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Vol. 5 No. 5 September 2013 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH BEYNƏLXALQ ELMİ ARAŞDIRMALAR JURNALI ISSN: 2075-4124 E-ISSN: 2075-7107 REFERE...
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Vol. 5 No. 5 September 2013

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH BEYNƏLXALQ ELMİ ARAŞDIRMALAR JURNALI

ISSN: 2075-4124 E-ISSN: 2075-7107 REFEREED JOURNAL

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PART B. SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH

Vol. 5. No. 5 September, 2013

PART B. SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

Member of DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013

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Vladimir Balan (Romania) Tahar Aifa (France) Ata Atun (Turkey) Iqbal H. Jebril (KSA) Deniz Ayse Yazicioglu (Turkey) Azizeh Khanchobani Ahranjani (Iran) Zafer Agdelen (North Cyprus) Florin Negoescu (Romania) Razvan Raducanu (Romania) Elaine Hewitt (Spain) Amer AbuAli (Jordan) Panagiotis E. Kaldis (Greece) Mabrouk Benhamou (Morocco) Carlos Fernandez (USA) Yuriy Bilan (Poland) Eugen Axinte (Romania) Enkelena Qafleshi (USA) Aikyna D. Finch (USA) Stratos Georgoulas (Greece) Marek Smoluk (Poland)

Beynəlxalq Elmi Araşdırmalar Jurnalı (BEAJ) 2009-cu il, Milli Mətbuat Günündə Azərbaycan Respublikası Ədliyyə Nazirliyi tərəfindən rəsmi Dövlət Qeydiyyatına alınıb (№ 2996). BEAJ Beynəlxalq ISSN Mərkəzində (Paris, Fransa) qeydiyyatdan keçərək mətbu orqan kimi ISSN 2075-4124, elektron jurnal kimi E-ISSN 2075-7107 nömrələri ilə beynəlxalq nəşr statusu qazanıb. Jurnal dünyanın 63 ölkəsinə (universitet və kitabxanalar) paylanır. Jurnalın təsisçisi “Proqres” İnternet və Poliqrafiya Xidmətləri MMC-dir. BEAJ ildə 6 dəfə - Yanvar, Mart, May, İyul, Sentyabr və Noyabr aylarında dərc olunur. Redaksiyanın yazılı icazəsi olmadan materialların təkrar nəşri, tərcümə edilərək yayılması qadağandır. Məqalələr bir qayda olaraq Beynəlxalq Redaksiya Heyətinin yekun qərarı ilə dərc olunur. Məqalələrin elektron versiyası jurnalın İnternet səhifəsində yerləşdirilir və açıq şəkildə istifadəyə verilir (Elektron ISSN-2075-7107 məhz İnternet üzərindən müəllif hüquqlarının qorunmasına xidmət edir). Növbəti buraxılış tarixi: 30.11.2013 Materiallar toplanıb: 20.07.2013 - 20.09.2013. Çapa imzalanıb: 10.10.2013. 1 Format: 60x84 /8. Şrift: Arial. Səhifələrin sayı: 494. F.ç.v. 62. Tiraj: 300 Jurnal “Proqres İPX MMC” tərəfindən nəşrə hazırlanıb və çap olunub.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART B Yuli Priyanto, Zaenal Fanani, Soemarno, Sasmitojati ENVIROMENTAL AWARENESS AS AN EDUCATION PARADIGM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL OF KEDIRI, EAST JAVA………………………………………………………7 Battal Odabasi THE DETERMINATION OF FINE ARTS AND ANATOLIAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FRONTAL AND LIMBIC DOMINANCE LEVELS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS…………………………...13 Ozgur Karatas EXAMINING SPORTER-COACH RELATIONSHIP IN HANDBALL IN TERMS OF CERTAIN VARIABLES……………………20 Murat Basar, Durdagi Akan ASSESSMENT OF CLASS TEACHERS’ DISPUTE RESOLUTION APPLICATIONS IN CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTS ON THE BASIS OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE…………………………………………………26 Yousef Diab Salameh Al Majali THE IMPACT OF (5ES) LEARNING CYCLE ON THE OUTCOME AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE THINKING AMONG STUDENTS OF SEVENTH GRADE IN ARABIC LANGUAGE COURSE IN ALQASER/KARAK BRIGADE…………………………………………………………………………………………….31 H. Senay Sen REFLECTIVE THINKING SKILLS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS BASED ON PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY...............................................................................................................................41 Duygu Harmandar Demirel DEFICIENCIES AND SUFFICIENCIS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT TEACHER TRAINING: TURKEY'S ADAPTATION PROCESS WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION……………………………………………………………49 Cigdem Kilic PARTICIPANTS’ OPINIONS ABOUT “3-6 AGE FAMILY EDUCATION COURSE”………………………………………………..57 Ding Hooi Ting COMMENSURABILITY OF SATISFACTION FULFILLMENT: SHOULD THERE BE A CHANGE IN ITS FUNCTIONAL FORM?.............................................................................................61 Mutlu Turkmen THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GENDER, PHYSICAL SELF-PERCEPTION, SPORT EXPERIENCE, MOTIVATION ORIENTATIONS AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS..................................................................................................68 Selami Yangin, Sabri Sidekli A SCALE OF PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY SCIENCE TEACHING METHODS: CONSTRUCTING WITH TEACHER CANDIDATE STUDENTS………………………………………...73 Ali Dursun AYDIN EXAMINATION OF EMPATHIC TENDENCIES OF STUDENTS ATTENDING PHYSICAL TRAINING AND SPORTS HIGH SCHOOLS……………………………………………………………………………..81 Sivachandralingam Sundara Raja, Thanaseelen Rajasakran, Santhidran Sinnappan MALAYSIA’S HINDU RIGHTS ACTION FORCE (HINDRAF): A PERSPECTIVE FROM A MALAY MAINSTREAM DAILY.......................................................................................................89 Bulent Akbaba THE ATTITUDES OF PRE-SERVICE HISTORY TEACHERS’ TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION AND TECHNOLOGY AND THEIR SELF-EFFICACY ABOUT USAGE TEACHING MATERIALS…………………………………......94 Murat Kul TECHNOLOGY USAGE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS TEACHERS IN TEACHING ACTIVITIES…………………………………………………………………………………..102 Faris Nasif AL-Shubiri ANALYSIS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIQUIDITY, CREDIT RISK AND MARKET VALUE IN COMMERCIAL JORDANIAN BANKING………………………………………………………………………109 Sevda Onal OTTOMAN PALACE AS A CULTURE ACADEMY AND POETRY COUNCILS ORGANIZED IN THE PALACE……………………………………………………………………………….114

