Jeanne Holversto-, MS

S.O.S.! Developing  Social  Skills   in  ASDs Jeanne  Holversto-,  MS Au9sm  Spectrum  Specialist Responsive  Centers 913.451.8550  ext.  121 Wedne...
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S.O.S.! Developing  Social  Skills   in  ASDs

Jeanne  Holversto-,  MS

Au9sm  Spectrum  Specialist Responsive  Centers 913.451.8550  ext.  121

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

[email protected] www.jeanneholversto3.com Twi3er:  @jholversto3

Workshop  Objec9ves • Familiarity  with  the  diagnos9c  criteria  for: – Au9s9c  Disorder – Asperger’s  Disorder – Pervasive  Developmental  Disorder  –  Not  Otherwise  Specified

• Recogni9on  of  the  breadth  of  the  impact  of  social  impairment   on  the  daily  func9oning  of  individuals  with  ASD • Framework  for  developing  social  skills • Crea9on  of  a  toolbox  of  remedia9on  strategies

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Challenge   • Try  to  name  a  skill/behavior  that  does  not   have  some  social  component:   – Used  for  social  purposes – Absence  has  nega9ve  social  outcomes – Deficit  has  long-­‐term  impact  on  learning  future   skills

• Conten9on:  Every  symptom/manifesta9on  of   ASDs  has  a  social  impact

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  “Triad  of  Impairments”

THEORETICAL  FRAMEWORK

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Lorna  Wing • Theore3cal  Framework: – Au9sm:  Wing,  L.  &  Gould,  J.  (1979),  "Severe   Impairments  of  Social  Interac9on  and  Associated   Abnormali9es  in  Children:  Epidemiology  and   Classifica9on",  Journal  of  Au+sm  and   Developmental  Disorders,  9,  pp.  11-­‐29. – Asperger’s  Disorder:  Wing,  L.  (1981),  “Asperger’s   Syndrome:  A  Clinical  Account”.  Psychol  Med  11   (1):  115–29.  

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  “Triad  of  Impairments”  

(Gould  and  Wing,  1979)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Deconstruc9ng  the  Triad

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Impact  of  Language: Global  Characteris9cs • Repe33ve  or  rigid  language – – – – – –

No  meaning Seems  out  of  context  in  conversa9ons Immediate  echolalia High-­‐pitched  or  singsong  voice  or  use  robot-­‐like  speech Stock  phrases  to  start  a  conversa9on Repeat  what  they  hear  on  television  programs  or   commercials  (delayed  echolalia)

• Narrow  interests  and  excep3onal  abili3es – In-­‐depth  monologue  about  a  topic  that  holds  their   interest,  even  though  they  may  not  be  able  to  carry  on  a   two-­‐way  conversa9on  about  the  same  topic.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Impact  of  Language:   Global  Characteris9cs • Uneven  language  development:  Many  children  with  au9sm   develop  some  speech  and  language  skills,  with  uneven  progress. – – – – –

Range:  Nonverbal  to  Hyper-­‐verbal Strong  vocabulary  in  a  par9cular  area  of  interest  very  quickly Good  memories  for  informa9on  just  heard  or  seen Hyperlexia Fail  to  respond  to  the  speech  of  others  and  may  not  respond  to  their   own  names

• Poor  nonverbal  conversa5on  skills – Lack  of  or  limited  use  of  gestures  to  give  meaning  to  their  speech – Avoid  eye  contact,  which  can  make  them  seem  rude,  uninterested,  or   ina3en9ve – Not  “seeing”  and/or  not  understanding  the  facial  expressions,  body   posture,  and  gesture  of  others – Not  aware  of  volume  and  tone  of  voice  in  self  and  in  others

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Impact  of  Language:   Expressive  Language • Using  speech  or  “expressive  language”

– Kanner  highlighted  the  delay  or  absence  of  speech  in  his   diagnosis.  Use  of  speech  varies  from  not  at  all  (in  20%  of   cases)  to  a  very  good  level  of  language.  Common  speech   problems  include:

