36. From bar 218, the loud volumes and intensity are maintained until the orchestra drops out (bar two instruments) 8 bars before the end CD-5:06-10)
35. Grig. Plays these chords with a strong rasguedo, overriding the string accompaniment, which is also playing loudly at this point. 36. From the upbeat of bar 223, the orchestra performs subito pp, although not indicated in the score. It crescendos through the next couple of bars again to a ff (CD-5:15-5:23)
37. Romero holds the D note, in bar 237, for 2 bars.
37. Grig. Holds the D note, in bar 237, as a short quaver, as indicated in the music.
38. Romero plays his last phrase quieter than Grig. and rolls the last chord, with his thumb, allowing it to ring slightly longer than the other version. (It is indicated as a quaver in the music) (CD-5:10-31)
38. Grig. performs the first chord in the last phrase (bar 239) which is indicated with a pp, with a medium loud rasguedo. He plucks the last chord so it is not drawn out and much quieter (CD-5:23-5:45).
S I M I L A R I T I E S Between versions 1. Angel Romero & San Antonio Symphony Orchestra and 2. Slava Grigoryan and Queensland Symphony Orchestra. 1. Guitars enter with a strum indicative of rasguedo 2. At bar 26, strings enter lightly, stating the theme, and build up gradually to a ff in bar 38 before immediately dropping again in bar 41 3. Although orchestration includes oboe at bar 44 (rehearsal number 2) with entrance of melodic part of theme, only the violin is heard in both versions 4. At rehearsal number 3 (bar 54) instruments enter ff, elatingly expressing part of a dance with several components of opening theme being stated simultaneously 5. On 5th & 6th pulses of bars 71 & 72, guitar notes are played detached 6. Both guitarists perform runs with rest stroke 7. Both guitarists play semiquaver run from bars 110 to 114 by articulating every note. Often guitarists will use slurs to make difficult runs easier. 8. At bar 115 (reh. # 10-beginning of 2nd part of Mm), both versions have the string section maintaining the springy rhythm of the opening lightly, with the cello entering with the first melodic theme played, this time, smoothly. 9. Both versions are observing the accents, which appear prevalently in all the instrumental parts from bar 134 (reh. # 12) to 137. Melodic themes and derivatives, which are swung about between all instruments, are always clearly stated and discernable. 10. Both versions culminate in an intense climax before the recapitulation with observance to accents and dynamics. 11. All instruments in both versions come together for a climactic ending with loud dynamics, blended articulations and emphatic accents. 12. Both guitarists gradually slow down in the second last to last bars of the Mm.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. "Joaquín Rodrigo," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopaedia 2008 http://au.encarta.msn.com © 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. (Accessed 8/3/09) 2. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco_era (Accessed 8/3/09) 3. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaqu%C3%ADn_Rodrigo (Accessed 8/3/09) 4. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Dukas (Accessed 9/3/09) 5. Donis, Jose Antonio, thesis, ‘The Musicologist Behind the Composer’, http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-06302005-125300/ (Accessed 9/3/09) 6. .Guitarra Magazine, http://www.guitarramagazine.com/GuitarSpain1 7. Discography-Concierto de Aranjuez, Rodrigo, Slava & Leonard Grigoryan, ABC Classics, 1995, Brisbane; notes by Shrubb H., Frindle Y., Shea N. 8. Rodrigo, J., pub. 1957, RODRIGO Concierto de Aranjuez for Guitar and Orchestra, Ed. Eulenberg No. 1809, London 9. Discography-Rodrigo Concierto de Aranjuez and Concierto Andaluz, The Romeros, Mercury 1967; remastered 1996, USA; notes by Ringo J. 10. Heninger, B., http://www.barbwired.com/barbweb/programs/rodrigo_concierto.html, (Accessed 10/3/09) 11. Discography- Grier, C., Julian Bream, Rodrigo Concierto Aranjuez, 1975 RCA Records, N.Y. 12. Discography- Diaz, A., Rodrigo Concierto Aranjuez for Guitar and Orchestra and other Guitar favourites, Everest Records, LA California 13. Discography- Williams, J., Rodrigo: Concierto de Aranjuez, CBS Recording, U.S.A., 1984