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Ahmet Akkaya A DIFFERENT ACTIVITY IN GRAMMAR LEARNING IN TURKISH COURSE: EDUCATIONAL COMIC STRIPS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….118 Asli Tayli SCHOOL SIZE AS A PREDICTOR OF BULLYING…………………………………………………………………………………..124 Muhammad Faizal A. Ghani DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOL MODEL FOR MALAYSIAN SCHOOL……………………………………………..131 Durmus Kilic THE EFFECTS OF JIGSAW AND GROUP RESEARCH TECHNIQUES ON DEMOCRATIC ATTITUDES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF PROSPECTIVE CLASSROOM TEACHERS IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE COURSE..............................................................................................................143 Necati Alp Erilli, Egemen Ermis, Mehmet Yalcin Tasmektepligil BASKETBALL“TURKISH AIRLINES EURO LEAGUE” 2011-12 SEASON POISSON REGRESSION SIMULATION MODELING……………………………………………………………………………….151 Hikmet Surmeli, Mehpare Saka PRESERVICE TEACHERS’ ANTHROPOCENTRIC, BIOCENTRIC, AND ECOCENTRIC ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS APPROACHES…………………………………………………………………………………………159 M. Zulkifli THE LEARNING MODEL OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION ICT- BASED AT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 4 KENDARI IN PROVINCE OF SOUTH-EAST SULAWESI……………………………………………………..164 Emrah Atay IMPACT OF SPORTS AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES PARTICIPATION ON AGGRESSION LEVEL……………………………...169 Egemen Ermis, Osman Imamoglu THE EFFECT OF DOING SPORTS ON THE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS…………………174 Filiz Cetin EFFECT OF DEMOCRATIC CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT APPROACH TOWARDS CRITICAL THINKING LEVELS OF STUDENTS………………………………………………………………………..180 Pawel Korzynski EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN NEW WORKING ENVIRONMENT…………………………………………………………………184 Arslan Kalkavan, Cetin Ozdilek, Meryem Gulac, Betül Altinok INVESTIGATING BROADCASTING RIGHTS REVENUES OF OLYMPICS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GAMES........................................................................................189 Yusuf Inandi, Binali Tunc, Fahrettin Gilic SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS’ LEADERSHIP STYLES AND RESISTANCE TO CHANGE...................................................196 Mahmoud Hatamleh, Mo'een Oudat, Omar Al-Kilani, Zohair AL- Zoubi OBSTACLES OF THE SPORTS MOVEMENT IN CLUBS OF ZARQA GOVERNORATE FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE PLAYERS…………………………………………………………………204 Mehmet Ali Seven EVALUATION OF LANGUAGE TEACHING MATERIALS ACCORDING TO ENGLISH TEACHERS’ POINT OF VIEWS……………………………………………………………………………………………210 Mehmet Turkmen, Bilal Demirhan CONCEPTS OF “WRESTLING – WRESTLER” WITHIN CULTURE OF TURKISH WORLD……………………………………221 Saziye Yaman SUPERVISION AND THE ROLES OF SUPERVISORS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF PRESERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY……………………………………………………………...227 Ong Mia Farao Karsono, Widjojo Suprapto THE SUCCESSION PROCESS AND TIMING IN TRANSFERRING BUSINESS OWNERSHIP AMONG CHINESE IN SURABAYA IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA……………………………………………………………….233 Sehriban Koca AN EVALUATION OF TURKISH MUSIC TEACHER CANDIDATES' OPINIONS REGARDING THEIR SPECIFIC AREA COMPETENCIES………………………………………………………………………….238 Jakub Gazda, Marcin Puziak THE SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN POLISH REGIONS……………………………………………………………….245 Mehmet Ocalan FOOTBALL PLAYERS’ LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES AND THEIR ASSESMENT REGARDING VIOLENCE EXPERIENCED IN MATCHES…………………………………………………………………………..251