• Repea9ng  words  spoken  to  them  (echolalia); • Asking  for  things  by  repea9ng  a  phrase  they  associate  with  the   ac9on  e.g.  'Do  you  want  a  cup  of  tea'  instead  of  'I  want  a  cup  of   tea'; • Missing  linking  words  out  of  sentences  such  as  'in'  'on'  'because'  or   'under.'  For  example  a  child  may  say  'go  car  shop'  missing  out  the   joining  words; • Explaining  in  greater  detail  than  is  necessary; • Long  replies  to  ques9ons  spoken  as  if  learned  from  a  book.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Impact  of  Language:   Expressive  Language • Using  speech  or  “expressive  language”   – Slow  processing  speed – Limited  flexible  use  of  emo9ons  words – Limited  self-­‐advocacy – Out-­‐of-­‐context  language – Func9onal  versus  pragma9c

• Not  knowing  “what  to  say”,  “when”  to  say   “it”,  or  perhaps  even  “why”  to  say  it

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Impact  of  Language:   Recep9ve  Language • Understanding  speech  or  “recep1ve  language” – As  speech  varies,  so  does  understanding – Most  people  with  ASD  can  understand  some  speech – Difficul:es  arise  in  a  number  of  situa:ons: • When  objects  have  more  than  one  name  such  as  a  bowl   (washing  up  or  ea9ng  from?); • Confusion  between  the  sound  of  a  word  (e.g.  meet  and   meat); • Literal  interpreta9on:  Imagine  if  you  took  phrases  like  'it's   raining  cats  and  dogs'  or  'have  you  lost  your  tongue'  literally; • Humor,  especially  that  which  relates  to  verbal  ambiguity,   can  be  difficult  for  a  person  with  au9sm  (i.e.  sarcasm,  puns).

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Impact  of  Language:   Recep9ve  Language • Overes1mated  recep1ve  language   comprehension – High  IQs – Literal – Abstract – Figures  of  speech – Slow  processing  speed – When  they  get  it,  but  it’s  not  what  we  mean  (and  we   don’t  figure  it  out  un:l  later…..and  they  might  not)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Deconstruc9ng  the  Triad

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Impairments  in  Thinking  and  Behaving •



Repe99ve  stereotyped  ac9vi9es  (Simple  stereotypies  may  last  into  adulthood) –

Tas9ng,  smelling,  feeling  or  tapping  different  surfaces;



Listening  to  mechanical  noises  such  as  washing  machines;



Switching  lights  on  and  off;



Spinning  objects;



Head  banging.

More  complex  stereotyped  behaviors  include: –

A  complex  sequence  of  bodily  movements;



Placing  objects  in  long  lines  that  cannot  be  moved;



Extensive  bed9me  rou9nes;



The  family  sieng  in  exactly  the  same  places  at  meal9mes;



A3achment  to  strange  objects  such  as  pieces  of  string  or  leaves;  and



Collec9ng  strange  objects  such  as  9ns  of  polish.



In  more  able  people  with  au9sm,  fascina9on  with  the  weather,  9metables,  train   numbers,  etc.  may  be  found.



Many  of  the  above  do  not  extend  into  adulthood.  However,  fascina9on  with   numbers  and  sequences  can  ofen  con9nue.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Impairments  in  Thinking  and  Behaving • Wing  observed  a  number  of  addi:onal  features   that  in  themselves  are  not  universal: – Stereotyped  movements  -­‐  such  as  finger  flapping,  arm   waving,  jumping,  head  rolling  and  walking  on  :ptoe; – Abnormali:es  of  gait  and  posture  are  some:mes  seen   -­‐  where  the  child  may  not  swing  his/her  arms  properly   when  walking,  may  hold  their  hands  out  when  walking   or  may  bend  their  fingers  or  arms  in  unusual  ways; – The  person  with  au:sm  may  have  marked  difficul:es   with  physical  educa:on  and  games.  This  is  especially   the  case  with  team  sports.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Impairments  in  Thinking  and  Behaving • Inappropriate,  difficult  behavior  is  frequent  in   children  with  ASD.  This  may  manifest  itself  in   a  number  of  ways: – Confusion  and  fear  of  unfamiliar  circumstances; – Restlessness,  destruc9ve  and  aggressive  behavior; – Screaming  and  temper  tantrums; – People  with  ASD  generally  will  not  lie  so  if  they   see  what  they  consider  to  be  an  ugly  baby  or  a   very  short  person.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Impairments  in  Thinking  and  Behaving   • The  complex  process  of  self-­‐regula:on:  Knowing   when  something  is  “wrong” 1.  Recogni:on: • • • •

