INTERNATIONAL SCAN SUMMARY REPORT ON PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLIST SAFETY AND MOBILITY

TheInternationalTechnologyScanningProgram  INTERNATIONALSCANSUMMARYREPORTON PEDESTRIANANDBICYCLISTSAFETYANDMOBILITY     Sponso...
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TheInternationalTechnologyScanningProgram 

INTERNATIONALSCANSUMMARYREPORTON PEDESTRIANANDBICYCLISTSAFETYANDMOBILITY 



  Sponsoredby FederalHighwayAdministration AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayTransportationOfficials NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram   PedestrianandBicyclistSafetyandMobilityInternationalScanTeam



EdwardL.Fischer(AASHTOCoͲChair),OregonDepartmentofTransportation GabeK.Rousseau(FHWACoͲChair),FederalHighwayAdministration ShawnM.Turner(ReportFacilitator),TexasTransportationInstitute Ernest(Ernie)J.Blais,FederalHighwayAdministration,VermontDivision CindyL.Engelhart,VirginiaDepartmentofTransportation DavidR.Henderson,MiamiͲDadeCountyMetropolitanPlanningOrganization Jonathan(Jon)A.Kaplan,VermontAgencyofTransportation VivianM.(Kit)Keller,AssociationofPedestrian&BicycleProfessionals JamesD.Mackay,BicycleTechnicalCommittee,NationalCommitteeonUniformTrafficControlDevices PriscillaA.Tobias,IllinoisDepartmentofTransportation DianeE.Wigle,NationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministration CharlieV.Zegeer,TheUniversityofNorthCarolinaHighwaySafetyResearchCenter

  June24,2009 

INTRODUCTION  InMay2009,ateamof12transportationprofessionalswithexpertiseinbicyclingandwalkingfromthe UnitedStates(U.S.)visitedfivecountriesinEurope(Table1)toidentifyandassesseffectiveapproaches toimprovepedestrianandbicyclistsafetyandmobility.ThecountriesidentifiedinTable1werechosen becauseoftheirinnovativeapproachestononmotorizedtransportation,aswellasthepotential transferabilityoftheirpoliciesandpractices.Some,likeDenmark,hadexperiencedanincreaseincar useinthe1960sand1970s,andsubsequentlyreorientedtheirtransportationpolicytogivepriorityto bicyclingandwalking.Thescanteamheardpresentationsfromandhadinformaldiscussionswiththe foreignhosts.Duringmostvisits,thescanteamalsowentonguidedfieldvisits(bybikeaswellasby foot)tobetterunderstandandexperiencethedesignandoperationofvariouswalkingandbicycling facilities.Thesefieldvisitswereinvaluableindocumentingthefacilitiesthroughphotosandvideo, observingtrafficbehavior,andexperiencingfirsthandhowwelladesignoroperationalstrategyworked.  Table1.HostedLocationsforthePedestrianandBicyclist SafetyandMobilityScanTour CountriesVisited LocalitiesVisited Sweden LundandMalmö Denmark CopenhagenandNakskov Germany BerlinandPotsdam Switzerland BernandWinterthur UnitedKingdom LondonandBristol  Thepurposeofthisscantourwastoidentifyandassesseffectiveapproachestoimprovepedestrianand bicyclistsafetyandmobility.Thespecifictopicsofinterestwere:  x ImprovingPedestrianandBicyclistSafety:Approaches(engineering,education,enforcement, andpolicy)thathavebeensuccessfulinimprovingpedestrianandbicyclistsafety.  x SafeRoutestoSchoolPrograms:Approachesandpoliciesforimprovingsafetyforchild pedestriansandbicyclists,especiallythosethatsupportprogramslike““SafeRoutestoSchool.””  x MonitoringUsageLevelsandExposure:Quantitativemethodsofmonitoringpedestrianand bicyclistusagelevels(forexample,countsandsurveys)andexposuretocrashes.  x SafetyResearchandEvaluation:Recentlycompletedorongoingresearchandcollaboration opportunitiesinpedestrianandbicyclistsafety.  Thescanteamidentifiednumerouspossibleapproachestoimprovingpedestrianandbicyclistsafetyand mobilityintheU.S.Thescanteamalsopreparedalistofimplementationitemsforthoseapproaches thatshouldbepursuedintheU.S.ThissummaryreportprovidesaquickͲresponseoverviewofthe team’’sfindingsandrecommendations. 