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Hakan Dundar HOW SHOULD A DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL BE?....................................................................................................................257 Mehmet Mutlu, Halil Tokcan SUCCESS EFFECT OF DOCUMENTARY USE IN TEACHING OF GLOBAL WARMING SUBJECT…………………………263 Santhirasegaran Nadarajan, Sitraselvi Chandren, Ezanee Mohamed Elias HICCUPS IN JUST-IN-TIME PRACTICES FOR ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MANUFACTURING………………………………………………………………………………………………269 Mehmet Kandemir A MODEL EXPLAINING TEST ANXIETY: PERFECTIONIST PERSONALITY TRAITS AND PERFORMANCE ACHIEVEMENT GOALS…………………………………………………………………………..272 Omer Faruk Sonmez ALLOCATION OF SPACE FOR “SCIENTIFICITY” VALUE IN SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM…………………………….278 Suleyman Yigittir HUMAN RIGHTS PERCEPTIONS IN PAINTINGS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION STUDENTS………………………………….285 E.S. Geyer ACCOUNTING REFORM IN UKRAINE: INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND THE TAX CONSEQUENCES……………...294 Mustafa Dogru THE EFFECTS OF PEER INSTRUCTION ON THE SUCCESS, MOTIVATION AND DECISION-MAKING STYLES OF PRIMARY SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS…………………………………………………..299 Ahmet Yasar Demirkol EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE RESIDENT FOREIGNERS’ CHILDREN IN TURKEY AND EXPECTATIONS OF THE PARENTS: A CASE STUDY IN ALANYA.............................................................................305 Hasan Kagan Keskin IMPACTS OF READING METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES AND READING ATTITUDES ON SCHOOL SUCCESS……………………………………………………………………………..312 Sitraselvi Chandren, Santhirasegaran Nadarajan RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACCRETIVE SHARE BUYBACK, EPS FORECAST AND PROSPECT THEORY………………………………………………………………………………………..318 Mehmet Kargun, Abdullah Cenikli, Mehmet Dalkilic, Huseyin Ozturk, Fikret Ramazanoglu, Hudaverdi Mamak PROSPECTIVE PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS TEACHERS' HEALTHY LIFESTYLE BEHAVIORS..................................................................................................................325 Fatih Cermik, Murat Kurt, Yusuf Eser, Emrullah Ay A NEW PRACTICE IN ASSIGNING TEACHERS IN TURKEY: TEACHING KNOWLEDGE TEST……………………………..330 Musa Con, Osman Imamoglu, M. Yalcin Tasmektepligil, Soner Cankaya DETERMINING TEMPERAMENT AND CHARACTER DIMENSIONS OF ATHLETES DEPENDING ON THEIR DEPRESSION LEVELS……………………………………………………………………………………339 Minh-Quang Duong JOB SATISFACTION AMONG ACADEMIC MEMBERS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN VIETNAM…………………………….346 Sibel Arslan THE EFFECT OF RECREATION COURSE ON UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AT PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS DEPARTMENT REGARDING THEIR AWARENESS LEVEL ABOUT LEISURE……………………………….351 Yasin Gokbulut PRE-SERVICE CLASSROOM TEACHERS’ SPATIAL ABILITIES: INVESTIGATING THE UNFOLDING PROCESSES OF CYLINDER AND CONE……………………………………………………………………..357 Cigdem Apaydin Kaya, Nefize Turan, Nevzat Ozfirat, Seyma Ozel, Sunay Sezgin, Veysel Kucuk, Arzu Uzuner, Pinar Ay INVESTIGATION OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE TURKISH VERSION OF THE PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION QUESTIONNAIRE FOR OLDER ADULTS (PMQOA)…………………………………………363 Hudaverdi Mamak ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS LEVELS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WHO PLAY AND DO NOT PLAY SPORT……………………………………………………………………………...369 Syed Abdul Malik, Nasser Saad Al Kahtani, Mohammad Naushad INTEGRATING AHP, SWOT AND QSPM IN STRATEGIC PLANNING- AN APPLICATION TO COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION IN SAUDI ARABIA...................................................................................373