Understanding  physical  states Understanding  emo9onal  states Understanding  behavioral  paPerns Understanding  cogni9ve  paPerns

2.  Decipher  the  problem 3.  Select  a  strategy 4.  Implement  a  strategy 5.  Reassess  the  effec:veness  of  the  strategy

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Impairments  in  Thinking  and  Behaving • Sensory  processing  greatly  impacts  daily   func9oning • General  themes: – Hyper-­‐  or  hypo-­‐sensi9ve:  taste,  smell,  touch,   movement,  sound,  visual   – Inconsistent  impact  within  a  sensory  system  and   across  the  sensory  systems – Strategies: • Seek • Avoid

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Deconstruc9ng  the  Triad

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Breadth  of  Social  Impairment • “The  aloof  group”:  Most  common  type  of  impairment – – – – – – – – –

Behaving  as  if  other  people  do  not  exist; LiPle  or  no  eye  contact  made; No  response  when  spoken  to; Faces  empty  of  expression  except  with  extreme  joy,  anger,  or   distress; No  response  to  cuddling; If  something  is  wanted,  carer’s  hands  may  be  pulled  towards   the  object; Does  not  ask  for  help; May  respond  to  rough  and  tumble  play  well,  but  when  this   stops  return  to  aloof  paPern; Seem  to  'be  in  a  world  of  their  own'.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Breadth  of  Social  Impairment • “The  passive  group”:  Least  common  group – The  child  accepts  social  approaches; – May  meet  the  gaze  of  others; – May  become  involved  as  a  passive  part  of  a  game.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Breadth  of  Social  Impairment • “The  ac3ve  but  odd”  group:  Make  ac9ve   approaches  to  others  but  make  that  contact  in   strange  ways,  including: – Paying  no  alen9on  to  the  other  party; – Poor  eye  contact  although  some9mes  may  stare   too  long; – May  hug  or  shake  hands  too  hard.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Breadth  of  Social  Impairment • “The  over-­‐formal,  s3lted  group”:  Seen  in  later   life,  this  behavior  is  common  in  the  most  able   person  with  ASD.   – Excessively  polite  and  formal; – Good  level  of  language; – Try  very  hard  to  s9ck  to  the  rules  of  social   interac9on  without  really  understanding  them.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Overarching  Themes  of   Social  Impairment • “Mindblindness”  (Baron  Cohen,  1997) – Predic9ng – Reading  inten9ons – Understanding  emo9ons – Explaining  own  behavior – Perspec9ve  or  reference – Reading  and  reac9ng  to  others’  interests – Understanding  social  interac9ons

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Overarching  Characteris9cs  of   Social  Impairment • Nonverbal  cues • Ini9a9ng  and  maintaining  social  interac9ons • Literalness • Perspec9ve  taking • Hidden  curriculum • Conveying  own  thoughts • May  not  use  social  e9quele • May  sound  more  competent  than  they  are – Expressive  language  more  advanced  than  recep9ve – Say  something  without  knowing  what  it  means  (“Bleep,  bleep”)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Diagnos(c  and  Sta(s(cal  Manual  of  Mental  Disorders

CLINICAL  FRAMEWORK

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Examining  the  Diagnos9c  Criteria • Clinical  Framework:     Diagnos(c  and  Sta(s(cal  Manual  of  Mental   Disorders,  Fourth  Edi9on,  Text  Revision  (DSM-­‐ IV,  TR,  2000)  by  the  American  Psychiatric   Associa9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

(Overly)  Simple  Differen9a9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Qualita9ve  Impairment   in  Social  Interac9on  (2  AD,  2  AS)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Qualita9ve  Impairment   in  Communica9on  (1AD,  0AS)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Restricted,  Repe99ve  and  Stereotyped   Behaviors,  Interests,  and  Ac9vi9es  (1AD,  1AS)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Addi9onal  Diagnos9c  Criteria

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

QUESTION:  WHAT  IS  A  “SOCIAL  SKILL”? Answer:  What  isn’t? Complica+ng  Factor:  What  are  we  trying  to  achieve?

