Introduction to Computers

Introduction to Computers Instructor: Heman Lee Jan 2012 October 2001 This Course is for YOU! • • • • • • Basic componen...
Author: Silvia Porter
0 downloads 2 Views 2MB Size
Introduction to Computers

Instructor: Heman Lee Jan 2012 October 2001

This Course is for YOU! • • • • • •

Basic components of the PC Speak Computerese (Geek Language) Use Mouse and Keyboard Navigate Windows OS Copy/Cut & Paste Concepts Safely turn off and on


The ENIAC • • • •

First Computer Unveiled 1946 $500,000 17,468 Vacuum Tubes • 8.5 X 3 X 80 feet Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer 3

Altair 8800 1975 Kit only BASIC Intel 8080 CPU 8 bit MSAI 8080


The IBM PC 1981  August 12th, 1982

 Cost $1665 with no drive.  160 K single sided floppy drive optional  PC DOS OS  Intel 8080 4.77 MHz  RAM: 16K-640K  A complete system with monitor, floppy drive, printer would run about $3,000


Apple Macintosh 128K 1984 • GUI • Mouse • 1 Floppy 400K • $2,495


What is a Computer? • • • •

Accepts/Inputs Data Processes Data Output Data Stores Data



Hardware vs Software • Physical part of the computer • You can touch it

Information or application programs used by the computer. You can not touch it.


The Operating System • User Interface • Host for applications • Manages Hardware (ie Memory, Keyboard, Mouse) • Interface to Computer Hardware 9

Computer Process Input

Output Monitor

Mouse Windows

CPU Keyboard



What is a PC (personal computer)? • Monitor (LCD) • System Unit • • • •

Motherboard Hard Drive Floppy Drive CD-ROM/DVD

• Keyboard and Mouse • Peripherals • OS • Software 11

The Motherboard



Hard Drive C:


RAM • • • • • •

Random Access Memory Tied to the CPU Main or primary storage Volatile Temporary (Volatile) Speed 400MHz (Speed of Light)


Hard Drive vs RAM

Access Time 20 – 40 ms Transfer Rate: 70-100 KB/s

RAM Access 20-60ns Transfer 2-6 G/s 15

Removable Storage

• • • • •

Floppy CD DVD Flash Portable HD 16

What is a Bit? 0 or 1 On or Off


A Byte In computer memory terms, the definition of a byte is a collection of eight bits. 0100 0010 = A 0100 0011 = B


Storage Size How much data? Unit Bit Byte Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte

Abb. Size 1 bit 8 bits K 1,025 bytes MB 1,048,576 bytes GB 1,024 Megabytes

Equivalent 1 text character 1/2 page of text A novel An encyclopedia

A Picture file from a 5 M Pixel Camera ~ 2 MB 4 minutes of uncompressed video ~ 100 MB 2 pages in Office Word take up 50K 19

Media Size How much data? Media Floppy CD DVD 4G Flash 1TB (Tera) Hard Drive

Size 1.44MB or 1,440K 700MB 4.7GB 4,700MB 1,048,576 bytes 1,024 Gigabyte

Equivalent 50pWord Doc 300 Photos 2,300 Photos 1,600 Photos 500 hours of video.

Peta 1015 , Exa 1018 , Zeta 10121 , Yolta 1024 20

Microsoft Windows OS • • • • • •

Windows 95, 98, ME, XP, Vista,7 ? Desktop and icons Task bar Start button Built-in Programs (WordPad, Paint) Internet Explorer Web Browser


The Mouse • • • • •

Left Button Only Click Drag Double-Click Right-Button (Shortcut Menu) • Scroll Button 22

Mouse Alternative • Trackball • Touchpad • Drawing Pad



Help Key

Windows Key

Print Screen to Clipboard

Application Key

Back when screens was green

Text Editing Navigation

NumLock On Numeric Keypad 24

Before you turn on your PC • Before starting your computer make sure you do not have a meda, Floppy, CD, Flash Drive, etc in the drive. • Turn on the Monitor. • If this does not happen, check the led light which is usually on the lower corner of the monitor unit.


Problems: Black or Blue • If computer was shut improperly, you may see a screen saying Windows would like to check your files for errors.

• If you get a black or blue screen, the computer may not have been shutdown properly. Try to continue by pressing Enter for Normal Boot.


How to power up you PC (Booting) 1. Turn on the monitor 2. Turn on any peripherals attached to you computer’s system unit. 3. Locate the power bottom on the computer’s system unit. 4. Press it once.