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Hudaverdi Mamak, Mehmet Dalkilic, Fikret Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Kumartasli, Mehmet Kargun, Izzet Ucan THE ANALYSIS OF THE SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE SPORTSMEN IN THE TEAM SETTING…………………………380 Mustafa Kayihan Erbas DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS' EDUCATIONAL BELIEFS……………………………………...386 Onur Koksal THE IMPACT OF THE KEYWORD METHOD ON VOCABULARY LEARNING AND RETENTION IN PREPARATORY FRENCH CLASSES IN HIGHER EDUCATION.......................................................................................393 Hakan Akdag DOES THE SOCIAL STUDIES RESPONSIBLE FOR FINANCIAL LITERACY?.....................................................................401 Yoto, Djoko Kustono, Muladi, Wardana THE PARTICIPATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY IN THE RECRUITMENT OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOL GRADUATES AS POTENTIAL LABOR FORCE………………………………………………………..407 Metin Karayol, Murat Sentuna LEADERSHIP IMPACT ON OUTDOOR SPORTS……………………………………………………………………………………414 Sakir Bezci AN EXAMINATION OF TAEKWONDO REFEREES COPING STYLES WITH STRESS AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL LEVELS WITH REGARD TO GENDER AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES………………………418 Aytekin Soykan DETERMINATION OF KARATE ATHLETES’ STRESS TREND AND STRESS RESISTANCE LEVELS...............................425 Elnur Hasan Mikail, Aliekber Turan THE TRANSITION PERIOD OF THE CENTRAL PLANNED SYSTEM TO MARKET SYSTEM OF KYRGYZSTAN ECONOMY: FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE PRIVATIZATION POLITICS………………………………419 Marta Szczepaniak, Habibullah Pathan, Niaz Soomro A CASE STUDY OF THE ROLE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN TURKEY………………………………………………………...436 Necmi Esgi COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF E-LEARNING TYPES DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE EXPOSITORY TEACHING METHOD ON STUDENT OPINIONS……………………………………………………….443 Sakir Berber TRANSFORMATION OF ORAL CULTURE: MODERNIZATION AND ALEVISM………………………………………………...451 Armand Faganel, Aleksander Janeš LESSONS FROM THE SLOVENIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY INTERNATIONALIZATION TO THE FAR EAST……………………………………………………………………………………...456 Mehmet Okutan DEMOCRACY IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IN TURKISH EDUCATION SYSTEM………………………………………..463 Semih Aktekin TRAINEE HISTORY TEACHERS’ VIEWS ON ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING IN HISTORY LESSONS..........................................................................................................................468 Abdurrahman Kepoglu IMPACT OF THE PRICING FACTOR IN THE FREE MARKET ECONOMY IMPLEMENTED IN TURKEY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE SPORTS ENTERPRISES………………………………………………..473 Terlan Mehdiyeva Azizzade DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF CONTEMPORARY TURKISH SCULPTURE…………………………………………………..482 INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..492 MÜƏLLİFLƏR ÜÇÜN TƏLİMAT.....................................................................................................................................................494

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E.H. Mikail, A. Turan. The transition perıod of the central planned system to market system of Kyrgyzstan economy: from the perspective of the privatization politics. International Journal of Academic Research Part B; 2013; 5(5), 429-435. DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-5/B.67

THE TRANSITION PERIOD OF THE CENTRAL PLANNED SYSTEM TO MARKET SYSTEM OF KYRGYZSTAN ECONOMY: FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE PRIVATIZATION POLITICS 1

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Assist. Prof. Dr. Elnur Hasan Mikail , Aliekber Turan

Kafkas University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Kars Kars Kafkas University, Institute of Social Sciences, Kars (TURKEY) E-mails: [email protected], [email protected] DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-5/B.67 ABSTRACT In this study, we tried to explain the privatization politics and the results of these privatization politics which were the structural economic reform at the transition period, in transition countries and Kyrgyzstan (as being a transition country itself). At this period, we gave some information about the socialist (planned) economy, the transition economy and the free market (laissez faire) economy. The transition period in Kyrgyzstan which is the topic of this study, contains the period between the years 1991&2012. Key words: Kyrgyzstan, Market Economy, Privatization, Socialist Economy, Transition Economy, Turan, Turkish Union 1. INTRODUCTION The concept of transition economies has been used in the literature of international relations, public administration and economics after the dispersion of Soviet Unions. After the dispersion of the Soviet Union; lots of countries which is in Europe and Middle East, adopted the effort of the transition in marked economy (after the failure of the socialist system) which is the main reason of this changing (from the central planning system to market system). The efforts are still exist, so we are describing the economies of these countries’ economies as transition economies. Accordingly the idiom called “transition economics” has been using for to describe the effort of the transition countries in changing the central planned economic system to the market system. In real, the dispersion of the Soviet Union was the end of the ideological blocking and the power opposition in the whole world; also it made the public administration systems of the countries, which has been administrated with the central planning system, flexible. In addition, this situation created a great globalization and it caused a different opposition which spurns the borders of the countries. By the way, in this period the civil rights about stimulating the neoliberal politics, has improved; and the attitude of the civilians to the government has changed. In the line with the neoliberal understanding, the expectations, which demands qualified and transparent has increased especially in public administrations; and the requests, which are all about being a part of the administration, of the people; became a current issue. Thus, the change of this mindset, which is the basic dynamic of the new understanding, became the basic value of political restructuring for some factors which includes: liberalism, citizen-oriented system, flexibility, entrepreneurialism, efficiency, result-oriented system. The other factor which stimulates these basic values, is globalization and the other important truth which has revealed by global economic structuring, is about the lack of opportunities, that are in the world of liberal economies, for the economies which had not changed their system into market (laissez-faire) economy system. The existence of several economies in the global market needs another competing economy; and this opposition needs permission for the free operation of new market powers. In addition, countries which have internalized the planned (socialist) economy have some problems in economic instability and had some depressions. By this reason, these transition countries have some political crisis sometimes. Naturally, these countries, which have chosen to change their system into liberal market economy, had some hard times. On the other hand, countries which want to change their system into market economy, have much more meaning that explains the social and paradigm changes. In addition, the transition period of these countries, have lots of differences between themselves; so one cannot search them in only one category. Especially countries which is in Middle Asia, had lots of different qualities than the other transition countries, because they were connected to the Soviet Union. However, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (countries which had a comprehensive reformation) also have different qualities than the countries which had no comprehensive reformation such as Turkmenistan. Additively, the reformation that had seen in whole world, created a huge pressure under these countries and these transition countries also had some problems about establishing some corporations which can be useful these countries. In short, the complexity of the transmission period created some different structures and

