International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN , Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012)

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012) ICT ...
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012)

ICT framework for e-knowledge based HC Services: Study & Analysis 1 2 Vaishali V Kaneria , Dr. N. N. Jani


Research Scholar, KSV University, Gandhinagar Asst. Prof., Department of MCA, Atmiya Institute of Technology & Science, Rajkot. 2

Dean CS, KSV University, Director, SKPIMCS, Gandhinagar 1

[email protected] 2 [email protected]

Abstract - From the frontage desk to annals management, the scope of ICT in the healthcare sector is on the rise. ICT offers abundant opportunities to improve the quality of healthcare and at the same time make the healthcare system more cost-effective. New and innovative applications of ICT are being designed and developed to upgrade the health of people. This is the era of knowledge based services. In this epoch of internet there is an explosion of information of all the type even in health sector also the same thing laid. To fetch the knowledge from this bundle of information is crucial task. Here in this paper some e-healthcare services are taken for study and analysis which are already in use on front. Study is done with the main focus on knowledge base source which is the core for healthcare services. After reviewing these ehealthcare services, analysis is done to justify the study and find out some points which are crucial for betterment of peoples’ health by making right choice at right time. One model KEMSM is developed by keeping in mind the study analysis of different e-healthcare services. More than one knowledge base is taken in this model to gain the benefit which is not there in previous services; Keywords: annals, ICT, epoch, e-healthcare services, costeffective, KEMSM



The aim of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for Health is to get better excellence, reach and efficacy of healthcare for all citizens. ICT offers abundant opportunities to improve the quality of healthcare and at the same time make the healthcare system more cost-effective. The promotion of ICT for health care will contribute to the availability of quality health care to those in need irrespective of socio economic and geographical disparity. ICT can be useful to improve the health of people located in rural, remote and inaccessible places.


The various e-healthcare services are selected to judge some criteria for the new model. The various parameters are considered in selection of the e-healthcare services. The try has been made to find out the features from the existing healthcare services which are not available in any of the services or very less explored. II.


The definition of e-health as per World Health Organization (WHO) is „leveraging of the ICT to connect provider and patients and governments; to educate and inform healthcare professionals, managers and consumers; to stimulate innovation in care delivery and health system management; and to improve our healthcare system‟. [1] On the other hand, the technical definition of e-health is „a concerted effort undertaken by leaders in healthcare and high tech industries to fully harness the benefits available through convergence of the Internet and healthcare‟. ICT is also helping to make a patient‟s medical data more accessible to healthcare professionals so they can provide a better level of care. To date, our medical records have always remained locked in filing cabinets, but ICT is now helping to piece together the fragments of our medical history that are scattered and these historical medical data provide the best source to do some analysis upon for finding new things from the existing one. [2] The initiation of modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as telephony or the Internet holds never-ending opportunities for rural development. Researchers, policymakers and entrepreneurs alike frequently claim that ICTs represent one of the most powerful tools in the struggle against need of the people. However, if they are to serve the `unserved' and spawn innovation at grass root level their implementation must be carefully localized. [3]

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012) III.

C. GAP : Guard, anticipation and prediction. A new approach to health risk prediction [5]


A.INFOTHELA: [3] The project GAP focuses on the area of Patient safety and risk assessment. It addresses, via specific workshops and studies, all aspects of risk prediction, evaluation of risk factors, evaluation and management tools designed for the preparation of means that allows an intervention in real situations. The results of the project will add to the decision-making potential of the unit of information collection on health crises which brings together a range of computerized tools for the collection and transmission of information. The primary goal of this project is to bring together the emergent concepts which will permit us in the near future to predict study, control and remedy the most complex of crises, those that jeopardize health. The challenge is to build a genuine system of health and social defense, and its components (concept, organization, personnel, equipment, training..). GAP is driven from High-level representatives of HealthCare Ministries of EU countries and Associated States. The consortium and the experts associated with the Support Action GAP represent both of the complementary poles of excellence for the successful execution of this mission. [5]