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 SUMMARYOFFINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS  Thescanteamgatheredaconsiderableamountofinformationregardingvariousstrategiesand approachesthatcouldbeusedtoimprovepedestrianandbicyclistsafetyandmobilityintheU.S.This sectionhighlightsthemostimportantfindingsfromthescantour.Thefindingsareseparatedinto GeneralFindingsandConclusionsandKeyFindings.TheGeneralFindingsandConclusionssection describesthebroaderissuesandthemesthatemergedonthescanandprovidesacontextfor understandingthedetailsprovidedinlatersectionsofthereport.TheKeyFindingssectionprovides detailsonspecifictopicsandisorganizedaroundthe5Eapproach(anexpandedversionofthe3E approachcommonlyusedintrafficsafetyimprovements): x Engineering––designingandbuildinginfrastructurethatissafe,convenient,andcomfortableto use x Education––educatingalltransportationsystemusersonsafeandappropriatebehavior x Enforcement––enforcingexistingtrafficlaws x Encouragement––encouragingandpromotingtheuseofsustainabletravelmodes x Evaluation––monitoringtheresultstoensurethatgoalsaremet  GeneralFindingsandConclusions  x ImplementingforeignpracticesintheU.S.willrequireacareful,evidenceͲbasedapproach. Somepolicies,practices,anddesignsareeasilytransferrableandcanbeimmediately implemented.Forexample,mostenforcement,education,andencouragementprogramscould bequicklyimplementedwithoutathoroughpolicyanalysisorevaluation.Otherpoliciesor designpracticeswilllikelyrequireathoroughsafetyevaluation.Forexample,separatedbicycle facilitiesshouldbeevaluatedinthecontextoftypicalmotoristandbicyclistbehaviorintheU.S. beforebeingwidelyimplementedhere.Separatedbicyclefacilitiesmaybequiteeffectivein Denmark,forexample,buttheireffectivenessinDenmarkmaybeaproductoftheDanish cultureandbehaviororaresultoftheirwidespreadimplementation.  However,foreignpractices(likeseparatedbicyclefacilities)shouldnotbedismissedoutright simplybecausecurrentAmericancultureandbehaviormaybedifferent.Cultureandbehavior canbechanged,butthesechangesoftenoccuroverlongerperiodsoftimenotcoveredina typicalsafetyevaluation.Forexample,separatedbicyclefacilitiescouldbeevaluatedatafew triallocationsintheU.S.andshownoclearsafetybenefitsinatypicalonetotwoyearsafety evaluation.Butinfivetotenyears,asmorebicyclistsuseseparatedfacilitiesandmotoristand bicyclistbehavioradapts,safetycouldimprovedramatically.Unfortunately,thisincreasein safetywouldnotbecapturedintypicalsafetyevaluationsbecausetheydonotcapturelongͲ termbehaviorchanges.Itshouldalsobenotedthatmanyofthehostcountrieshaveundergone aculturechangewithinthepast40yearsthathasplacedincreasedemphasisonwalkingand bicyclingsafetyandmobility.Changesofthissortcanhappeniffosteredbyacareful,evidenceͲ basedapproach.  x Numerousfactorscontributetohigherratesofpedestrianandbicyclistsafetyimprovements andhigherwalkingandbikingmodesplitsinthehostcountries.Fromalloftheinformation thatthescanteamgatheredandeverythingtheyobserved,itappearsthathigherratesof