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also created some common problems. As attachment, one can easily say that these reformations were unsuccessful even the twenty-five years of transmission period (Cevik and Turan, 2007: 205-224). Kyrgyzstan is one of the countries which had chosen the central planned system as their government organization. Kyrgyzstan as being a transmission economy had faced with a lot of organizations and corporations which had tried to make the liberal economic system dominant. As usual, there became some uncertainness and some problems which are feeding from reformation or application, in Kyrgyzstan’s public administration system. Sometimes Kyrgyzstan had been adopted these reform strategies without examining and tried to put them in use, also sometimes these reform strategies had been tried to be stopped by some people who didn’t want the market economy in their country. In this line, the central planned economic system and its general qualities will be mentioned in the first part of this study. In the second part, the concept of transmission economy the basic structural problems in the transmission period, will be mentioned; and in the third part, the intuitional dynamics of the transmission after socialism in Kyrgyzstan, which is a transmission country itself, will be mentioned. At the same time, in this part, the topics such as: “What could be the problems which could be seen in this transmission period?” and “The possibility of establishing liberal corporations.” with the perspective of privatization politics, will be examined. 2. CENTRAL PLANNED ECONOMIC SYSTEM In general, economic systems can be examined in two different poles; one of them is central planned economy and the other one is free market economy. In central planned economy, all decisions such as: “Prices”, “Resource allocation” and “Resource efficiency” have been made in only one center. However, in free market economy, “Private ownership” and “Private Enterprise” are dominating all other factors. From the beginning, countries that had been managed by centralized planning system had an economic progress, which was controlling by only one center, in a bureaucratic point of view. By the way, the public objectives have been brought to forefront and as a result the individual objectives have been put on the back burner in the countries which were controlling by central planned economy. This system which is called socialist economy, had been occurred as a reaction to the liberal economic system, and it had stood up for the thesis which claims that the liberal economic system cannot provide the principles that includes the individuals’ prosperity and the economic efficiency. At this point, socialist economy is an organization system which stands behind the idea that claims all means of production are belong to the public and these means of production will be controlled by one agency which manages the public itself, for fulfill all needs of individuals (Sahin, 2002: 36). At the historical process, socialism played two different roles. One of them was to end bourgeoisie and the troubles that had been created by capitalism, by annihilating the capitalist mentality. And the other one was to being a part of the beginning of communism after 1917. In addition, for making this goals happen as Lenin says, government, which is an organized type of the working class, has to play a role too (Albertini, 1995: 53). There are three steps for socialism to make a progress which is pursuant to the Marxist hypothesis. According to this information, the first step is involves the working classes as a possessor of the government. By the some considers this step as a workers’ state. The first paragraph of the Soviet constitutional says: “USSR is a socialist state which belongs to workers and peasants” (Cam, 1987: 191). This progress needs some politics which will be supported by the government. As a result, government will play a great role to make communal property, which is a prior condition of socialist transition, happen; and for make this happen the government must socialize the means of production and it must cut the private ownership down. In addition, the way of apportionment that says: “The value of income will come after which endeavor that the person showed” will be adopted. Thus, the first step will include both capitalist and socialist factors (Trotsky, 1998: 103). The second step is socialism, which has been described as the first step of classless society. At this step, socialism includes a step which can be explained as socialized labor, classless production and a process which stands up without marketed economy. As I said before, in this point the principle which says: “The value of income will come after which endeavor that the person showed” is valid (Trotsky, 1998: 103). By the way, socialism needs government interference when making these two steps possible. In addition, in communism which is the upper step of classless society, the principles such as: “According to people capacity” and “According to people need”, is in use (Ozguven, 1992: 150). Consequently, in this transition principle, law establishments have been assumed as unnecessary. According to this plan, it means that, there will be a resource allocation with specific need priorities and conscious decisions (Ozugurlu, 2002: 2). The socialist system has aimed to fix the unjust allocation of capitalist system and it also has aimed to obtain a social prosperity for all citizens, but at this point it was unsuccessful. As we know, there are three steps to make the central planned system in economy happen, but in the first and in the second step, the expected transition and the expected performance didn’t showed up, because, the center which had all the power, started to afraid from losing the power that he had once. Accordingly, this is why the central planned economy became unsuccessful (Ozugurlu, 2002: 3). Because, there was this possibility which can be explained as: There wouldn’t be any government and any corporation that makes all the allocation happen. So the bureaucracy which had all power before the communism did not afraid using all power that it had against communism. It used the politics of making pressure and with hunting. So the urge of protecting the bureaucracy had continued after the supremacy of the government. In addition bureaucracy let the protests and class conflicts to be seem like normal (Rogovin, 2013). Accordingly, people started to accept the situation even after the privileges after the revolution, because there was no alternative. This acceptance brought the troubles about the factors of production with itself. Actually, this situation happened because of the problems that the one party system undertook. At the beginning the communist