Infothela is ICT based healthcare service delivery system developed by IIT – Kanpur. It is a mobile based computer application to provide help in diagnosing diseases and impart information of health to the people particularly the „Rural Populace‟. Infothela project is facilitate with disease prevention, allowance of early disease diagnoses permits vaccine delivery, sample collection & expert advice from remote located doctors and all these with and all this by bringing the diagnosis to the doorstep of common people. The educational component of infothela is targeted towards understanding good practices for health, disease prevention & understanding the nature of disease, mainly about micro organisms, providing information in regional language. [3] B. DOC@HAND: Knowledge sharing and decision support for healthcare professionals [4] The aim of Doc@Hand is to support Healthcare professionals in this changing environment, by providing a set of IT tools that help reducing the time and associated costs to collect the information and knowledge required, and more crucially, in making the best use of it for a more informed decision making (diagnoses, therapies, protocols).

D. AMICA : Assembling data and knowledge at the point of care to improve medical decision making and prevent errors [6] A large number of patients are harmed by Wrong decisions and by medical errors. Data & knowledge needed to reach a correct decision and prevent errors are many times stored in the electronic universe but not available for use. Means to prevent errors are easy to envision in an electronic environment, but are seldom employed. This paper aim to bring together at the point of care all information available on patients in the electronic accessible universe, together With relevant knowledge and evidence; & make use of this data & knowledge in computerized decision support modules, to improve medical decision-making and prevent medical errors.

Doc@Hand intends thus to develop, test and validate an application that- allows transparent access to heterogeneous and geographically dispersed databases owned by separate, but cooperating organizations;proactively search -primarily using push technologies as opposed to traditional "pull" approach for relevant information without the need for the user to perform an explicit query, based on domain ontology as well as static and dynamic information about the user profile and current activities;- provides the user with representation tools and intuitive interfaces to easily filter and navigate through the information;- integrates existing decision support systems, and is also able to extract knowledge from unstructured and semi-structured documents;incorporates all the above in a cooperative environment that allows virtual communities to be created for exchanging opinions around patients/scientific issues. [4]

Thus we intend to implement: 1.


A system that will prepare and deliver to the point of care a fully integrated patient-object including all data available on the patient in the electronic universe.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012) Generic mechanisms for intelligent decision support that will be triggered by patient profiles based mainly on causal probabilistic models and use it to construct modules that will address main problems in medical decision-making and medical error prevention. A generic application for harvesting best evidence and knowledge available from high-quality peerreviewed resources and present it to the clinician in a convenient and uniform format, at the point of care. Innovational computing techniques (mainly distributed computing) and advanced security solutions, in order to afford speed, flexibility and safety to the application, and remove obstacles to sharing of information. An innovative interface that will allow the platform to interface seamlessly with the clinician at the point of care. [6]

reviewed medical literature pertaining to clinical and operational efficiency, utilization of resources, cost of care, and processes of care and other factors that influence complications, length of stay, and readmissions. -Semantic based agents to "broker" between information sources on clinical guidelines, evidence based medicine and the actual ambient (technology and services available, socio/economical constraints, organizational constraints,...) [7]

E. CARE-PATHS : An intelligent support environment to improve the quality of decision processes in health communities [7]

The ultimate challenge of PIPS is to exploit the most advanced information technologies in order to encourage healthier individual choices in our daily lives by providing the „individual‟ precise information to improve one‟s well-being and quality of life, to prevent and to keep under control diseases and also to guarantee continuous support to treatments after being discharged from the hospital or to chronically ill patients.





F. PIPS: Personalized information platform for life and health services[8] PIPS provide innovative services aimed at prevention and improvement of Individual’s lifestyle deliverying predictive and preventive medicine-based services for Well-Being offered to the citizen. [8]

The goal of CARE-PATHS is to set up an intelligent operational environment for making Clinical Governance effective, to support Health Professionals, Clinicians and Care Operators, in continually improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care. The approach adopted by CARE-PATHS is to exploit emerging technologies in knowledge management and semantic web for enabling the methodology of "Clinical Pathways" to function, to be effective and to succeed.