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o o o o

Overallurbanandlandusepolicy,parkingandcongestionpricing,andstreetplanning anddesign; Politicalsupportfromelectedofficials,governmentstaff,andthegeneralpublic; Thehighcostsofowningandoperatingaprivatemotorvehicle(gas,parking,licensing, etc.); Acomprehensive,continuous,integratedapproachthatextendsbeyondpedestrianand bicyclist““treatments””toincludeelementssuchas: ƒ Parkingpolicies ƒ Streetdesignhierarchythatconsiderspedestriansandbicyclistsfirst ƒ Integrationwithandwidespreadavailabilityofpublictransit ƒ ConnectedonͲstreetandoffͲstreetwalkingandbikingnetworks ƒ Ongoingpromotionalcampaignsandactivities ƒ Trafficsafetyeducationforchildrenthroughouttheirschoolyears; ƒ VisuallyrichpedestrianͲlevelbuiltenvironment; ƒ Routinephotoenforcement;and, ƒ Numerousotherpolicyandfacilitydetailsthatmakewalkingandbicyclingeasy, convenient,andenjoyable.

 x

Manyoftheforeignhostshaveestablishedanurbanstreetuserhierarchythatgivesthe highestprioritytowalking,biking,andpublictransit.Thestreetuserhierarchyhasbeen developedtosupportarangeofpublicpolicygoals,suchaslivability,sustainability,public health,climatechange,andcongestionmanagement.Thehierarchyguidesdecisionsabout transportationpolicy,planning,design,operations,andmaintenance.Forexample,typical streetdesignbeginsbyfirstconsideringthespaceneedsofpedestriansandbicyclists,rather thandesignatingthemotorvehiclespaceandthengivingpedestriansandbicycliststheleftover space(ifthereisany).AnotherexamplefromSwedenistheirwintersnowremovalpolicy,which giveshighestprioritytothestreetswithtransitroutesorbicyclingfacilities.

x

““Safetyinnumbers””(alsocalled““awarenessinnumbers””)isaclearmotivatorbehindthe promotionofwalkingandbicyclingasasafetyimprovementstrategy.Mostofthehost countriesindicatedthattheypromotedwalkingandbicyclingforavarietyofreasons(lower overalltransportationdeliverycost,sustainability,spaceandenergyͲefficient,healthand wellness,etc.),andimprovedsafetywasoftenmentionedasoneoftheoutcomesforhigher levelsofwalkingandbiking.Theirrationale,supportedbyinternationalresearchstudies(and recentU.S.data),isthat,whenpedestriansandbicyclistsareacommonelementinthestreet environment,motoristswillexpecttheirpresenceandtakethenecessaryprecautionsat potentialconflictpoints,suchaswhenamotoristturnsrightacrossathroughbicyclelane. Anecdotally,thescanteamroutinelyobservedthistypeofmotoristbehaviorduringfieldvisits, inwhichmotoristsweremoreawareofpedestriansandbicyclistsatconflictpoints(Figure1).





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 Figure1.MotoristWaitsforThroughBicyclistsBeforeTurningRightAcrossCycletrack (Copenhagen,Denmark)

  KeyFindings  KeyFindingsRelatedtoEngineering  x Therewasthoughtfulconsiderationregardinga““falsesenseofsecurity/safety””when designingpedestrianandbicyclistfacilities.Thisexpressionwasmentionednumeroustimesby theengineersandplannersresponsibleforfacilitydesigndetails.Thehostcountriesarenot rashlyconstructingfacilitiesinanefforttopromotewalkingandbicyclingwithoutregardfor safety.Infact,someofthehostcountriesarepayingmeticulousattentiontocrashandinjury datatodeterminewhichroaddesignsaresafestforpedestriansandbicyclists.Forexample, SwedenhasimplementednationwidetheSTRADA(SwedishTrafficAccidentDataAcquisition) databasethatintegratespolicecrashdataandhospitaladmissionsdata.TheSTRADAdatabase addressestheunderreportingproblemthatiscommontowalkingandbiking,andgivesSwedish engineersandplannersamorecompletepictureofwalkingandbikingsafety.  x Thescanteamobservedseveralinnovativetrafficsignalfeaturesanddesignpracticesthat havethepotentialtoimprovepedestriansafetyintheU.S.Theseinclude: o Passivedetectionofpedestriansincrosswalkstotruncate,extendorcancelthe pedestrianphaseattrafficsignals(Figure2). o NearͲsidetrafficsignalsthatreducemotoristencroachmentonthepedestriancrosswalk. 5 