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side was defending the “democratic centralization”, but after it started to put the democratic part of the argument away (Aktan, 2000: 6). The socialist thought could not take the place of the motive of self-interest, even there became an exchange in the roles. In capitalist system entrepreneurs became the bourgeoisies, but in communist system the members of the single politic-party became the bourgeoisies. Everything was shaping after the central planned system, so the people started to have some privileges of their affinity to the political party (Kislali, 1997: 251). According to the socialist thought, the states after the socialist evolution will have two different characters. One of them is the one who stands after the socialized property against the capitalist system; and the other one is the bourgeoisie character which makes the government needs him and he is also the one who will have some privileges from the government. So, the transition state after the evolution called “bourgeois workers' state” even there was no bourgeois in force. Socialist thought, had tried to stop the inequality by this way (Rogovin, 2013). However, the bureaucracy did not let the labors play a part in the allocation system. As a result, the central administration became a powerful cast. In addition in the socialist system, the problem about the inequality and the social justice had improved and it became worse than the capitalist system. Accordingly, the privileges in the system become more significant when it stays in peoples mind (Rogovin, 2013). There was no private attempt in the socialist system so it made labors to lose their prolificacy, so there became some serious problems in production. Also, labors started to thought, there was no need to improve their performance, because there was a guarantee about job for all. As a result, the performance started to decrease in the planned social economy and the attitude of the administration made people to work less (Aktan, 2000: 6). This situation had become a main reason for the blockage in the system. As a result, the central planned system had stayed until the 1980, but after especially the changed global needs and the changed mission of the governments according to these global needs, destroyed protectionist state understanding (Gomulka, 2000: 37). However the improvement that had been showed by socialist economic system had been adopted by lots of countries, even the problems that had started to showed up (Egeli, 2002: 38). People tried to find new solutions for these problems of socialist systems, and the innovation movements such as: perestroika and glasnost had started. However, at 1990, the socialist system had collapsed, which was the most th important socio-politic event of the 20 century. After this event, the countries which were under the control of USSR and using the central planned economic system, started to use the programs of the free market economy (Egeli, 200:39). 3. TRANSITION ECONOMIES: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The world has faced with a very important changing. Lots of countries that were administrating with central planned system had started to change their system to marked planned economy. This changing had brought a changing, which includes economy politics, intuitions and applications (Unlukaplan vd., 2007: 1117-1126). This transition which called transition economy was the process of the countries which were trying to adopt the liberal economy to them in global age (UNDP, 1998: 90). Actually, this changing was not their most interest. In other words, the competition between the market economy and the planned economy had started a crisis in the countries which were controlling by socialist economy, thus the socialist and mixed economy collapsed and became malfunctioned (Akalin, 2003: 25). There were some tasks of the public affairs in the transition period of transition countries, such as: To spend public revenues into productive areas, to protect the rights of contracting and prosperity, to serve or product the public goods and to provide the efficiency of market mechanism (Turan, 2007: 20). When changing the current system (central planned system) into a market planned system, the government has a lot of work to do. Accordingly, it provides different functions to the government (World Bank, 2002: 78). In addition, the goals and priorities of the government in public sector would have changed (Unlukaplan vd., 2007: 1117-1126). The transition countries were trying to provide some functions to the market economy, but they failed, because the starting conditions of the countries were different. In this transition period, the East Europa countries and Baltic Republics were successful until joining the European Union. However the Central Asia Republics were unsuccessful in this point (Tandircioglu, 2002: 12-22). The causes of the failure in some transition countries can be listed like (Boettke, 2013):      

The political monopoly of the Communist Party. The monopolistic structure in the industrial sector. Poverty of consumer goods and poor quality of the products. Repressed inflation. Financial uncertainties and loose government budget. The existence of unemployment in social security measures that encourage the industrial sector.

Indubitable, the success of the reforms is depends on the factors above. On the other hand, these factors have to create the market economy system. These factors below have to be done for this:    

Transform the monopolistic structure of politics into the democratic competitive structure. Transform the monopolistic structure of economy into the competitive firm structure. To solve the poverty of the goods by free price system. Economic discipline stage for reducing the economic uncertainties.

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 Tight monetary policy against inflation.  The applications that dissuade the study must encourage the study. After these things happened, there will be a possibility to talk about the liberal system, instead of central planned system. To examine the governments’ role, which are in the transition countries that tried to make economic, politic, intuitional and social reforms, in administration and economic system, is the most important factor which makes the transition period (central planned system to liberal system) possible (Unlukaplan vd., 2007: 1117-1126). Because, to determine the permissions, that transitions countries have such as: Taxation, Consumption, Public borrowing and Monetizing, in constitutional norms is important (Aktan, 2002:54). According to this thought, the problems, which the transition countries faced with when passing the liberal economy and the qualities of these countries can be listed as (Isik, 2006: 8):  The transition economies were very bad at using their natural sources. It is because some of them don’t have a lot of natural sources, and some of them don’t have the required infrastructure and the technology. So they lost the global competition.  These transition countries were unprepared when they faced with the independence, so this situation created some economic crisis. The macroeconomic impotence became the common quality of these countries. Runaway inflation and some serious problems in economic improvement have been seen.  After the dispersion of USSR, the corruption and bribery has become one of the biggest problems in transition economies.  Imported reform movements were needed because of the unemployment problem in structural and institutive areas.  Some reduces happened in national income, because of the economic crisis which was obvious after the public deficit and international deficit. 4. THE RECONSTRUCTION OF KYRGYZSTAN IN TRANSITION PERIOD and PRIVIZATION POLITICS The economic reforms have been applied in Kyrgyzstan for twenty-five years. In the last months of 1990, to change the system into market economy has approved. In 1991 the Soviet Union has dispersed and Kyrgyzstan has become the first country who changed its system in Central Asia Republics. These reforms also brought some precautions which include limiting the government’s job in economic issues and new taxation law, with themselves (Saparov, 2001: 139). There were two main goals in Kyrgyzstan’s economic reforms program at these times. The first one is, to establish a structure which can reduce the inflation and improve production. And the second one is to have some achievements in different sectors and structural reforms (Rashid, 1996: 176). Kyrgyzstan, as being a transition country, there were some successful privatization politics, however, the problems that occurred in the beginning, slowed the improvement. The main lines of structural reforms that Kyrgyzstan was trying to apply are these (TIKA. 2000: 105-130):    