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

What’s  the  Difference?:   Social  Skills  vs.  Competence • Social  Skills: – Discrete  abili9es:   • • • • •

good  eye  contact ability  to  maintain  and  repair  conversa9on joint  alen9on tone  of  voice word  choice  appropriate  to  audience

– Use  versus  outcome? • David  and  the  floa9ng  hand

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

What’s  the  Difference?:   Social  Skills  vs.  Competence • Social  Competence: – Successful  engagement  in  social  interac9ons  and   rela9onships  with  other  individuals  (Odom,  McConnell,  &   McEvoy,  1992) – Ability  to  ini9ate,  maintain  interac9ons  (reciprocity),  and   interact  appropriately,  even  when  difficult  (Guralnick,   1992)

• Complica9on:  Challenging  behaviors  are  also  social   interac9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

What’s  the  Difference?:   Social  Skills  vs.  Competence

• Inclusion/Integra9on  alone  is  not  the   panacea: – He  can  handle  the  situa9on – He  can  func9on  in  it  (socially  competent)

• Knowing  how  and  actually  doing  it • Bolom  line:  Put  them  to  good  use  and  get  the   results  (i.e.  a  social  goal)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

HOW  DO  WE  TEACH  SOCIAL   COMPETENCE?

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Treatment  Methodology • Instruc9on • Interpreta9on • Coaching

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

TREATMENT  METHODOLOGY:   INSTRUCTION “If  we  don’t  teach  it,  they  don’t  learn  it”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Instruc9onal  Strategies • Lack  of  incidental  learning • Direct  Instruc9on – Scope  and  Sequence – Controlled  Exercises – Video  Modeling

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Direct  Instruc9on:  Scope  and  Sequence • A  lis9ng  of  skills  in  developmental  order  of   acquisi9on • Helps  to  target  objec9ves  (school  and  clinic) • Assists  in  providing  instruc9on  in  a  systema9c   manner • Some  include  assessments  best  completed  in   a  social  situa9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Scope  and  Sequence:  Examples • Super  Skills  by  Judith  Coucouvanis • Space  Travelers  by  Josie  Santomauro • Skills  Streaming  by  Arnold  Goldstein  and  Ellen   McGinnis • Naviga+ng  the  Social  World  by  Jeannele  McAfee • Social  Skills  Training  by  Jed  Baker • Social  Thinking  by  Michelle  Garcia  Winner

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Direct  Instruc9on:   Controlled  Exercises

• Step  1:  Describe  the  skill • Step  2:  Provide  a  ra9onale • Step  3:  Describe  general  situa9ons  in  which  to   use  the  skill • Step  4:  Teach  using  role  play • Step  5:  Iden9fy  social  rules

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Step  1:  Describe  the  Skill • • • •

Defini9on Verbal:  What  children  say Nonverbal:  What  children  do  (body  basics) Cogni9ve:  What  children  think

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Step  2:  Provide  a  Ra9onale • Explain  why • Discuss  how  the  skill  will  benefit  the  child • Provide  posi9ve  and  nega9ve  ra9onale   statements

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Step  3:  Describe  Situa9ons   in  which  to  Use  the  Skill • The  idea  is  to  communicate  appropriateness   or  inappropriateness • Increases  likelihood  of  generaliza9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Step  4:  Using  Role-­‐Play  to  Teach • Par9cipa9on • Describe  a  real-­‐life  situa9on,  assign  a  main   actor,  and  a  suppor9ng  actor • Conduct  role  play • Provide  feedback  (clinician,  peers)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Step  5:  Iden9fy  Social  Rules • Rules: – Govern  socially  acceptable  behavior – Guide  students  in  using  a  skill