o o o o

NearͲsidepedestriansignalheadsthatencouragepedestrianstoviewoncomingtraffic. Raisedcrosswalksatunsignalizedpedestriancrossings(appliedatmidblocklocations, roundabouts,entrancestotrafficͲcalmeddistricts,etc.). Refugeislands,evenifconfinedorlimitedspacerequirestheuseofsmallerͲsizedrefuge islands. Railingthatisusedtodirectpedestrianmovementstodefinedcrossinglocations.

 



 Figure2.AutomatedPedestrianSensorsareUsedtoAdaptSignalTimingforPedestrians (Bristol,UnitedKingdom)  x

Thescanteamobservedseveralapproachesanddesignpracticesthatcouldbeusedto improvebicyclistsafetyintheU.S.Theseinclude: o Approachestoaddressrightturncrashes,suchasadvancedstopbarsforbicyclists, ““Trixi””(heatedconvex)mirrors(Figure3)(orotherspecializedmotorvehicleͲbased mirrors),bikeboxes,leadinggreenphaseforbicyclists,andrightͲturnͲonͲred restrictionsformotorists. o Separatedfacilities,suchascycletracks,separatedbikelanes,andsharedusepaths withdelineatedspaceforpedestriansandbicyclists. o BicycleͲspecifictrafficsignalstoreduceturningconflictsatsignalizedintersections. o Pavementmarkings,suchasdashedbikelanesthruintersections,coloredlanesat conflictpoints,andlongitudinalbikesymbolsatdrivewaysandstopͲcontrolledcross streets(orientedtobeseembymotoriststurningacrossthebikelane).

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Figure3.ConvexMirrorsImproveBicyclistVisibilityforDriversofLargeorHighͲProfileVehicles (Bern,Switzerland)  x

ThescanteamobservedtheuseoflowͲspeedstreetdesignsinbothresidentialand commercialareasthatwereespeciallyconducivetowalkingandbicycling.Forexample,the cityofBristol,Englandhasimplemented20mileperhour““homezones””intheirnewresidential development.SeveralcitiesinSweden,Germany,andSwitzerlandalsohaveimplementedlowͲ speedstreets(20to30kilometersperhour)inbothresidentialandcommercialareas.However, severaloftheforeignhostsindicatedthatcertainconditionsmustbemetfortheselowͲspeed streetdesignstooperateproperly:1)itshouldbeusedin““specialplaces””;2)speedsofthe differentmodesshouldbesimilar;3)flows(volumes)ofusersshouldbesimilar;and,4)““see andbeseen””isacriticaldesignelement.

x

Thescanteamobservedcloseintegrationofbicyclingandwalkingconsiderationswithpublic transit(includingintercityrail)thatmakelongerintermodalcommutesbybikepracticalas wellassaferandmoreconvenient.Theseconsiderationsinclude: o Avarietyofbikeparkingsolutionsatstations,includingplentifulandconvenientbike racks,coveredoutdoorparking,andsecuredindoorparking. o Policiesthatpermitbikesontrainsandbuses,evenduringpeaktimes. o Bikerentalorsharingprogramslocatedinorveryneartrainorbusstations. o Channelsorrampsonstairwaysthatmakeiteasiertousestepswhilepushingabike. o PublictaxiswithquickͲmountbikeracksfortaxipassengers.



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 KeyFindingsRelatedtoEducation  x Manyoftheforeignhostshavepervasiveandwidespreadtrafficsafetyeducationprograms forallchildren.Theeducationprogramsstartatanearlyageandsomecontinuethroughthe teenageyears.Thesetrafficsafetyprogramsinvolveparticipationfromawidevarietyof organizations,includingschools,businesses,civicorganizations,police,publichealthgroups, andparksandrecreationdepartments.Forexample,severalcountrieshada““children’’straffic club””programthatprovidedongoing,ageͲappropriatesafetymaterialtoparentsandchildren, aswellasfunlearningactivities.ThecityofWinterthur,Switzerlandusesa““trafficgarden””(a landscaped,reducedͲscaleclosedcoursethatincludestrafficsignals,roundabouts,bikelanesat intersections,sidewalks,workzones,publicbenches,andothercommontrafficsituations)to teachelementaryͲagechildrentoridebikessafelyintraffic(Figure4). 