To improve and privatize the efficiency of industrial organizations which the government had. A new industrial and commerce politic. Reconstruction of operations and the economic sector reform which supports the private sector. The liquidation of public’s special monopoly system, and encouraging the private foreign organizations, and creating a proper environment for private sector.  To processing the farms and farm products, to improve the mining and hydroelectric systems. Kyrgyzstan started some reforms for avoiding the crisis it have, and it also had an agreement with “IMF” in 1994, and it started new economic plans for every three years. In addition, the people in Kyrgyzstan started to dream about privatization, liberalism, a good financial system, and the country started to equalize its international trade completely (Topaloglu, 2000). After the reforms, the privatizations have been started soon, in 1991, a structure which claimed that all public investments will be private, had been presented. At the beginning, the goods in the service and trade sector have privatized. And the medium-sized enterprises have privatized until 1997, in under control (Topologlu, 2000). If someone evaluates the privatization politics, he will simply find the answer of the point of this changing. One of the goals of this politic, is to create a situation which will have a connection between the wold economics. The main reason of these privatizations in this era is (Joldoshev, 2001: 7):     

The dispersal of the Soviet Union. The alienations in social and politic systems. The struggles in macroeconomics. The alienations in banks and economic systems. The broken webs of production, service and agriculture.

Generally, after these reasons, the decision that includes the transferring of public domains into private corporations. In addition, the main points of the privatization politics were to provide operability to the corporations and to improve the capital markets.

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There were seven ways which were projected for Kyrgyzstan in this era, These ways can be shown as 1) The institution of the public auction sale of the property, 2) To be bought out by the organization in the future tenants of public rental, 3) State-owned institution, long-term rental 4) State-owned joint-stock organization company transformation, 5) State-owned institutions directly sold to the people, and 6) The institution or organization direct sale to employees or considered of property be all employees 7) State-owned institution as gratuitous forgiveness. Covering the period 1991-1993 is also defined as the first period and the beginning of the privatization process in Kyrgyzstan, the two major privatization program, which has been concerned in this period. Privatizations made in 1991, which is the beginning of the period economically insignificant. However, after 1992, the privatizations are noteworthy in terms of scope and scale. The first period of Privatization is quickly focused of small and medium-sized enterprises (Koycuev, 1996: 66). During this period, the general feature of privatization, small-scale enterprises in all sectors of the economies rapidly privatized. The aim here rather than income, the emergence of different ownership structures make it appear, develop and maintain a competitive market entry, as well as the emergence and development of the society is to provide a free market relation (Kobanbaev, 2013). Kyrgyz government has put in privatization policies after this period of that the second semester in 1994. This period of privatization purposes is similar to the previous period. However, this period of privatization, the owner of private property to be ensured by the broader public. Underlying this belief, the owner of private property private entrepreneurship segments of society, more rational approach the provided economic stability and growth. The main objective of this period, by the end of 1997 to dispose of the majority of enterprises in public ownership. On the other hand the general characteristic of this period, and the difference from the previous period, the mass privatization and the weight to be given to the restructuring of medium and large-scale enterprises (Koycuev, 1996: 68). The last period of Kyrgyzstan privatization policies began in 1998 and continues to the present day. Privatization policies of the Kyrgyz economy in this period, more than oil, energy, communications, and strategic sectors such as transport cover. In the same way the restructuring of these sectors and to increase the attractiveness of the institutions involved in the activities of the period considered in the privatization programs. The main purpose of this period, as in previous periods is to develop an effective special ownership structure. In addition, this period considered apart from these general issues become attractive of foreign investment, good governance, public institutions and government initiatives applications, as well as market conditions in place to ensure the development and promotion of the strategic objectives (Kobanbaev, 2013). During this period, the most common current method of privatization method has been selling to private individuals. First strategic economic initiatives in the sector and joint-stock company with a monopoly converted property or rearranged their management mechanisms. After this period, these improvements in the energy sector focused on the electricity sector. In this sector, electricity generation, transmission and distribution re-arranged. New licensing agreements with companies that perform transmission and distribution of electrical energy and also it signed new contracts with consumers is at stake structure replaced the previous period (Koycuev, 1996: 70). Privatization policies of the Kyrgyz Republic until 1998, mass customization, customization base, spreading the ideas of the rural community of free market mechanism has acted in exercise. However, privatization of strategic sectors of the economy, more focused, and this process is not yet completed. All three are involved in the privatization efforts or programs that caused controversy among some times dynamics in the country. In addition to these strategic initiatives, aren’t perform technical infrastructure required privatized fully renewed and willing to invest in these areas, making it attractive to local and foreign entrepreneurs. (Gelason, 2004). 5. CONCLUSION The study focused on transition economies in general, and in particular the structural reforms implemented in the Kyrgyz Republic, and the transition to the free market is the most important structural reforms of privatization policies. In this respect, as well as the transition countries of Kyrgyzstan and are exposed to the problems faced in the process of economic and structural inefficiencies have been analyzed. Economies in transition that known as the former socialist bloc countries most important development in the last twenty-five years. The state plays a role in weight-based economic model to single; working principles of a free market economy has entered into a new economic entity. Undoubtedly, this formation seems to take a long time more. Today, the point reached in the process of transition economies shows that compliance with the new economic system. However, some of the market economy cannot create the legal infrastructure of the basic preconditions for the transition countries in Central Asian countries, especially showing the head-institutional inefficiencies, corruption, the underground economy, property rights cause problems such as safety avoided. Convert and transform the economies of these countries are engaged to carry out drastic reforms, on the other hand have had to deal with these problems. Kyrgyzstan gained independence in the early 1990s, initially as a transition economy; there are several advantages and disadvantages. The advantages inherited from the Soviet experience and trained people to be open to development of industrial production capital. On the other hand, there were also significant disadvantages. The Soviet Union, the extreme dependence in terms of the economic system, to be integrated into the production system, and to date over the structure of Soviet central planners, who lived in the economic structure of this country. When analyzing the structural reforms in Kyrgyzstan, appear to be a comprehensive and radical. Privatization programs implemented in the form of massive privatization in general until 1997, it is up to the present date, the more intensively focused on the economy, the privatization of strategic sectors of the initiatives. This