PIPS, is an attentive, discreet, and loyal “virtual assistant”, always available: all you need is a computer, a mobile phone, and an internet connection. PIPS want to help the individual. A loyal virtual assistant who translates medical advice and prescriptions into practical suggestions which accompany all our daily decisions, be they big or small. If put in constant use PIPS helps to improve the quality of life and also prevent possible risks to one‟s health. Services are personalized on Individual‟s profile based on preventive/predictive medicine, developing innovative technological solutions, ranging from continuity of care to education and impact on lifestyle.

The output of the project is a set of intelligent tools for supporting Health Professionals in authoring conceptual clinical pathways for selected group of pathologies in specific contexts, putting them in practice in the everyday treatment of individual patients, monitoring and managing thevariances. From the technological point of view, the objectives are concentrated primarily, in the following technologies of the knowledge management and distribution domains: -Middle-ware enriching the semantic web for clinical governance -Access to databases from the medical, nursing, and health services literature fully referenced and individually graded, based upon clearly defined research methodology and that address aspects of care thought to be the key drivers of quality and cost in health services delivery. -Referential tools that focuses on studies from the peer-

The main characteristics of PIPS are: 


The Personalization realizing a comprehensive integration of knowledge and processes to provide personalized ad-hoc simple solutions for the needs of patients and citizens with the aim to IMPROVE COMPLIANCE;

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012)  

The adaptive support solutions generating an automatic ubiquitous support for the users anytime, anywhere, in the day-by-day life; The Continuity of care support enabling a dynamic acquisition and assessment of patient information to supply the whole care delivery chain CLOSING THE LOOP of the integrated health delivery, useful for healthy people and for chronic diseases; An holistic view of the personal health and wellbeing empowering the involvement of health professionals, family and individual in a comprehensive care delivery process making the INTEGRATION WITH THE CONTEXT a reality; An approach motivating the citizens towards the improvement of their lifestyle: PIPS has proposed the inclusion of a psychologically based strategy targeting the long-term improvement of the lifestyle through education and entertainment to REACH THE CITIZEN AND MOTIVATE THE CHANGES; The decision support approach making the citizen aware to take Decision because PIPS has created the knowledge conditions at the point of decision for the citizen to believe, think and act managing to RAISE THE AWARENESS. [8]

Applications as well as data can be plugged into AyuSoft to help you customize the tool to your specific needs. Aided by automated data loading and customized textual and graphical report generation capabilities, this unique tool will offer unparalleled functional flexibility and ease of navigation [9] In a nutshell, AyuSoft focuses on data mining wherein several databases interact with each other through the controlling computational engine enabling the users to act upon the useful information extracted from the enormous amount of available data. IV.

STUDY ANALYSIS FROM THE ABOVE EHEALTHCARE SERVICES: Result Findings from the table reveals that from the attributes provides decision support knowledge, people can share knowledge, preventive knowledge, knowledge used from allopathic database, other system of medicine databases or other resources, Interactivity, users of these services i.e. doctors, other health professionals, common people. Here the attribute decision support knowledge is taken to illustrate the feature from given healthcare services about whether it is providing the knowledge which is helpful to health worker or common people to take any decision about disease or health. The attribute people can share knowledge is taken to emphasis on sharing of health knowledge to add up the more value in existing one. Preventive knowledge attribute depicts whether particular health service is providing the knowledge which useful to avoid any disease with preventive aspects. Knowledge base attribute is the focused attribute as the new model is based on it. This attribute illustrate that the given healthcare service is using or retrieving the knowledge from which system of medicine; whether from allopathic database or some other system of medicine databases. These other system of medicine includes ayurveda, homeopathy, unani, siddha etc. The interactivity attribute is provided to check whether the selected healthcare services has interactivity to get the inputs of people and produce the output accordingly or give the knowledge according the inputs consideration. The attribute users of services show up the specific healthcare service has which kind of users like health workers or common people.