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Direct  Instruc9on:  Video  Lessons • • • •

Show  a  videotaped  program  without  sound Have  students  videotape  themselves Use  silent  movies  to  teach  facial  expressions Using  media  with  over  exaggerated  ac9ng

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

TREATMENT  METHODOLOGY:   INTERPRETATION “Teaching  to  the  Loophole”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The  Challenge  of  Competence • “We’ve  given  him  all  of  the  tools.  He  just   needs  to  use  it.” – Prac9ce – Role  of  failure – Need  for  pa9ence

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Interpreta9on  Strategies • Scales,  Numbers,  and  Categories  (Oh  My!) • Social  autopsies • SOCCSS • SODA • Power  Cards • Social  Stories • Cartooning

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Scales  and  “Things” • Overarching  Goal:  Quan9fica9on – Omnipotent  Problem:  Abstrac9on  versus  Pragma9cs

• Categories,  Scales  and  Things: – Create  structure  and  “rules” – Provide  basis  for  comparison – Quan9fies  the  unquan9fiable  

• Examples: – – – –

“Love,  Like,  Hate  Scale” “Just  the  Facts” “Aspie  Target” “Fault  Form”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Five  Point  Scale  (Buron,  2003)

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Social  Autopsies  (LaVoie,  2001) • Adult-­‐assisted • Joint  analysis  of  child  social  errors – Iden9fies  error – Pinpoints  damage  to  others  and  self – Outlines  strategies  to  correct  damage – Teaches  new  strategies

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

SOCCSS  (Roosa,  1995) • • • • • •

Situa9on Op9ons Consequences Choices Strategies Simula9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

SODA  (Bock,  2001) • Stop – What  and  where  should  I  observe?

• Observe – Doing,  saying,  conversa9on  length,  arer  talking?

• Deliberate – What  would  I  like  to  say  or  do? – How  do  I  know  to  keep  talking  or  stop?

• Act   – Approach,  greet,  listen,  ask  related  ques9ons,  look  for   cues  (con9nue  or  stop),  and  end  conversa9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Power  Card  Strategy • The  Power  Card  is  a  visual  aid  that  incorporates  the  child’s   special  interest  to  teaching  appropriate  social  interac9ons   including  rou9nes,  behavior  expecta9ons,  the  meaning  of   language  and  the  hidden  curriculum  (Gagnon,  2001). • Not  a  stand  alone  interven9on: – Part  of  an  interven9on  strategy  package – Strategies  suggested  are  usually  strategies  concurrently  being  worked   on

• Not  a  teaching  tool: – Most  effec9ve  to  augment  a  skill  already  taught  to  a  child

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Power  Card  Strategy:  Components • A  short  scenario  describing  how  the  hero   solves  a  problem  similar  to  the  one   experienced  by  the  child  (reader) – Describes  how  this  hero  places  a  value  on  the   expected  behavior

• A  short  paragraph  recapping  the  strategy – Encourages  the  child  to  alempt  the  new  behavior

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Social  Stories  (Gray,  1999) • Describe  how  to  use  and  why  to  use  a  specific   skill  in  a  story  format – Favorite  character – Favorite  items

• “Buy  in”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Social  Stories  (Gray,  1999) • How  To: – Disclaimer – Op9on  1:  Describe  the  situa9on  not  working,   describe  the  skill  to  be  used,  describe  the   situa9on  working – Op9on  2:  Describe  the  use  of  the  skill  in  the   situa9on

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Social  Stories:  Examples • “School  is  Hard” • “Leave  it  on  the  Table”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Cartooning • Visual  Representa9on • Thought  Bubbles  AND  Talking  Bubbles • Benefits: – “On  the  fly” – No  Van  Gogh  here!

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

TREATMENT  METHODOLOGY:   COACHING “Prac9ce  makes  perfect  or,  at  least,  be3er.”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Social  Competence:  Coaching • Feed  the  language • Conversa9on  starters • Scripts

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Coaching:  Feeding  the  Language   (Collins,  n.d.)