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process is not yet complete. However, structural reforms and privatization reforms took place, depending on the economic consequences of this has been inadequate. Another important issue in Kyrgyzstan, structural reforms and privatization policies that are often weak and had to take place under the direction of the reforms that government stand firm behind. This naturally led to the implementation of reforms as inadequate in many respects. Therefore, privatization programs, goals are achieved in terms of quantity; it demonstrated the same performance in terms of quality. Inefficiencies in the general economy in terms of institutions continued. As a result, nearly seventy years of living in the Kyrgyz Republic under the administrative system of the system of socialist central planner naturally formed their own traditions and behavior patterns. Traditional relations between society, culture and families with the conflict of interest between the groups are reflected in the administrative system. Paternalistic understanding of the state of this structure is formed by the end of the public wanting to use the power structure. Therefore, the most important obstacles to structural reforms in Kyrgyzstan, one of the administrative system of traditional culture and this culture revealed that the state detection / has been the corporate culture. It will take a long time that compliance with this perception about the corporate culture of traditional and market conditions. As an hypothesis this study will offer for future the investigated Republic of former USSR Kyrgyz Republic by other name Kyrgyzstan and another former USSR’s collapsed Muslim and Turkish countries should arrange the Union. In the first step this Union maybe will be very weak Union. But in future years these fice Central Asian countries as: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan should make strategical union. For last step when this Union will be very big Independent country this Union then might be called as TURAN or Turkish Union. (Mikail, 2008). As a result from Independence from Russian post-Empire USSR these countries also will obey to Turkey and Azerbaijan in the near future. Because at least these countries have same culture, traditions, language and religious collobaration. So constantly these 5 countries from Middle Asia should be united to Azerbaijan-Turkey strategical Union. That’s because, Turkey has a $ 1,4 Trillion USD Gross Domestic Product and this shows us Turkey is the super poer of this region and Turkey should be big brother of these countries. Then we can look at to Azerbaijan’s GDP it’s $ 150 Billion USD, it’s also very high after Turkey in this region, as we can prove it from CIA’s factbook for 2012 databases and also from Azerbaijan’s Statistic Ministry’s reports we can clearly say that. (Mikail, 2009: 34, 56, 78). That means Turkey-Azerbaijan strategical Union will be continued by Union with Turkestan countries, as we mentioned they’re: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Those 7 countries are Independent Muslim countries. Then this Union should be make new strategical Unions with another Muslim countries, maybe as Iran, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Saudia Arabia, Pakistan, Qatar and etc. Then this Union will be called big Islamic-Turkish Empire and from economical dimension this Union will be very powerful Union. From another side we told that’s we could call this Union as Turan. (Sonmez & Mikail, 2008) Also we can make some good relations and strategical connections with another super powers of the world, maybe they could be US, Russia, Japan, China and India. As this study was an ampirical research’s result, this conclusion includes some fantastic scientifical abstracts as TURAN’s creation in the World. (Mikail, 2008: 100, 122). As an neglected result from objected research this issue will be continued in the near future as Pan-Islamic, Pan-Turanic and Pan-Turkic Unions as in last we had live these kinds of arrests in the whole the world. In this study we really and clearly investigated those rules for the Kyrgyz republic’s example. Kyrgyzstan is very weak country in the region and this countries second language was the Russian language we can prove this rule will be change for the next future after creation of Turkish Union in the Region. 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