G. AyuSoft : Deriving Radical Ayurvedic Solutions For Health and Treatment Advice.[9] “AyuSoft is a vision of converting classical Ayurvedic texts into comprehensive, authentic, intelligent and interactive knowledge repositories with complex analytical tools”  Integrated system offering multiple interconnected applications under the same umbrella  Systematic examination tool as per classical Ayurvedic guidelines.  Investigations, Case Analysis etc. according to practical clinical needs and research challenges  A High End Query Database with Multidimensional search utility  It addresses heterogeneous needs of various user categories like Hospitals, Practitioners, Researchers including a Common Man Offers human expert analysis with human-independent analysis for treatment, medicine, plants, and substances


International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012) This analysis is based on the attributes tabulated column wise and healthcare services the intersection is holding the data as 1 for the availability of the services for that attribute. The „1‟ symbol indicates the positive involvement of attributes in defined healthcare services. From the observation of table revealed that the attribute of interactivity is present in all the healthcare services while the rest of the attributes are scattered over these services.


1 1


1 1








1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1

1 1



1 1

1 1

1 1


This adoption is sequential, as a result the time and the spending on both exceeds the limits. The essence of both the system of medicines can also be merged to reduce the time frame and the cost. Further the recovery rate can enhance by the selection of right system of medicine at right time. The data tabulated in the table is taken from the study findings narrated above.

Figure 1: KEMSM



Extraction of health data from multiple sources like Allopathic system of medicine database, Ayurvedic system of medicine database, database of Patients Health Records, external health data are integrated into a single database. Electronic Health Records are also fed to the database to retrieve some useful knowledge from the existing information.




Other Health Professionals




Other Pathy DB


The services of multiple system of medicine are mutually exclusive currently. The recipients of the services do exercise multiple systems of medicines by way of their choice when one does not satisfy the recipients in a time frame and ultimately they choose other system of medicine for recovery.


Other Resources

Justification of the need of the attribute can be specified as under:



Allopathic system of medicine


Health Databases

Preventive Knowledge

Further the attributes which can enhance the level of healthcare services are extraction of data not from single system of medicine database but data from multiple (in this work multiple counts to two but scalable to higher values in research extension of future work) system of medicines.

Sharing of info & knowledge

Decision Support information

Table 1 Comparisons of various e-Healthcare services available

1 1

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2012) Data cleaning and data integration can be performed as a pre-processing step before storing the resultant data as per the requirement. Transformation of these health data that are consolidate into forms appropriate for mining by performing summary or aggregation operations. Data mining is the essential process where intelligent methods are applied in order to extract data patterns. The ability to assimilate all of these data for purposes of analysis and actionable knowledge defines the emerging technical dome of clinical intelligence. As a byproduct of this model: • People/ Health Provider can make better choice by retrieving knowledge; • The data from Database can be used in medical research. The expected system will produce the knowledge where knowledge from different system of medicine is blended. The merging of electronic health records with the system provides more effective output as the history of health and present health condition can be considered when producing the blended health knowledge for specific health condition of specific information seeker. VII.

References [1]IEEE Intl. conference on e-Health networking, Applications and Service (2008): “A Framework for Assessing ICT Preparedness for eHealth Implementations” [2] althcare.pdf [3] 6.pdf [4] [5] ct/1613;jsessionid=10e16c10d134d2jc017134b6f3c37 [6] TION=D&DOC=1&CAT=PROJ&QUERY=0134d061 3c55:8ac2:20300fd4&RCN=71230 [7] TION=D&DOC=7&CAT=PROJ&QUERY=01347dc4 9855:e770:23754231&RCN=71441 [8] TION=D&CAT=PROJ&RCN=71245 [9]


The study analysis has suggested that there is a need of health services very multiple health science or multiple system of medicines are used to give the essence of what people actual required to get cured as well for betterment of their health. The right choice of system of medicine at right time can indubitably decrease the time of treatment as well save the amount spend to get cured. By combining the various sources of different system of medicines will enhance the end user services and enrich the health knowledge.


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