Figure4.AerialViewofReducedͲScaleClosedCourseforTrafficSafetyEducationforChildren (Winterthur,Switzerland)  x

Bicyclehelmetuseisencouragedbutnotrequiredbylaw.Thescanteamfoundhigherlevelsof helmetusethanexpectedinthecountriesvisited.Helmetswereuniformlyencouragedfor childrenandwereencouragedforadultswherecrashdataindicatedthatwearingahelmet wouldimprovesafety.Mostcountriesplacedanemphasisonphysicalactivityfirstandhelmets second.Theirrationalewasthatrequiredhelmetusediscouragesbicycling(physicalactivity), whichcouldhaveagreaterpublichealthdetrimentthanheadinjuriesduetocrashes.

 KeyFindingsRelatedtoEnforcement 

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x

Thescanteamobservedthewidespreaduseofphotoenforcementfortrafficsignalsand speedlimits.Althoughphotoenforcementisviewedprimarilyasatoolforimprovingmotor vehiclesafety,bettermotoristcompliancewithspeedlimitsandtrafficsignalsalsoimproves pedestrianandbicyclistsafety.

 KeyFindingsRelatedtoEncouragement  x Manyoftheforeignhostsusepromotionalprogramsandactivitiestoencourageandenable morewalkingandbiking.These““encouragement””activitiesareseenasatooltomeettheir modalsharegoalsaswellasincreasepedestrianandbicyclistsafety.Manyoftheforeignhosts viewedhigherlevelsofwalkingandbikingasawaytoimprovesafety(the““safetyinnumbers”” effect).Wherewalkingandbicyclingareconsidered““thenorm,””acertainamountof encouragementhappensinherently,byexample.Commonexamplesofpromotionalprograms andactivitiesinclude: o WellͲmarkedrouteswithwayfindingsignsandprintedmaps; o WebͲbasedbikingandwalkingrouteplanningandmaps,includingextensive countrysidepathwaysinvitingtouristsandotheroccasionalusers; o Sharedbikeprogramsforpublicagencies,privatecompanies,orthegeneralpublic; o FreeorverylowcostpublicͲusebicycles; o Routineprovisionofqualitybikeracksatconvenientlocations; o EmployerͲsponsoredprograms(bikeͲtoͲworkincentives); o Marketingcampaignstoreduceorshiftshortcartrips(Figure5); o PublichealthͲsponsoredwellnessandphysicalactivityprograms;and, o Personalizedtravelplanning. 