• Jump  start • Verba9m  or  paraphrased  verbal  prompt • Can  be  used  to – Point  out  a  playmate  who  is  alone – Provide  a  topic – Provide  an  opening  sentence

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Coaching:  Conversa9on  Starters • List  of  topics – Eavesdropping – Asking  high-­‐status  peers

• Wrilen  on  business  card • Can  be  overtly  displayed  when  used

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Coaching:  Scripts • Provides  verba9m  (or  close  to  it)  structure • Uses  child/adolescent-­‐friendly  language • Targets  one  social  situa9on: – Predictability – Stress

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Final  Thoughts  on Treatment  Methodology • Instruc9on  à  Interpreta9on  à  Coaching – Progression  from  individual  to  group  format

• Social  competence  as  part  of  a  comprehensive   treatment  package • Making  it  Work:  We  are  the  P.R.O.S. – – – –

Prac9ce Repe99on Opportunity Sabotage

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Dispelling  Myths • “Individuals  on  the  spectrum  are  happy  to  be   alone.” • “Individuals  on  the  spectrum  are  aggressive   and  violent.” • “Au9sm  is  more  severe  than  Asperger’s.”   • “Eye  contact  is  always  bad.”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

When  was  the  last  9me  you  threw  a  hammer  away?

SMALL  GROUP  APPLICATION

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Ac9vity   • • • •

Pick  two  or  three  classmates Select  1  case  study Select  1  strategy  for  how  to  work  on  “goal” Iden9fy  possible  shortcomings  with  selected   strategy

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Case  Study:  Alex  (19)   • •



DX:  au9sm Relevant  Strengths:  well-­‐ mannered,  no  significant   externalized  behaviors,  able  to   engage  in  rudimentary  small  talk Relevant  Weaknesses:  lack  of   knowledge  about  how  his  DX   impacts  him  socially;  accep9ng   his  lack  of  interac9on;  “video   games  are  my  friends”;  “I  don’t   know  what  else  to  say”

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

• •

Goal:  Increase  peer   communica9on  at  school Plan:

Case  Study:  Joe  (8) • DX:  Asperger’s  Disorder • Relevant  Strengths:  well-­‐ mannered,  very  intelligent,   capable  of  assessing  if  a   strategy  will  work  for  him,   wily,  interacts  with  peers   with  some  success • Relevant  Weaknesses:   policing  and  anger   management

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

• Goal:  Reduce  impulsive   reac9ons  with  peers  when   upset • Plan

Case  Study:  Patrick  (14) • DX:  Asperger’s  Disorder • Relevant  Strengths:  well-­‐ mannered,  mo9vated  to   interact  with  peers,   ar9culate  about  himself • Relevant  Weaknesses:   mindblindness,  literalness,   puberty

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

• Goal:  Increase  more  socially   appropriate  interac9ons   with  same-­‐aged  females • Plan:

Recommending  Reading • • • • • •

Scope  and  Sequences   Gray,  C.  (1995).  Social  stories  unlimited:  Social  stories  and  comic  strip   conversa9ons.  Jenison,  MI:  Jenison  Public  Schools. Jackson,  Luke.  (2002).  Freaks,  geeks,  and  Asperger  Syndrome:  A  use  guide   to  adolescence.  London:  Jessica  Kingsley  Publishing. Myles,  B.S.,  Trautman,  M.L.,  &  Schelvan,  R.L.  (2004).  The  hidden   curriculum:  Prac9cal  solu9ons  for  understanding  unstated  rules  in  social   situa9ons.  Shawnee  Mission,  KS:  Au9sm  Asperger  Publishing  Company. Packer,  A.J.  (1997).  How  rude:  The  teenagers’  guide  to  good  manners,   proper  behavior  and  not  grossing  people  out.  Minneapolis,  MN:  Free   Spirit.   Robison,  J.E.  (2007).  Look  Me  in  the  Eye:  My  Life  with  Asperger’s.  New   York:  Crown.  

Wednesday, October 12, 2011