How to Power Up your PC (Booting)



The Start Menu


Shutting down your computer • Windows is very finicky about being shut down properly (do not just shut the power off) • Move your cursor to start button and click • Click on Shutdown

• Sometime Windows will install updated during shutdown, so be patient and wait for the screen to turn black. Laptops: Closing the lid will put the computer to sleep. You can change this action in your Control Panel>Power Option setting. 31

XP Shutdown


Vista Shutdown


Windows 7 Shutdown

Windows 7 Shutdown The Vista shutdown debacle is now fixed with Windows 7. Not only is it fixed, it is even better. You can custom what the button does with a simple right-click to launch the properties menu. 34

Restarting your computer • Sometimes your computer will start doing funny things or your mouse will stop working • Try ALT + CTL + DELETE • If you see a program is not responding, you can try to highlight that program and press the “End Task” button. • If nothing happens try ALT + CTL + DELETE again. This will restart your computer


Mouse • Pointing device that moves pointer or cursor • Point and click (tip of the arrow is the point) • Left and right buttons • Start programs - 2 clicks • Highlight text (click and drag) • Practice makes perfect


Mouse Arrow • • • • •

Arrow Busy Text Double arrow Hand (Panning)


Scrolling pages • Mouse – Click on up and down arrows or – Click on top of and below that darker box without touching the box or – Click and drag the darker box

• Keyboard (make sure cursor is on page by clicking on empty space) – Use arrow keys – Use page up, page down, home and end 38

Opening Programs • If on desktop as icon, double click on icon. If does not open press “Enter” key. • Click on “Start” button, Move cursor up to “Programs”. After menu on the right appears move cursor over to menu and up or down to required program. Click on program • If program has been minimized and appears on task bar, click on square representing program.


Closing programs • Click on the X icon in the top right hand corner of the window or • Put your cursor on File in menu bar and click, then move cursor down the drop-down menu to the bottom to word “Quit” or “Exit” or “Close”. Click on the word or • Hold down the Alt key and press F4.


Windows Controls Minimize Window

Maximize/Restore (Full Scrn/Not FS)

Close Program


WHAT IS A WINDOW Title bar Menu bar

Tool bar

Status bar


Using Menu Bars •

All Windows programs have a menu bar and everything you can do with that program will be available from one of the drop-down menus

Place tip of the cursor on the word in Menu bar and click. Move cursor down drop-down menu to selection you want to perform and click.

If item has an arrow pointing to the right move cursor to the right to see the submenu with more options.


Drop Down Menu With a sub-menu or cascading menu


List Box Look for the triangle to launch a List Box menu.


Menu The menu appear in the direction of the arrow.


Buttons New Help Button


Works like a switch (on or off) 46

Radio Buttons Select Only 1 choice


Check Box Buttons • More than one answer or choices Steak

Potatoes Dessert


Menu items common to most Windows programs • File (includes New file, Open file, Save and Print) • Edit (includes Find and Cut, Copy and Paste) • View (allows you to change the look of screen by adding and subtracting bars like tool bar) • Tool Bar (most programs but program specific) •

F1 Help used to give help in program’s functions and gives version number (About)

The File Menu is a legacy menu on Windows 7 The ALT key will display it temporarily. 49

Cut/Copy and Paste (Drag) 1. Select the text or object. 2. Click on the selected area and drag it to another place in the document.

3. The mouse arrow will show a box next to it.

4. Let go of the mouse button.


Paste Context Sensitive Choice When Copy or Cut is performed correctly, the computer knows this. The only choices left are in bold while the other choices are dimmed out.


Cut/Copy and Paste (Menu Bar Method) 1. Move cursor to Edit in

Window 7

Menu bar and select Copy or Cut ( is a Move) 2. Move the cursor to the area of the document or file where you would like to put the text and click. 3. Move cursor to Edit in Menu bar and select Paste


Using Tool Bars







• Icons which represent most frequently used actions. Look at the picture, it tells you what it does or mouse over it.


Cut, Copy & Paste 1. Drag and Drop No memorization required Require excellent mouse skills

2. On the Edit or Clipboard Menu No memorization require, just look for it on the menu.

3. Use Keyboard Shortcuts. Ctrl+C for Copy; Ctri+X for Cut Ctrl+V for Paste 54

Files & Folders

Hard Drive


File 55

Continue to Windows Skill2 or Windows 7 Basic Course


Suggest Documents