 Figure5.PromotionalBannerstoReduce““RidiculouslyShort””CarTrips (Malmö,Sweden) 9 

  KeyFindingsRelatedtoEvaluation(Monitoring)  x Manyoftheforeignhostsprovideregularperformancereportsonpedestrianandbicyclist safetyandmobility.Theseperformancereportsmeasuretheagency’’sprogresstowardstated goalsandoutcomes,andareusedtorefinepoliciesandstrategiestoensurethatgoalsaremet. Forexample,thecityofCopenhagenpublishesa““BicycleAccount””everytwoyearsthatreports onseveralmeasuressuchascyclistmodesplit,safety,andperceivedcomfortandsafety.The mostcommonpedestrianandbicyclistperformancemeasureswereusage(e.g.,counts,mode share)andsafety(e.g.,fatalitiesandseriousinjuries),whichweretypicallyreportedonan annualbasis.  x Severalcitiesprovideda““showcase””counterinahighlyvisiblelocationtodemonstratedaily andannualbicycleuse.Althoughthistoolwasnotedtoyieldvaryingand,insomecases, inaccurateresults,itwasapointofprideandareminderthatwhatgetscountedcounts.  RECOMMENDEDIMPLEMENTATIONACTIONS  Thekeyfindingswereusedbythescanteamindevelopingtherecommendedimplementationactions, whicharesummarizedinthissection.  Policy  x Encouragetransportationpolicy(national,state,andlocallevel)thataddressesthesafetyand mobilityofbiking/walking/nonͲmotorizedmodes,suchthatthesemodesshallbegiven highestpriorityintheroaduserhierarchy.Thishierarchy,whenintegratedwithpublictransit, simultaneouslyaddressesnumerousotherpublicpolicygoals,suchaslivability,sustainability, publichealth,climatechange,andcongestionmanagement.Toimplementthispolicy,establish specificandmeasurableoutcomeswithperformancetargets,includingusageandsafety experience(seetheEvaluationrecommendationlaterinthissection).  Engineering  x Evaluateandconsiderimplementationofinnovativesignalfeaturesandgeometricdesignsto improvepedestriansafetyatstreetcrossings.Examplesofthesefeaturesarediscussedinthe KeyFindingsRelatedtoEngineeringsection.  x Evaluateandconsiderimplementationofinnovativestrategiestoimprovebicyclistsafety. ExamplesofthesestrategiesarediscussedintheKeyFindingsRelatedtoEngineeringsection.  x EvaluatetheapplicabilityoflowerͲspeedstreetdesignsinresidentialandcommercialzones. Theevaluationshouldaddressthedifferencesinapplicationbetweenresidentialand commercialareas,andshouldmoreclearlydefinecriteriafortheuseoflowͲspeedstreetdesign intheU.S. 

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x

Developguidanceonbestpracticesforintegratingbicycleandpedestrianconsiderationsinto publictransit,includinginterͲcityrail.Theseconsiderationsincludepermittedtimesofbike boarding,bikeparking,bikesontrainsandbuses,andbikesharing(e.g.,citybike)programs.

 Education  x Institutionalizeongoingtrafficsafetyeducationstartingatanearlyageincludingknowledge andskillͲbasedlearning.ThesafetyeducationprogramscanbemultiͲfacetedandincludea varietyofagenciesandorganizationsforoptimaldelivery.  x Unifyalltrafficsafetycampaigns(includingbicycleandpedestriansafety)underasingle nationalbrand.Forexample,theUnitedKingdom’’sDepartmentforTransporthasdevelopeda roadsafetyprogramcalled““THINK!””thatincludeseducationalmaterialsfornumeroussafety focusareas.  Enforcement  x Promotetheuseofphotoenforcementasatooltoimprovepedestrianandbicyclistsafety.  Encouragement  x Developandimplementprogramsthatencourageandenableregularwalkingandbiking. ExamplesofthesestrategiesarediscussedintheKeyFindingsRelatedtoEncouragementsection.  Evaluation  x Developandimplementaperformancemonitoringandreportingprogramthatregularly (annualbasis)measuresprogresstowardstatedgoals/outcomes.Keyperformancemeasures areusageandsafetyexperience.Nationalguidanceshouldbegivenonaconsistentformatand asamplingstrategytodevelopnationalestimates.Additionally,FHWA’’s1994NationalBicycling andWalkingStudyshouldbeupdatedtoreflectcurrentconditionsandreneworreestablish nationalgoalsforbicyclingandwalkingsafetyandusage.  NEXTSTEPS  AsevidencedinthisSummaryReport,thescanteamidentifiednumerousapproachesinthehost countriesforimprovingwalkingandbikingsafetyandmobilitythatmeritconsiderationhereintheU.S. ThenextcriticalstepinFHWA’’sInternationalTechnologyScanningProgramistheimplementation phase,whichhasalreadybegun.Themembersofthisscanteamwillcommunicatethekeyfindings, promoteimplementationideas,andhelptoadvancetheadoptionoftheapproachesandpractices describedinthisreport.Ultimately,though,thescanteamwillrelyon““champions””fromnumerous agencies,organizations,andgroupsintheU.S.toputintopracticethesepoliciesandapproachesthat willultimatelytohelpincreasesafetyandmobilityforwalkingandbicycling. 

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